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Clinical Policy for Well-
Appearing Infants and Children
Younger Than 2 Years of Age
Presenting to the Emergency
Departmen...
This clinical policy from the ACEP
addresses key issues for well-
appearing infants and children
younger than 2 years pres...
For well-appearing immunocompetent
infants and children aged 2 months
to 2 years presenting with fever
(≧38.0 °C ), are th...
For well-appearing febrile infants and
children aged 2 months to 2 years
undergoing urine testing, which
laboratory testin...
For well-appearing
immunocompetent
infants and children aged
2 months to 2 years
presenting with fever, are
there clinical...
For well-appearing
immunocompetent full-
term infants aged 1 month
to 3 months presenting
with fever, are there
predictors...
Fever without a source,
or fever without a focus
Acute onset, duration of less than 1 week,
and absence of localizing sign...
Serious Bacterial Infection (SBI)
SBI includes bacteremia, bacterial
meningitis, UTI, pneumonia, septic arthritis,
osteomy...
In the pre-pneumococcal vaccine era, for
febrile infants and children the risk of SBI
by age has been reported as
– neonat...
Classes of Evidence to
Recommendation Levels
Level A recommendations
Generally accepted principles for patient care that
r...
Scope of Application
This guideline is intended for physicians
working in EDs
Inclusion Criteria
This guideline applies to...
For well-appearing immunocompetent
infants and children aged 2 months
to 2 years presenting with fever
(≧38.0 °C ), are th...
Level C recommendations
Infants and children at increased risk for UTI include
females <12 months, uncircumcised males,
no...
For well-appearing febrile infants and
children aged 2 months to 2 years
undergoing urine testing, which
laboratory testin...
Level B recommendations
Physicians can use a positive test result for
any one of the following to make a
preliminary diagn...
Level C recommendations
1) Physicians should obtain a urine culture
when starting antibiotics for the
preliminary diagnosi...
In the technical report from the AAP, given a 5%
prevalence of UTI and a bagged urine specificity
of 70%, the positive pre...
N=608 (culture-proven UTIs); 70% with
positive U/A;
– LE+: 84% E coli; 16% non-E coli
– nitrite+: 91% E coli; 9% non-E col...
For well-appearing
immunocompetent
infants and children aged
2 months to 2 years
presenting with fever, are
there clinical...
Level B recommendations
In well-appearing immunocompetent infants
and children aged 2 months to 2 years
presenting with fe...
Level C recommendations
In well-appearing immunocompetent infants
and children aged 2 months to 2 years
presenting with fe...
N=526; median age 1.9 y; 36% hospitalized;
wheezing in 47%, 5% with pneumonia;
afebrile children with wheezing had
pneumon...
For well-appearing
immunocompetent full-
term infants aged 1 month
to 3 months presenting
with fever, are there
predictors...
Level C recommendations
1) Although there are no predictors that adequately
identify full-term well-appearing febrile infa...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis
Definition:
– CSF ≧25 WBCs/mL for aged 0 to 28 days
– CSF ≧10 WBCs/mL for aged 29 to 90 da...
ACEP Policy for Fever Infants and Children Younger than 2 Years of Age in ED
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ACEP Policy for Fever Infants and Children Younger than 2 Years of Age in ED

Clinical Policy for Well-Appearing Infants and Children Younger Than 2 Years of Age Presenting to the Emergency Department With Fever
Ann Emerg Med. 2016;67:625-639

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ACEP Policy for Fever Infants and Children Younger than 2 Years of Age in ED

  1. 1. Clinical Policy for Well- Appearing Infants and Children Younger Than 2 Years of Age Presenting to the Emergency Department With Fever Ann Emerg Med. 2016;67:625-639
  2. 2. This clinical policy from the ACEP addresses key issues for well- appearing infants and children younger than 2 years presenting to the emergency department with fever. A writing subcommittee conducted a systematic review of the literature to derive evidence-based recommendations to answer the following clinical questions:
  3. 3. For well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever (≧38.0 °C ), are there clinical predictors that identify patients at risk for urinary tract infection?
  4. 4. For well-appearing febrile infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years undergoing urine testing, which laboratory testing method(s) should be used to diagnose a urinary tract infection?
  5. 5. For well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever, are there clinical predictors that identify patients at risk for pneumonia for whom a chest radiograph should be obtained?
  6. 6. For well-appearing immunocompetent full- term infants aged 1 month to 3 months presenting with fever, are there predictors that identify patients at risk for meningitis from whom cerebrospinal fluid should be obtained?
  7. 7. Fever without a source, or fever without a focus Acute onset, duration of less than 1 week, and absence of localizing signs. In the pre-pneumococcal vaccine era, even after a thorough history and physical examination, a source of infection was not identified in 27.1% of children.
  8. 8. Serious Bacterial Infection (SBI) SBI includes bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, UTI, pneumonia, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, cellulitis, and enteritis, whereas others include only bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, and UTI. The standard for the diagnosis of SBI is a positive culture result from a sample of blood, urine, CSF, or stool (typically performed only if diarrhea is present).
  9. 9. In the pre-pneumococcal vaccine era, for febrile infants and children the risk of SBI by age has been reported as – neonates (aged 3 to 28 days): 13% – infants aged 29 to 56 days: 9% – infants aged <90 days: 7% The risk of a positive blood culture result (ie, bacteremia) in an otherwise well-appearing febrile infant or child – aged 3 months to 36 months with fever >40 °C or with the combination of a fever >39.5 °C and WBC >15K: 12% – infants aged <90 days with a fever >38 °C: 7%
  10. 10. Classes of Evidence to Recommendation Levels Level A recommendations Generally accepted principles for patient care that reflect a high degree of clinical certainty Level B recommendations Recommendations for patient care that may identify a particular strategy or range of strategies that reflect moderate clinical certainty Level C recommendations Recommendations for patient care that are based on evidence from Class of Evidence III studies or, in the absence of any adequate published literature, based on expert consensus
  11. 11. Scope of Application This guideline is intended for physicians working in EDs Inclusion Criteria This guideline applies to previously healthy term infants and children, appropriately immunized for age, with ages as described in each critical question Exclusion Criteria This guideline excludes neonates, prematurely born infants, and pediatric patients considered to be at high risk such as those with significant congenital abnormalities, with serious illnesses preceding the onset of fever, and in an immunocompromised state
  12. 12. For well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever (≧38.0 °C ), are there clinical predictors that identify patients at risk for urinary tract infection?
  13. 13. Level C recommendations Infants and children at increased risk for UTI include females <12 months, uncircumcised males, nonblack race, fever duration >24 hours, higher fever (≧39°C), negative test result for respiratory pathogens, and no obvious source of infection. Although the presence of a viral infection decreases the risk, no clinical feature has been shown to effectively exclude UTI. Physicians should consider urinalysis and urine culture testing to identify UTI in well-appearing infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years with a fever ≧38°C , especially among those at higher risk for UTI.
  14. 14. For well-appearing febrile infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years undergoing urine testing, which laboratory testing method(s) should be used to diagnose a urinary tract infection?
  15. 15. Level B recommendations Physicians can use a positive test result for any one of the following to make a preliminary diagnosis of urinary tract infection in febrile patients aged 2 months to 2 years: urine leukocyte esterase, nitrites, leukocyte count, or Gram’s stain.
  16. 16. Level C recommendations 1) Physicians should obtain a urine culture when starting antibiotics for the preliminary diagnosis of UTI in febrile patients aged 2 months to 2 years. 2) In febrile infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years with a negative dipstick urinalysis result in whom UTI is still suspected, obtain a urine culture.
  17. 17. In the technical report from the AAP, given a 5% prevalence of UTI and a bagged urine specificity of 70%, the positive predictive value of a urinary culture obtained from a bag is only 15%. Therefore, among positive bagged urine results, it would be expected that 85% would be false positives. Although a negative urinalysis result from a bagged specimen may be useful for clinical decision making, a positive bagged urinalysis result should prompt a urine culture obtained by catheterization or suprapubic aspiration. Pediatrics. 2011;128:e749-e770.
  18. 18. N=608 (culture-proven UTIs); 70% with positive U/A; – LE+: 84% E coli; 16% non-E coli – nitrite+: 91% E coli; 9% non-E coli 30% of children with a positive urine culture result had a negative urinalysis result as defined by negative leukocyte esterase result, negative nitrite result, and urine WBC <5/hpf. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2014;30:244-247.
  19. 19. For well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever, are there clinical predictors that identify patients at risk for pneumonia for whom a chest radiograph should be obtained?
  20. 20. Level B recommendations In well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever (≧38°C) and no obvious source of infection, physicians should consider obtaining a CXR for those with cough, hypoxia, rales, high fever (≧39°C), fever duration >48 hours, or tachycardia and tachypnea out of proportion to fever.
  21. 21. Level C recommendations In well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever (≧38°C ) and wheezing or a high likelihood of bronchiolitis, physicians should not order a CXR.
  22. 22. N=526; median age 1.9 y; 36% hospitalized; wheezing in 47%, 5% with pneumonia; afebrile children with wheezing had pneumonia prevalence of 2% None of the 126 patients aged 2 months to 2 years who presented with wheezing had radiographic pneumonia Pediatrics. 2009;124:e29-e36.
  23. 23. For well-appearing immunocompetent full- term infants aged 1 month to 3 months presenting with fever, are there predictors that identify patients at risk for meningitis from whom cerebrospinal fluid should be obtained?
  24. 24. Level C recommendations 1) Although there are no predictors that adequately identify full-term well-appearing febrile infants aged 29 to 90 days from whom CSF should be obtained, the performance of a LP may still be considered. 2) In the full-term well-appearing febrile infant aged 29 to 90 days diagnosed with a viral illness, deferment of LP is a reasonable option, given the lower risk for meningitis. When LP is deferred in the full-term well-appearing febrile infant aged 29 to 90 days, antibiotics should be withheld unless another bacterial source is identified. Admission, close follow-up with the primary care provider, or a return visit for a recheck in the ED is needed.
  25. 25. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis Definition: – CSF ≧25 WBCs/mL for aged 0 to 28 days – CSF ≧10 WBCs/mL for aged 29 to 90 days Traumatic LP defined as CSF ≧10,000 RBCs/mL CSF pleocytosis without meningitis is relatively common in young infants with enterovirus or UTI Approximately 20% of all infants < 90 days with fever will have enterovirus, and roughly 50% of enterovirus positive infants will have CSF pleocytosis

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