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Application of biopharmaceutics classification system in formulation developments

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Bcs classification system
Bcs classification system
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Application of biopharmaceutics classification system in formulation developments

  1. 1. Application of Biopharmaceutics Classification System in Formulation Developments Ideas for Today and Tomorrow Surang Judistprasert Bio-innova & Synchron co.,ltd.
  2. 2. Biopharmaceutics Classification System Drug Products Solubility Permeability Class I High* High Class II** Low High Class III High* Low Class IV Low Low * Highly-soluble substance in a rapidly-dissolving formulation ** If Do Low ~ Highest probability of In vitro / in vivo correlation
  3. 3. How to evaluate BCS drug? • Class I – No 1st Pass ~ Bioequivalent • Class III & Class I + 1st Pass ~ Bioequivalent if Powered Properly • Class II ~ Bioequivalent if dissolution data match at pH 1, pH 4.5, Ph 6.8 (If 1st pass ~ Power Properly) • Class IV ~ Less predictable
  4. 4. Class I - No significant first pass  BA ~ High tmax ~ Short  BE ~ Product is rarely a concern ◦ Rapidly Dissolving (Single point dissolution test) Dissolve immediately in the stomach Do not precipitate in the duodenum  BE ~ Study is rarely a concern ◦ High permeability (Low Variability)  No resistance at the GI membrane  BCS Guidance ~ BE Waiver
  5. 5. Class I – Significant 1st Pass  BA ~ Lower tmax ~ Short  BE ~ Product is rarely a concern ◦ Rapidly Dissolving (Single point dissolution test) Dissolve immediately in the stomach Do not precipitate in the duodenum  BE ~ Study can be a concern ◦ Permeability high but 1st pass effect  Variability Variability (CVanova) can range from moderate to high  BCS Guidance ~ BE Waiver
  6. 6. Class II - No significant 1st Pass  BA & tmax = f (dissolution)  BE ~ Product can be a concern (Do ?) ◦ Slowly Dissolving (Dissolution profile) Match dissolution profiles at pH 1, pH 4.5, & pH 6.8 If Do Low ~ Dissolution predicts PK (BE) ~ IVIVC probable Variability can be due to product (RSD)  BE ~ Study is rarely a concern ◦ High permeability (Low Variability)
  7. 7. Class II - Significant 1st Pass  BA & tmax = f (dissolution) but BA will be Lower  BE ~ Product can be a concern ◦ Slowly Dissolving (Dissolution profile) Match dissolution profiles at lower pH  Variability can be due to product (RSD)  BE ~ Study can be a concern ◦ Permeability high but 1st pass effect  Variability  Variability (CVanova) can range from moderate to high
  8. 8. Class III – with& without Significant 1st Pass  BA & tmax ~ Less predictable  Product is rarely a concern ◦ Rapidly Dissolving (Single point dissolution test) Dissolves immediately in the stomach Does not precipitate in the duodenum  BE Study can be a concern ◦ Low Permeability  Variability Variability increases as g.i. permeability decreases CVanova can range from moderate to high 1st pass effect can add significantly to variability
  9. 9. Class IV – with and without significant 1st Pass  BA & tmax ~ Less predictable  Product can be a concern ◦ Slowly Dissolving (Dissolution profile) Match dissolution profiles at Lower pH (if soluble) Variability can be due to product (RSD)  BE Study can be a concern ◦ Low Permeability  Variability Variability increases as g.i. permeability decreases CVanova can range from moderate to high 1st pass effect can add significantly to variability
  10. 10. Potential Impact of Failed BE Testing  Phase I ◦ Food Effects ◦ Dose Proportionality ◦ Dose dumping from CR tablet broken at the score ◦ Drug-Drug Interactions  BE Studies  SUPAC  Site Transfers  ANDA (Pilot & Pivotal BE Studies)
  11. 11. When could the system break down ? s2 of disposition > s2 of input Class II - Insoluble under specified dissolution conditions [pH 1.0, 4.5, 6.8] Class III - If excipient alters g.i. permeability Class I with 1st pass - If excipient alters 1st pass metabolism
  12. 12. Designing a Successful BE Study using the BCS Hypothesis Based upon Experience  Class I drug products are bioequivalent  First Pass Metabolism ~ Variability ~ Design Issues  Certain excipients might alter g.i. permeability (???)  Guidance permits BE waiver  Class II drug products are usually bioequivalent if dissolution profiles match (pH 1, pH 4.5, pH 6.8) ◦ If first Pass Metabolism ~ Variability ~ Design Issues ◦ Certain excipients might alter g.i. permeability (???) ◦ Class II drugs that employ surfactant ?
  13. 13.  Dissolution Testing is what links the dosage form to the proven efficacy (eg: typically the clinical lot used in the Phase 3 pivotal efficacy study)!  Dissolution testing is what links every lot of the dosage form from every manufacturer to the labeling (proven efficacy and safety)! This can be 100s or 1000s of lots separated by years or decades as well as continents from the pivotal efficacy lot.
  14. 14. What have we learned about human physiology that might related to dissolution testing?
  15. 15. Physiology: What volume of liquid is the dosage form exposed to?
  16. 16. In-vivo Intestinal Fluid Flow Rates Gutzeit A, Patak MA, Weymarn Cv, Graf N, Doert A, Willemse E, Binkert CA, Froehlich JM 2010. Feasibility of Small Bowel Flow Rate Measurement With MRI. Journal of Magnetic Resonance
  17. 17. Hydrodynamics of dissolution apparatus: USP Apparatus 2 - Velocity & Shear Profiles • Highest velocities occur at the tip of the paddle (~20 cm/sec) • The lowest velocities are directly beneath the centerline of the impeller and around the shaft of the impeller. The shear rates throughout the vessel are heterogeneous. Maximum shear rates: 92s-1 at 50 RPM Average shear rates: ~ 20s-1 at 50 RPM Ref: Bai G, Wang Y, Armenante PM 2011. Velocity Profiles and Shear Strain Rate Variability in the USP Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2 at Different Impeller Agitation Speeds. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 403:1-14.
  18. 18. Physiology is complex So - compendia! dissolution testing in 900 ml with a paddle (or rotating basket) doesn't really capture it.
  19. 19. Importance of physical chemistry and physiologic buffer  Drug properties ◦ Solubility ◦ pKa ◦ Diffusion coefficient ◦ Particle size • Physiological properties • pH • Buffer species and concentration • Fluid hydrodynamics • Intestinal mobility • Bulk concentrations • Volume and temperature
  20. 20. Our Increasing Expectations in Drug Dissolution/Release Testing  Provide basic criteria for drug release from the product  For batch to batch consistency/quality (product specification)  As potential surrogate for in vivo BE studies  For linking the product and its in vivo performance (correlations or relationships: IVIVC or IVIVR)
  21. 21. Recommendations from Guidance for Industry Dissolution Testing of Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms (August 1997)  An aqueous medium‐ pH range 1.2 to 6.8 (ionic strength of buffers the same as in USP)  To simulate gastric fluid (SGF), a dissolution medium of pH 1.2 (without enzymes)  The need for enzymes in SGF and SIF should be evaluated on a case‐by‐case basis and should be justified.  To simulate intestinal fluid (SIF), a dissolution medium of pH 6.8 should be employed (also, recommended for testing of ER products).  A higher pH should be justified on a case‐by‐case basis and, in general, should not exceed pH 8.0
  22. 22. Recommendations for Dissolution Medium (Continued)  With gelatin capsule products– medium containing enzymes (pepsin with SGF and pancreatin with SIF) may be used to dissolve pellicles.  Use of water alone as a dissolution medium is discouraged (water source may affect test conditions such as pH and surface tension, and may change during the dissolution test ‐ due to the influence of the active and inactive ingredients)  For water insoluble or sparingly water soluble drug products, use of a surfactant such as sodium lauryl sulfate is recommended (Shah 1989, 1995). The need for and the amount of the surfactant should be justified.
  23. 23. A Short List of Dissolution Media
  24. 24. Composition of FaSSGF and FeSSGF
  25. 25. Case study……
  26. 26. Conclusion  There are many tools related to dissolution that can aid in implementation of QbD ◦ Biorelevant dissolution methods, which may utilized advanced apparatus and/or media ◦ Predictive dissolution modeling IVIVC or IVIVR studies  All of these tools can aid product quality ◦ Enhanced product and process understanding ◦ Clinically relevant specifications

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