2. I will be discussing….
Types Of Pollution.
• Pollution is the introduction of
contaminants into the natural environment
that cause adverse change, in the form of
killing of life ,toxicity of environment ,
damage to ecosystem and aesthetics of
our surrounding .
4. Definition (contd)
• An unwanted change in the environment
which involves the physical, biological and
chemical changes involving air, water and
land which affects the human life in one way
or the other”.
• Pollution has become a serious issue after
World War II in developing countries due to
unchecked rapid industrialization. Pollution is
the root cause of many diseases that kill and
disable living organisms.
18. How to control air
•Maintaining a healthy distance between the
industrial and residential areas.
•The chimneys should be constructed tall in
size so that the emissions must be released
higher up in the environment
•The sulphur must be removed after burning.
•The gasoline must have anti knocking
•The mining area should be planted with trees.
19. How to control air pollution?
•The coal fuel should be replaced with gas
fuel to control the air pollution.
•The automobiles must be designed with
emission control system.
•The wastes must be removed and recycled
in the industrial plants and refineries.
•Plants like pine and ribes need to be
planted to metabolize the nitrogen oxides
and other pollutants.
20. How to control air
•Timely servicing of the car helps to keep it
in a good condition, and also minimizes fuel
•Using public transportation helps to
prevent the air pollution
•Using alternative energy sources like solar
energy, hydroelectric energy, and wind
23. Water Pollution…
• Water pollution is the contamination of
water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans,
aquifers and groundwater).
• Water pollution occurs when pollutants are
discharged directly or indirectly into water
bodies without adequate treatment to
remove harmful compounds.
24. Water Pollution…
• Water pollution affects plants and
organisms living in these bodies of water.
In almost all cases the effect is damaging
not only to individual species and
populations, but also to the natural
28. Water Pollutants…
• Food processing waste, (fats and grease)
• Insecticides and herbicides.
• Petroleum hydrocarbons, (gasoline, diesel
fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil).
• Lubricants (motor oil).
• From stormwater runoff.
29. Preventing Water
• Conserve water by turning off the tap.
• Mind what you throw down your sink or toilet.
• Don’t throw paints and oils in water channels.
• Use environment friendly household products,
such as washing powder, household cleaning
• Take great care not to overuse pesticides and
• Don’t throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. Help
clean up any litter you see on beaches or in rivers
and lakes, make sure it is safe to collect the litter
and put it in a nearby dustbin.
30. Treating Polluted Water...
• Suspended, solid particles and inorganic
material can be removed by the use of
• Use of biological filters and processes can
naturally degrade the organic waste
• After above two steps chemical additives
are supplied to get rid of any left-over
34. Light Pollution
• Light pollution, also known as photo
pollution or luminous pollution, is
excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive
artificial light. Pollution is the adding-
of/added light itself, in analogy to added
sound, carbon dioxide, etc.
35. Light pollution Causes..
• Degradation of photic habitat by artificial
• Alteration of natural light levels in the
• Due to Indoor light pollution human health
36. Controlling Light Pollution..
• Excessive lighting should be avoided.
• For Lighting an applicable design should
• Light engineering should be applied for
41. Effects of Noise Pollution
• Noise pollution affects both health and behavior.
• Unwanted sound (noise) can damage
• Noise pollution can cause
• Aggression .
• Hypertension .
• High stress levels .
• Hearing loss.
• sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.
42. Effects of Noise Pollution
• Chronic exposure to noise may cause
noise-induced hearing loss.
• Older males exposed to significant
occupational noise demonstrate
significantly reduced hearing sensitivity
than their non-exposed peers.
45. Soil Pollution..
• Soil contamination or soil pollution is
caused by the presence of xenobiotic
(human-made) chemicals or other
alteration in the natural soil environment.
• It is typically caused by
• industrial activity.
• agricultural chemicals.
• improper disposal of waste.
48. How to control soil
•Limit the use of fertilizers and pesticides
•Awareness about biological control methods
and their implementation
•The grazing must be controlled and forest
management should be done properly
•The afforestation and reforestation must take
•Proper preventive methods like shields should
be used in areas of wind erosion and wind
49. How to control soil
• Treating Wastes of industries.
• Treating nuclear waste.
• Proper disposing of plastics and other
50. Air Pollution do have….
• Health effects
• Effects on cardiovascular health
• Effects on breathing (asthma).
• Links to cancer
• Effects on children
• Health effects in relatively "clean" areas
56. What are Wastes?
Waste (also known as rubbish, refuse, garbage, junk) is unwanted
or useless materials. In biology, waste is any of the many
unwanted substances expelled from living organisms, metabolic
waste; such as urea and sweat.
57. Kinds of Wastes
Solid wastes: wastes in solid forms, domestic, commercial and industrial
wastes Examples: plastics , bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash
Liquid Wastes: wastes in liquid form Examples: domestic washings,
chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other
Bio-degradable :can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)
Non-biodegradable :cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines,
cans, Styrofoam containers and others)
Hazardous wastes: Substances unsafe to use commercially, industrially,
agriculturally, or economically and have any of the following properties-
ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity & toxicity.
Non-hazardous : Substances safe to use commercially, industrially,
agriculturally, or economically and do not have any of those properties
mentioned above. These substances usually create disposal problems.
58. Classification of wastes according to
their origin and type
Municipal Solid wastes: Solid wastes that include
garbage, rubbish, construction & packaging materials, trade
refuges etc. are managed by any municipality.
Bio-medical wastes:Solid or liquid wastes including
products generated during diagnosis, treatment & research
activities of medical sciences.
Industrial wastes: Liquid and solid wastes that are
manufacturing & processing units of various industries like
chemical, petroleum, coal, metal gas, sanitary & paper etc.
Agricultural wastes: Wastes generated from farming
These substances are mostly
Fishery wastes: Wastes generated due to fishery
E-wastes: Electronic wastes generated from any
establishments. They may be described as discarded
electrical or electronic devices. Some electronic scrap
components, such as CRTs, wires, circuits, mobile, computers
63. Waste Collection in India
Primarily by the city municipality
-No gradation of waste product e.g. bio-degradable, glasses, polybags,
paper shreds etc
-Dumps these wastes to the city outskirts
Local raddiwala /
-Collecting small iron pieces by
-Collecting glass bottles
-Collecting paper for recycling
How solid waste affected us in recent
In Mumbai (2005) clogged the sewage line due to large no. of
Blast in the Bhusan Steel factory at Noida, caused due to imported scrap
Reduction in the number of migratory birds due to consumption of
animals dying on streets and farmland due to consumption of plastic
blocks the food movement in their
64. 1.LAND FILL
It is the most traditional method of waste
Waste is directly dumped into disused quarries, mining voids or borrow
Disposed waste is compacted and covered with
Gases generated by the decomposing waste materials are often burnt to
It is generally used for domestic
65. 2. INCINERATION
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of
waste materials are converted into ash, flue gas, and
The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and
the heat generated by incineration is used to generate electric
Minimum of land is needed compared to other disposal
The weight of the waste is reduced to 25% of the initial
No risk of polluting local streams and ground waters as in
Incineration plants can be located close to residential
Gases are used to generate
The chemicals that would be released into the air could be strong
may destroy ozone layer (major
The waste is compacted or compressed. It also breaks up large or fragile
This process is conspicuous in the feed at the back end of many garbage
vehicles. Deposit refuse at bottom of slope for best compaction and
control of blowing litter.
Pyrolysis is defined as thermal degradation of waste in the absence
of air to
produce char, pyrolysis oil and syngas, e.g. the conversion of wood to
charcoal also it is defined as destructive distillation of waste in the absence of
oxygen. External source of heat is employed in this process.
70. The 3 R’s
You can help by PRECYCLING. 1/3 of all garbage is packaging.
Buy things that are in packages that can be recycled or are made of recycled
When you buy something small, say no thanks to a bag.
Many things can be reused before you throw them out.
Use coffee cans and cottage cheese containers for storage
Use backs of paper or backs of used envelopes for jotting notes
Put leftovers in resalable containers instead of using wraps and foil
Use old clothes as rags for cleaning instead of paper towels
Have a garage sale or donate clothes, books or toys that you don't use anymore
Each year we use:
25 billion plastic containers
30 billion bottles & jars
65 billion aluminum cans
100 billion pounds of paper