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Reinventing the ePortfolio with Open Badges

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How Open Badges and the Open Badge Infrastructure (OBI) could be the foundations for a new type of ePortfolio, the Open Passport allowing the creation of 'holographic identities' based on the establishment of bottom-up trust networks.

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Reinventing the ePortfolio with Open Badges

  1. 1. Reinventing the ePortfolio with Open Badges Why doesn't everyone have an ePortfolio?EUROPORTFOLIO The projects Europortfolio and Badge Europe are funded with the support of the European Commission Roma maggio VIII MMXV #OpenBadges #ePortfolio Buone pratiche internazionali per costruire il next step della formazione e del lavoro in Italia VENERDÌ 8 MAGGIO 2015 MINISTERO DELL’ISTRUZIONE, DELL’UNIVERSITÀ E DELLA RICERCA ROMA CARLA CASILLI Badge Alliance USA THOMAS BLACK Stanford University USA CINECA ITALY SERGE RAVET Badge EU project France SIMON WHITTEMORE JISC UK MIUR ITALY
  2. 2. History ePortfolios Open Badges &
  3. 3. 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 10ePortfolioChallenges
  4. 4. hosted in information silos (ePortfolio platforms) managed by fragmented institutional silos personal information silos ePortfolios Fragmentation
  5. 5. For the 7th ePortfolio conference, and in order to give directions to our work towards our 2010 goal (ePortfolio for all), EIfEL has decided to address a number of challenges to the ePortfolio community and beyond —many of the problems the ePortfolio community faces today will not be resolved if they are not addressed beyond the ePortfolio silo. The goal of these challenges is to move beyond the current state of ePortfolio development, in particular in the field of interoperability as interoperability is not just a technical issue, but a means to enable new practices and the emergence of truly lifelong and life wide ePortfolios. Our main objective is to create the conditions for the emergence of MultiPortfolio organisations (one organisation can interact with many different ePortfolio platforms) and MultiOrganisation ePortfolios (have one ePortfolio to interact with many different institutions with their own platform). 1. Universal ePortfolio Repository —a unified view of all my assets Context: Today, the digital assets used to create an ePortfolio can be hosted in many different systems managed by many different organisations. Issue: How can we provide a unified view of all the assets belonging to one person, so she/he can seamlessly create ePortfolios without having to navigate through multiple sites? How can I reunite my digital identity? Direction: Identity and access management (IAM) technologies, such as federation of identities and services need to be fully explored by the ePortfolio community. NB: a universal repository is not equivalent to a unique repository; it can be universal while being distributed over a number of loosely connected and heterogeneous systems. 2. Universal Competency Identifiers —share competency definitions across systems Context: A number of ePortfolio platforms, and other applications in the field of education, employment, accreditation and human resource use competency frameworks. Today, the dominant delivery format of competency frameworks is a PDF file, forcing each system to import or recreate them from scratch. Issue: How can we share competency definitions across systems and applications? How can we elicit emerging competencies through interactive technologies? Direction: The creation of a competency wiki providing shared, distributed, multilingual URIs (Unique Resource Identifiers) to competency definitions. The solution to unique resource identifiers for competency definition has already been discussed by Simon Grant (Representing frameworks of skill and competence for interoperability). We have the technology required, what is missing is the political impetus and commitment. 3. ePortfolio social —share assets, knowledge and processes across communities Context: The idea of using social computing for ePortfolios is growing and a number of platforms have integrated such features. Nevertheless, the current implementation of social networking technology is mainly limited to connecting individuals as silos of information. Issue: Let’s imagine a group of 100 people belonging to the same community (company, school, etc.) among which 10 are writing their own CV. Can we design a technology that will make it possible that at the end of the process, each of the 100 people will have (part of) their own CV written? How can we automatically generate and updated ePortfolios and CVs through social interaction? Direction: Imagine that each time a person writes an elementary entry into their CV describing a professional experience, they have to name the people that shared the same experience; then for each person named, the entry is added to their ‘CV’, with the ability to edit it and share it back with the original author or create their own edited version of the entry. This way, each CV would be thread weaving a collective story. For the reader, being able to judge how an individual CV is connected to other stories, could even be an indicator of trustworthiness. The same reasoning could of course apply to ePortfolios. 4. ePortfolio semantic editors —make sense of what I write, connect, etc. Context: In 2003, during the first international ePortfolio conference in Poitiers, Christopher Tan presented Knowledge Community, a platform scaffolding learners reflection through semantic annotation, i.e. identifying key words and labelling them with semantic value, e.g. evidence, theory, example, etc. Since then, not a single editor of ePortfolio tools has included any form of semantic annotation. Issue: We need ePortfolio editors that scaffold reflective thinking, not just enrich text with bolds, italics and ‘pink on purple’ effects. We need proper, simple semantic editors, as semantic annotation is a way to structure reflection, connect ideas, facts and people. Direction: RDFa editors provide the blueprint for ePortfolio editors that fully support the components of a reflective process. At minima, be able to tag parts of texts/images, not just the whole document. 5. ePortfolio Readers —read any ePortfolio through consistent and multiple views Context: There are a number of ePortfolio platforms, each one with their own user interfaces and some people create ePortfolios without using any dedicated ePortfolio platform (e.g. content management system). And people want to be free to express their identity without being kept in the straightjacket of predefined templates. Issue: How can we leave total freedom to ePortfolio author’s creativity, while providing readers with their own view through a consistent navigational interface, e.g. evidence on the left, competency framework on the right, etc.? Direction: We might have to define different readers, depending on the process being involved, so the same ePortfolio could have different views generated by when this possibility is offered. Issue: How can we provide ePortfolio owners with an unlimited number of services without forcing service providers to develop multiple plug-ins for multiple applications? How can we trust the usage made by services of our personal data? Direction: This is connected to the idea of Universal Repository, exploited and enriched by service providers. Schools, universities, employers, professional bodies etc. need to provide conversational systems through trusted web services —a technology currently under development by different initiatives, such as TAS3. 7. ePortfolio based performance support system —make the ePortfolio part of my work Context: One of the current problems with ePortfolio adoption at the workplace is the fact that ePortfolios can be seen as something either nice to have or adding to the regular work. Moreover, the current level of integration of ePortfolios with other information systems is still low. Issue: How can we make ePortfolio construction part of everyday activities? How can we demonstrate ePortfolio benefits through business benefits? Direction: Use ePortfolio technology and methods to develop next generation electronic performance support systems, integrate reflection as part of routine work processes, so the ePortfolio is built through naturally occurring business activities. 8. ePortfolio discovery mechanism —find people, competencies, resources Context: While there are a number of methods for learning resources discovery (c.f. the learning resources exchange (LRE) repository of European Schoolnet) there are not yet universal mechanism to discover ePortfolios on the Internet, each individual relying on ad-hoc services. Issue: How can we easily find an ePortfolio or a resource contained in an ePortfolio? Direction: OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative's Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) is a possible method to create large indexes of ePortfolios per organisation, sector or even territory. Other methods could be the publication of ePortfolios in trusted parties' indexes. 9. URIs as tags Context: Tag is a popular form to connect things together. within an ePortfolio. Unfortunately the meaning of tags is context dependent, and different tags can share the same meaning. Issue: How can we create tags that are not context dependent? Direction: make tags RDF triplets: name (what is displayed as ‘tag’); URI to definition (an hidden hypertext link); link type (is, is part of, etc.). NB: this is an extension of challenge #2. Two tags are close if they share the same URI and identical if they are identical triplets. 10. Universal Metadata Context: ePortfolio construction is about connecting data together. Metadata are not just ‘comments’ about data, but links between all the data sharing the same metadata. If data are assimilated to neurones, metadata can be seen as.the synapses connecting neurones together.. Issue: How can we enrich distributed data with ‘personal/social metadata repositories Direction: keep metadata repositories apart from data, on the model of social bookmarking. e P o r t f o l i o c h a l l e n g e s 2009 1. Universal ePortfolio Repository 2. Universal Competency Identifiers 3. ePortfolio social 4. ePortfolio semantic editors 5. ePortfolio Readers 6. Open & Trusted Service Architecture 7. ePortfolio based performance support system 8. ePortfolio discovery mechanism 9. URIs as tags 10. Universal Metadata ePortfolios Challenges
  6. 6. ePortfolios Solutions! 1. Universal ePortfolio Repository 2. Universal Competency Identifiers 3. ePortfolio social 4. ePortfolio semantic editors 5. ePortfolio Readers 6. Open & Trusted Service Architecture 7. ePortfolio based performance support system 8. ePortfolio discovery mechanism 9. URIs as tags 10. Universal Metadata 2011
  7. 7. 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 ! 2020 Open Badges ?
  8. 8. The University today faces the possibility of being itself transformed by the cyberspace culture generated by its computing centres and networks. Just as the printing press spelled the demise of monastic institutions and ushered in the modern university, cyberspace may dissolve the bricks and mortar campuses of today into a de-centred knowledge culture, a networked "virtual" site of intellectual exchange that renders obsolete old ivied quadrangles as well as institutional and political borders, creating something akin to H.G. Wells's vision of a ‘World Brain’. Peter Childers & Paul Delany (1994) World Brain: The Idea of a PermanentWorld Encyclopaedia, H.G.Wells Contribution to the new Encyclopédie Française, August1937
  9. 9. Could Open Badges be the neurones embedding H.G.Wells' vision of a "World Brain?"
  10. 10. Individuation ePortfolios Open Badges ofas
  11. 11. In L'individuation Psychique et Collective, Simondon developed a theory of individual and collective individuation, in which the individual subject is considered as an effect of individuation, rather than as a cause.Thus the individual atom is replaced by the never ending process of individuation [creating] both an individual and a collective subject, which individuate themselves together. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_Simondon Individuation
  12. 12. Individuation The technical object or individual is not a concretization in the sense that it instantiates an abstract object. Rather, it is a novel emergence from the preindividual, whose tensions it resolves in its mode of being. In the process, it potentializes an “associated milieu,” which acts as a connective force maintaining the solidarity of its subsequent operations as a constituted being. http://www.inflexions.org/n5_boucherharrophtml.html
  13. 13. ePortfolioMainframe ENIAC, 1947 Individuation
  14. 14. Open Badges vs. ePortfolios Autonomy As pictures, they can move metadata all over the Web Simplicity Uncomplicated objects, Lego™ blocs-like Granularity Get a badge for something big or small Openness The Open Badge Infrastructure (OBI) is... open Innovation New ideas emerge and are integrated into the Open Badge architecture Integration Practice re-shapes technology which re-shapes practice... Trust The elementary building blocks of a native trust network trusted identities they travel well!
  15. 15. Identity Construction ePortfolios Open Badges &
  16. 16. “Self identity is not a set of traits or observable characteristics. It is a person's own reflexive understanding of their biography. Self-identity has continuity, but that continuity is only a product of the person's reflexive beliefs about their own biography. It explains the past and is oriented towards anticipated future."
  17. 17. Me Self-narration Me Me Me Me Me "A person's own reflexive understanding of their biography" A. GiddensePortfolio
  18. 18. “Every relationship. . . implies a definition of self by others and other by self. . . A person's 'own' identity can never be completely abstracted from his identity-for-others. Ronald Laing, Self and Others, 1961
  19. 19. “If I am I, simply because I am I, and thou art thou simply because thou art thou, then I am I and thou art thou. But if I am I because thou art thou, and thou art thou because I am I, then I am not I and thou art not thou.” Rabbi Mendel of Kotsk quoted in Ethos and Identity, Epstein, 1978
  20. 20. Me Self-narration You You You You Narration through others & You Me Me Me Me Me A person's 'own' identity can never be completely abstracted from his identity-for-others - Ronald LaingePortfolio
  21. 21. Holographic Identity
  22. 22. Holographic Identity
  23. 23. Holographic Identity
  24. 24. Distributed Trustworthy Complex, yet uncomplicated Co-constructed Connected Resilient Holographic Identities
  25. 25. the pixels of holographic identities Open Badges
  26. 26. Chains of trust
  27. 27. Trust! Issuer Earner
  28. 28. Trust!
  29. 29. The TrueValue of Open Badges Hidden behind a 'pretty picture' Trust
  30. 30. Trust and security work in reverse proportions: the more trust, the less extrinsic security measures are required, the more extrinsic security measures are taken, the less trustworthy the system becomes. The Deleterious Effects of Mistaking Security for Trust Increasing security measures is about addressing the symptoms, not the causes of failing trust. There is no alternative to increasing trust than taking the necessary steps to… increasing trust! Trust vs Security http://www.learningfutures.eu/2015/04/openbadges-the-deleterious-effects-of-mistaking-security-for-trust-aspentrust-dmltrust/
  31. 31. Trust Intimacy Security Privacy OpenBadges ePortfolios
  32. 32. "The best way to find out if you can trust somebody is to trust them." Ernest Hemingway
  33. 33. A teenager had spent many months in a young peoples psychiatric hospital. When he was about to leave a therapist asked him what was the most significant thing which helped him in his recovery. He responded that it was the moment when in and art group the therapist asked him to fetch some art paper from a cupboard in another part of the building.The therapist handed him the keys to the cupboard which were on a key ring with many other keys to the rooms in the building. They young man said he felt so good, not just because he had been chosen to do the small job when his esteem was very low but because the therapist had not hesitated but just handed him the keys. He knew he could have used those keys to get up to all sorts of mischief but he felt trust to act responsibly. Julie Lunt <julie at newpaths.eu>
  34. 34. Open Badges Passport ePortfolios Reinventing
  35. 35. Nate's Passport Contact Search About me Activity wall
  36. 36. Created Issued Connections My Dashboard 20 245 Badges Collected 47,405 Total Recent 1 30 Total Recent New 1,230 25,639 15 Pledged 10 Endorsement Collected Issued 56124 Badges Issued My Issuers Through Badges Visits Total Recent 5612,453 Top Search My Badge Earners 40 Evidence Total Recent 204,592 Create Issue Search Organise ClaimDashboard NetworkEvidence Configure
  37. 37. New Pledged Collections Events Achievements Competencies Endorsements Pages Résumé Reflective Rebel Mentorship offers Summer job application Create Issue Search Organise ClaimDashboard NetworkEvidence Configure Organise Public Restrict. Private External Search
  38. 38. Qui at nonumy elaboraret. Ea delenit indoctum vix, mea accusam perpetua indoctum no, populo deleniti te eum. Eos quod alii patrioque an, ne ludus noluisse eum. Essent verear an cum, viris accusata per at, liber interesset vix an. Blandit dissentiunt te mel, clita eirmod ne vel, mutat definitionem mediocritatem ex ius.! Eu mei laoreet admodum, usu idque virtute suscipiantur eu. Ferri iriure menandri ut sed, no rebum dignissim qui. Audiam molestie quo eu. Usu etiam dolor argumentum an, ne cum viris menandri assueverit.! Ei sea tantas platonem, pro audiam impedit apeirian ea. Per consul suscipiantur te, no stet recteque est. Corpora disputando at vim. Atqui eirmod alterum sit ea, no quod tempor convenire pro, qui id habeo error moderatius. Ex has eirmod Pages Résumé Reflective Rebel Mentorship offers Summer job application Create Issue Search Organise ClaimDashboard NetworkEvidence Configure Organise Public Restrict. Private External Search
  39. 39. Types Badges Experience (xAPI) Images Texts Create Issue Search Organise ClaimDashboard NetworkEvidence Configure Miscellaneous Pages Evidence Public Restrict. Private External Search
  40. 40. Repository Apps API Kernel S e r v i c e s BadgeIssuing Career Management Social Networking Learning Management FindPeers Learning Resources Event Management Self Employment Discovery Services Badge Verification App Store ...
  41. 41. Invitation to further reflection ePortfolios Open Badges
  42. 42. danah boyd "The Power of Fear in Networked Publics" "The tools that we build are getting repurposed around the globe by people with all sorts of different agendas.  They're being used by activists to challenge the status quo, but they're also being used by the status quo to assert new kinds of authority. People are building the new networks of power on the technological networks that we’ve generated and they’re reinforcing existing power structures."
  43. 43. "The tools that we build are getting repurposed around the globe by people with all sorts of different agendas.  They're being used by activists to challenge the status quo, but they're also being used by the status quo to assert new kinds of authority. People are building the new networks of power on the technological networks that we’ve generated and they’re reinforcing existing power structures." danah boyd "The Power of Fear in Networked Publics" trust challenging Trust with Open Badges
  44. 44. Credits ENIAC US Army Hologram with baby Chris Helson and Sarah Jackets Gilbert Simondon couldn't find credits
  45. 45. Serge Ravet ADPIOS, Open Passport Badge Europe, EUROPORTFOLIO @Szerge, learningfutures.eu openpassport.me, openbadges.eu europortfolio.org, iosf.org Merci!