Strategic management involves the application of day-to-day activities aimed at achieving the overall goals and objectives of organizations. It is all about getting the job done or ‘job must be do’ as seen in the Nigerian Military ethos
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
FOR ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS
TANKO AHMED, fwc
CEO, TSANGAYA HUMAN RESOURCES
FORMER SENIOR FELLOW (SECURITY & STRATEGIC STUDIES), NIPSS, KURU
0803 703 1744 – email@example.com
A Paper Presented at a Two-Day Workshop on Strategic Management
and Organisational Performance Organised by the Alumni Association
of the Kaduna Polytechnic in Association with the Tsangaya Human
Resource, March 17-18, 2020
SMP is a blend of ‘strategy’ or astute thinking and
‘management’ or action driving process.
It is a veritable instrument for vision and mission delivery.
It is all about putting thinking into action to attain set
This paper discusses ‘strategic management process for
Alumni Associations’ with particular attention to the
Kaduna Polytechnic Alumni Association (KPAA).
TYPICAL STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS
In a typical strategic management scenario, Generals in command
of Theatres of War drive the momentum, as well as, feel the heat
of raging battles by sheer will power and thought connectivity
built and sustained on an active orbital feedback system.
The same scenarios occur among leaders in the conduct of
business, industry, events, administration or governance, and
Alumni Associations at all levels.
These scenarios demand efforts by leadership in SMP for
achieving sets goals or objectives
Leaders establish the vision for the
future and set the strategy for
getting there - S. P. Kotter
Strategy without process is little
more than a wish list.
– Robert Filek
SMP is “… not only a process to form a strategy
overlaying the management system, but also a form of
management based on strategy …” (Nanes, 2003:47).
Its components include environmental scanning,
strategy formulation, strategy implementation and
evaluation in a circular domain connecting thinking and
action, determined by environmental stimulus.
Literature and Theorem
Literature survey on the subject reveals
emphasis on ways to simplify and understand
the multifarious nature of strategic
The complex and contingency nature of
strategic management blends an agenda
performance, agency and other theories.
Components of smp
Strategy implementation, and;
Strategy review or evaluation
They operate in a circular domain connecting thinking
and action, determined by environmental stimulus.
This is seen as the Strategic Management Process.
SMP is an objective, logical, systematic and continuous
approach for making major decisions and taking actions
in an organization
It is defined as a dynamic process of strategy formulation,
implementation, evaluation and control
SMP is synonymous to strategic planning in exploiting
and creating new opportunities for the future based on
present trends or conditions
Strategy formulation is the task of analyzing the
organization’s internal and external environments, and
selecting or devising appropriate plans or strategies in
setting goals or objectives and ways of achieving them.
The baseline task of SMP involves the establishment of
mission and vision statements, environmental analysis or
scanning, setting goals or objectives, and the ways and
means for attainment.
Data Synthesis combines outcomes
from different assumptions on overall
effects of particular intervention to
arrive at clear pattern for decision and
Environmental Scanning is the systematic
process of close monitoring or detecting
for environmental signals for use in tactical
and strategic decision making, action or
formulation of tasks by Commanding
SWOT or strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Analysis
is a veritable instrument or method of strategic planning used in
It evaluates strengths or advantages over others; weaknesses or
disadvantages relative to others; opportunities or chances for
progress; and threats or causes for concern.
SWOT analysis is the work room of strategy formulation in SMP
where results of data synthesis and environmental scanning are put
together for evaluation.
It is used to identify strategies and align them to available
resources and capabilities to realities of the environment.
Strategy implementation is the second stage task after strategy
formulation, involving the application or execution of plans through
series of decisions and actions in pursue of set goals or objectives.
This task rests on the shoulders of Commanders for
communication of mission, allocation of tasks and resources and
coordination of cross-functional relationships.
Strategy implementation has resource management as pivotal
challenge where planning assumptions faces situational realities of
Strategy Evaluation And Control
Strategy evaluation and control constitutes the final tier
completing the tasks of the strategic management
Strategy evaluation and control revolve on principles of
monitoring and evaluation which completes the cycle
or process of strategic management – and starts all
over again - and again.
Responsibilities for Strategic Management
Responsibilities for strategy rests on the shoulders of executives,
like the members of the KPAA ExCo who handle inputs and
outputs of decision making components and processes of
The strategic management therefore reflects the application of
day-to-day activities aimed at achieving the overall goals and
objectives of organizations. It is all about getting the job done or
‘job must be do’ as seen in the Nigerian Military ethos
SMP and Leadership Cadre
The KPAA ExCo provide general management;
relate strategy and operations; re-orient
performance to set objectives; and establish long-
term directions and results.
By implications the ExCo Members represent the
leadership cadre or core group charged with the
Strategic Management Process of the Association
Strategy And Management
A good blend of ‘strategy’ and ‘management’ in SMP
would produce ‘astute thinking’ and ‘action drive’ by use
of ‘will power’ on an effective ‘feedback system’
In the hands of abled leadership with well-articulated
plan of action and sound strategy, SMP is a veritable
instrument for vision and mission delivery.
Benefits Of SMP
The principal benefit of SMP has been to help organizations
formulate better strategies through the use of a more
systematic, logical, and rational approach to strategic choice.
Communication as key to successful SMP helps to achieve
understanding and commitment throughout the organization.
The SMP empowers more and more organizations as they
decentralize their activities for efficiency and effectiveness.
The Use Of Will Power
Will power is the ability to resist deviation in pursuit of
mindset on goals or objectives often associated strength
of character in decision making and implementation
Political or Unit Will power is the collective will power of
both commanders and the rank and file in an operation.
A strong willpower would relentlessly pursue set goals
and objectives in decision making and implementation.
Feedback is the return of output to the input as it affects
performance; it is a response, reaction or pointer to the next
step of affairs.
A feedback loop is a cycle of mutual reinforcement which
enables the sensing and measurement of activities for
It is an instrument of Command and leadership in SMP.
An effective feedback system allows for two-way free
communication which encourages dialogues in a top-down
and bottom-up combination rhythm (Verma, 2017).
Weakness Of The Will
The lack of willpower is the most significant hindrance to
converting the threshold of thought, intent or policy into
goal, result or objective through strategy as embedded in
the strategic management process.
Weakness of the will not only hinders implementation of
decisions and responsibilities, but also responsible for
culminated high rate of policy summersault, reversal or
abandonment (Egwu, 2017).
Leaders and followers alike are often held to ransom in a
culture of powerlessness and situation of progress trap.
Ineffective Feedback System
The absence of an effective feedback loop leads to stagnation in
activities and weakens the necessary inaction among function
components of an organization.
It is also a sign of weak leadership and lack of direction, especial
when situations are devoid of the commitment of key players in
affairs of governance (Egwu, 2017; Galadima, 2017).
This is likened to the ‘Tomato Effect’ when you spend time,
energy and materials planting and taking care of tomato only to
let it rot; what was the point of doing it in the first place.
Intent And Action
To avoid the ‘Tomato Effect’ in action plans and
implementation, SMP must be conducted for effective
Strategy implementation therefore requires active drive
to move ideas in thinking, to results of action.
To be able to this, Officials at all levels need to possess
audacious minds capable of job delivery without
weakness of will power.
Audacity is boldness, daring, or willingness to challenge
assumptions or conventions against all odds to tackle
something difficult or dangerous.
For example, President Obama is described as audacious in
outstanding performances and achievements against all
odds in his tenure at the White House (Chait, 2017).
Inculcating and promoting audacity among Officials would
trigger and sustain SMP for effective service delivery.
Action plans bear specific objectives and
guidelines on implementation;
SMP produces way and means for attaining
set goals objectives; and
If there is Will and Effective SMP action plans
This paper concludes that the
challenge and burden of SMP rests
on the shoulders of KPAA ExCo
charged with decisions and actions;
and that a strong willpower and
efficient feedback system are needed
for effective SMP.
AN ENDING NOTE
“A true leader has the confidence to stand alone,
the courage to make tough decision, and the
compassion to listen to the needs of others … by
the equality of his actions and the integrity of his
– Douglas MacArthur
American Psychological Association (APA). (n.d.). What you need to know about willpower: the psychological science of self-control. America Psychological Association
http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/willpower.aspx Retrieved 22/3/17
Brinkschroder, N. (2014). Strategy implementation: Key factors, challenges and solutions. A Presentation at the 4th IBA Bachelor Thesis Conference, November 6th. University of Twente, Faculty of
Management and Governance, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Chait, J. (2017). Audacity: how Barack Obama defied his critics and created a legacy that will prevail. New York: Harper Collins Publishers
Clayton, J. (2015). The five stages of the strategic management process. Houston Chronicle. http://smallbusiness.cohn.com/five-stages-strategic-mamngement-process.18785.html
David, F. R. (2008). Concepts of strategic management. (6th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prince-Hall
David, F. R. (2011). Strategic management concepts and cases (13th Edition). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall
Egwu, S. (2017). Political economy of Nigeria. A Paper presented to the NIPSS Senior Executive Course Participants on Monday, 28 February, Kuru-Jos
Galadima, H. S. (2017). Federalism in Nigeria. A Paper presented to the NIPSS Senior Executive Course No. 39 Participants on Monday, 28 February, Kuru-Jos. A Paper presented to the NIPSS Senior
Executive Course Participants on Monday, 28 February, Kuru-Jos
Hill, C. W., Jones, G. R. & Schilling, M. A. (2015). Strategic management theory. (11th Edition). London, UK: Cengage Learning
Hunger, J. D. & Wheelen, T. L. (1997). Essentials of strategic management. HR Folks International. Retrieved from http://www.hrfolk.com
Parnell, J. A. (2005). Strategic philosophy and management level. Management Decision, 3(2), 157-170. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0025.1747.htm
Rowland, R. (2004) Command, superior and ministerial responsibility. CBC News Online, May 6. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/iraq/abughraib_commandresponsibility.html
Vasile, T. & Iancu, A. (2009). A model of the strategic management process.
Vatchkova, E. (2012). Contents historical development of strategy: Strategic management. Retrieved from http://www.iuc.edu.eu./group/mba_learning/2012STRATMAN/EV-L1-introduction.pdf
Verma, P. (2017). Five ways to create effective feedback mechanism, The Economic Times, March 17. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/jobs/five-ways-to-create-effective-feedback-
mechanism/articleshow/57678324.cms Retrieved 17/3/17
Vigoda-Gadot, E. & Drory, A. (ed). (2006). Handbook of organizational politics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing
Yousuf, M. (2016). The nature of strategic management Chapter I, What is strategic management. Academia.
http://faculty.georgetown.edu/blattnew/intro/weakness.htm Retrieved 7/2/1