1. Course name: Human Resource Management (HRM)
Lecturer : Abdulwali Mohamed Salad
Presentation : Managing of Human Resource
Management in 21st Century
Human beings are the most important resource of an
organization. These are the people who plan all the
activities and then they carry on all the activities. And
managing human beings is the toughest duty of the
manager as no two persons are alike. Every individual
has separate values, aspirations, motivations,
assumptions, goals, etc. Today we are discuses about
Managing of human resource management in 21st
5. The Changing Role of Human Resources in the
Making the shift to a new HR role will raise unique issues for every
HR group that attempts it, but there are some common steps and
activities that will increase the likelihood of success. Some of these
steps and activities are:
1.Strong HR leadership. As with any major change effort, a strong
leader can develop a clear vision, motivate others to share that
vision, and help them work toward achieving it. In order to change
the role of HR in an organization, the HR leader will need to work
both within the HR group and with the organizational leaders to
reshape everyone's expectations of what HR can and will deliver.
The success of the change will depend upon HR's ability to meet
the real needs of the organization and the credibility it develops.
2. Acute future orientation: One of the ways that HR can
provide value is to understand how changing environmental,
organizational, and workforce factors will likely influence the
business, anticipate the associated HR needs, and be
prepared to deliver appropriate solutions to meet those
needs. By maintaining a focus on workplace trends, for
instance, HR can prepare to evaluate the impact that
particular changes are likely to have on an organization's
people and processes, and be prepared to work with the
business leaders to decide how to respond-being ahead of
the curve, not behind it.
3. Flexibility and creativity. An HR group that is successful in the
future will likely be one that is responsive to the changing needs of its
client organization. Responsiveness in the changing world of work will
require being flexible-as the organizations change, so will their needs
4. Delivering value. Although this is not a new challenge for HR, it
remains a critical one. HR is still perceived by many within today's
organizations as simply a non-revenue generating function. It is
important to make apparent the value provided by working with the
management team to hire the right people, manage them well, pay
them appropriately, and build a working environment that encourages
Here is a sampling of strategies that I have seen implemented as HR groups work to
respond to environmental and organizational changes, become more valuable, and deliver
1. Business unit assignment. Some companies are assigning HR employees to specific
business units as a way of enabling them to develop a focused relationship with a
small part of the business.
2. Centers of excellence. As organizations grow by merger and acquisition, they often
find themselves with multiple HR groups. These can be duplicative or complementary.
When they are duplicative, they can be subject to (painful) downsizing and
consolidation, leaving behind a department that is unable to serve all areas of the
business as well as they had been accustomed, which can, in turn, undermine the
credibility of HR.
3. Consulting model. A number of HR departments with whom I've worked have adopted
a consulting model of providing service. They view their internal customers as clients,
learn consulting skills, and take their client satisfaction as a measure of their success.
In one large high-technology firm, internal clients whose needs cannot be met by the
internal HR group can go to external service providers directly-even for basic HR
4. Job rotation: One way to bring the perspective of the business into
HR-and vice versa-is to rotate line managers into the HR function for
periods of time. These individuals often serve as reality checks for the
HR group, and then bring an increased understanding of the value of HR
back to their line function when the rotation is over.
5. Increasing line managers' capabilities: Part of the future HR model
is that responsibility for HR activities is shared between line
management and HR people. This approach allows the manager to be
more fully involved in the development and direction of employees, with
HR as a resource; it requires, however, that those managers have the
capabilities needed to work through issues with employees successfully.
Many companies are therefore increasing line managers' access to
information. Many of today's HR information systems and integrated HR
systems put tools and data on each manager's desktop.
11. Human Resource Management: Major Influencing
Factors in 21st century
In the 21st century HRM will be influenced by following
factors, which will work as various issues affecting its
1.Size of the workforce.
2. Rising employees' expectations.
3. Composition of workforce. New skills required.
4. Environmental challenges.
14. IMPLEMENTING HR POLICY
The aim will be to implement policies fairly and consistently. Line
managers have a key role in doing this. As pointed out by Purcell et
al (2003), there is a need for HR policies to be designed for and
focused on front line managers. The role of HR is to communicate
and interpret the policies, convince line managers that they are
necessary and provide training and support that will equip
managers to implement them.
1. Develop an integrated compensation plan
2. The board has approved the plan and monitoring and evaluation
mechanisms are in place.
3. The plan has been communicated to employees
15. An Emerging Human Resource Management Practice
in 21st century
1. Human resource management (HRM) and Human capital
• Human capital management requires capable employees
whose competence is above board and are highly proficient in
performance of their work. These people introduce creative,
innovative ideas and make the organization different from its
• Human capital management is related to employee’s
commitment, retention, talent management, learning and
development of personnel.
2. Significance of Human Capital Management
It is very important for any organization to attract,
fascinate and retain highly capable employees. Mostly,
the organizations concentrate on their physical and
financial resources but relatively do give a
considerable amount of time on its personnel’s.
3. Knowledge Management and Human Capital Management
Knowledge management is an institutionalized erudition, which
enhances the organizational productivity and also brings about
innovative and creative ideas through collective wisdom(Stankosky,
2007). Knowledge management is meaningfully significant because
it supports the organizational objective in a way that it determines
what special expertise the organization requires. Following this the
logical sequence is:
(a) find out the people having that special expertise.
(b) Recruit them and create intellectual capital to have more
• Below are some kinds of intellectual capital (Jackson, 2007):
1. Human capital: The skills, knowledge, and experience possessed
by an individual or population, viewed in terms of their value or
cost to an organization or country.
2. Social capital: The networks of relationships among people who
live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to
3. Process capital: is the value to an enterprise which is derived
from the techniques, procedures, and programs that implement
and enhance the delivery of goods and services.
4. Intellectual property: Intangible property that is the result of
creativity, such as patents, copyrights, etc.
4. Human capital and organizational learning capability
• Human capital is a valuable and intelligible resource of an organization
through which the organizational long-term survival can be foreseen and
achieved. Prudent management of human resource in an effective manner
shall enable the organization not only to sustain its long-term survival but
also will increase its alert responsiveness to work in the dynamic
environment (Barney & Wright, 1998).
• Organizational learning capability; among others, have aspects of tangible
bearing (JerezGomez et al, 2005) as below:
1. Managerial commitment.
2. System perspective.
3. Openness and experimentation.
4. Knowledge transfer and integration.
21. Major Trends in Human Resources in
the 21st Century
Organizations will lean on human resources professionals as
strong leaders who help employers and employees navigate
through the workplace challenges of the 21st century.
• Technology Training
Human Resources will take the lead role in helping organizations
transition from local servers to using unlimited storage on the
Internet with cloud services. To make the transition, human
resources will hire experts in cloud computing to integrate cloud
applications, mobile devices and social media. In addition to the
integration, the experts will train staff on cloud operations as part of
a company's daily operations. Human resources will also play a role
in developing policies on employees' personal devices and data plans.
Globalization will increase in the 21st century as
organizations grow in the competitive international
market. A company's human resources department
is responsible for recruiting and training local staff
in foreign countries where a company has offices,
as well as newly recruited foreign staff in local
offices. In addition to operational training, human
resources trains all staff on understanding cultural
differences and work ethics.
Human resources will also have the responsibility of
updating their technology approaches. For example, they
will change their recruiting approach to use social media to
find the right candidates for job opportunities. They will
update technology policies to include conduct and
safeguards for IT property, and expand the use of shared
applications between employers and staff. In addition, they
will be able to link an employee's performance with a
company's business goals to assess an employee's value in
•Growth in Diversity
The growth of ethnic groups will continue to add
diversity to the workforce in the 21st century. The
public recognizes an organization with diversity as
harmonious, stable and progressive. Therefore, human
resources professionals will be trained in
understanding, supporting and achieving diversity
initiatives to provide employees with skills to work in
diverse teams. Human resources professionals will
work with company leaders to ensure that the
organization includes all cultures to maintain a