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Graphene & Composites: Stronger Together

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This presentation from JEC World 2019 composites trade show and conference highlights different forms of graphene that are used in composites applications with examples of actual products.

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Graphene & Composites: Stronger Together

  1. 1. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene and Composite Materials - Stronger Together This presentation will; Describe the type and characteristics of the most common forms of graphene used in composite materials. Provide examples of how graphene is being used in composite materials and actual products. Graphene Enhanced Composites And Plastics
  2. 2. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene and Composite Materials The largest community in the world for graphene researchers, developers, producers and other stakeholders. Formal members of the ISO/ANSI/IEC Graphene Standards development working groups. Founding Affiliate Member of the Graphene Engineering and Innovation Centre at the University of Manchester Produce original information, content and reports on the state of the graphene industry. Facilitating commercialization through education and networking. About
  3. 3. Graphene and Composite Materials Types of Graphene Materials Used in Composites Forms of Graphene
  4. 4. Graphene and Composite Materials Forms of Graphene Graphene is a two dimensional (i.e. one atom thick) planar sheet of sp²-bonded carbon atoms in a dense honeycomb shaped crystal lattice. Graphene has extraordinary material properties including ultimate tensile strength of 130 gigapascals, electron mobility of 15,000 cm2·V−1·s−1, thermal conductivity between 2000–4000 W m−1K−1 and optical transparency of 97.7%. (Eric Pop, 2012) (Sheehy DE, 2009) ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(en) Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary — Part 13: Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials. Recognizes material up to and including 10 carbon layers as “graphene”. Definitions
  5. 5. Graphene and Composite Materials Forms of Graphene Graphene production methods can be classified broadly as “Top Down” and “Bottom Up”. “Top Down” methods start with a feedstock material such as graphite and through various methods (physical, electrical, chemical, etc.) exfoliate individual layers of carbon. “Bottom Up” methods start with a carbon feedstock such as methane gas that under controlled conditions (such as Chemical Vapor Deposition- CVD) is deposited on a substrate material (such as copper) in single or multiple layers. Production
  6. 6. Graphene and Composite Materials Forms of Graphene A wide range of materials in the commercial market are currently referred to as “graphene”. Graphene Materials Number of Carbon Layers Description 1 CVD, Mono-layer or “Pristine” Graphene 1 - 3 Very Few Layer Graphene (vFLG) 2 - 5 Few Layer Graphene (FLG) 2 - 10 Multi-Layer Graphene (MLG) > 10 Exfoliated graphite or “Graphene nanoplatelets” (GNP)
  7. 7. Graphene and Composite Materials Forms of Graphene Type Carbon Layers Properties/Applications Typical commercial cost ($/KG) Commercially available Epitaxial CVD 1-2 Conductive/almost Transparent/ITO? High end electronics Up to $500,000/m² CVD systems- Scale up? Cost! ITO? FLG 3-10 Conductor/flexible/very high surface area/ Sensors $100-2,000 Yes- consistency? Processibility? MLG 11-20 Composites/Inks and coatings/Lubricants/ Printing $50-1,500 Yes- variable product today! GO various Insulator? Amorphous Hydrophillic-dispersions Defects and voids. Cement $50-2,000 In Part- still evolving but growing Graphite used in GNP production 50+ Lubricants/Refactories/brakes/ Engineering materials $1-20 Established for 150 years Approx. 1m tonnes pa
  8. 8. Graphene and Composite Materials Forms of Graphene In addition to the number of carbon layers, additional characteristics define the material. Graphene Oxide (GO) - a compound of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen (typically approx. 65% carbon / 35% oxygen by weight). Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) - Graphene Oxide in which removes much of the oxygen content resulting in approximately 95% carbon by weight. Graphene Powder, Solution or Paste - Graphene material can be prepared in various physical forms including as a dry (usually black) powder, in solution (e.g. water or alcohol) or in a paste form (often as a dull reddish brown color). Graphene Nano Platelets (GNPs) - GNPs typically have thickness of between 1 nm to 3 nm and lateral dimensions ranging from approximately 100 nm to 100 µm. Functionalized Graphene - Chemical functionalization (adding specific elements to the surface of the graphene) is important in many applications where untreated graphene would be difficult to work with. Graphene Materials
  9. 9. Graphene and Composite Materials Sample Graphene Dispersion Routes Graphene Functionalization Functionalized Graphene Solvent mixing with Plasticizer Mechanical mixing with Plasticizer Graphene / Plasticizer Solution Graphene / Plasticizer Masterbatch Solvent Removal Compounding with Rubber Graphene / Rubber Nano-composite Dispersion with Surfactants Graphene Liquid Premix Compounding into Polymer Graphene Composite Graphene / Plasticizer Masterbatch Compounding with Rubber Graphene / Rubber Nano-composite Sources: Fullerex Ltd. and Cealtech Inc. Dispersion into Monomer Dispersion into Resin Functionalized Graphene Resin Masterbatch Functionalized Graphene Monomer Polymerization Compounding Graphene Composite Graphene Composite
  10. 10. Graphene and Composite Materials Forms of Graphene and “Quality” There is widespread confusion about the definition of “Quality Graphene”. Material that is not suitable for one application may be ideal for another. Graphene “defects” may actually enhance the efficacy of the material for a particular application. There is no such thing as a reference material for graphene at this time. Because load factors can be quite low, the price of the material is not the most significant factor when selecting source material. The primary factor is in selecting a trusted and competent supplier of the material that understands your application areas.
  11. 11. Graphene and Composite Materials Examples of Graphene Enhanced Composites and Applications Graphene Enhanced Composites
  12. 12. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Enhanced Composites Of the more than 40 major application verticals for graphene, ‘Composites’ form the largest single application area. Composites
  13. 13. Graphene and Composite Materials Composite Application Areas Graphene can be used to enhance performance in a wide range of applications; Automotive Rubber Plastics Aerospace 3D printing Coatings and Barriers Polymers and Epoxies Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Sports Equipment
  14. 14. Graphene and Composite Materials Material Performance Characteristics Graphene is used to provide enhanced performance; Performance Improvement Electrical Conductivity Thermal Managment UV Protection Longer Wear Anti-Static Weight Reduction Robustness Mechanical Reinforcement Flexibility Barrier Properties Sensors (Enabling self monitoring)
  15. 15. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Application Examples Partnering with the Callaway golf company, XG Science’s GNP’s are used in the development of a new golf ball designed to improve performance. Sports Graphene-infused Dual SoftFast Core maximizes compression energy while minimizing driver-spin and promoting high launch for long distance Softer golf balls compress easier on off center hits for distance all over the face "We've innovated at every layer, starting with our groundbreaking new Graphene Dual SoftFast Core. The result is an extremely fast and soft-feeling ball that promotes high-launch and low spin off the tee for long distance, and incredible shot-stopping spin around the green.” – Dr. Alan Hocknell, SVP, R&D, Callaway Golf
  16. 16. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Application Examples FORD MOTOR CO. Graphene will be used under the hood in Ford vehicles, a first in automotive. Ford, Eagle Industries and XG Sciences have found a way to use a very small amount of graphene while achieving major property improvements – more lightweight, better heat conductivity and noise reduction. In vehicles, graphene will act like a pair of super- powered, noise cancelling headphones, reducing sound inside the cabin and creating a quieter ride Graphene-Enhanced Materials
  17. 17. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Application Examples Automotive Formulated to amplify the mechanical performance of both rigid and flexible PU foams Produces stronger foams and reduces heat distortion Can be used in a wider variety of applications due to increased heat deflection temperature Enables lightweighting Improved compression strength by 20% Improved NVH (noise & vibration) by 17% Engin Covers for thermal management Graphene-Enhanced Polyurethane Foam
  18. 18. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Application Examples Versarien, an advanced materials engineering group, based in Cheltenham, UK, partnered with Bromley Technologies Ltd, from Rotherham, UK, to create a bronze medal winning skeleton sled for British Olympian Dominic Parsons. (FEB 2018) Versarien and Composites used in the Olympics Dr Kristan Bromley, CEO and innovation director of Bromley Technologies Ltd, says: “Graphene-enhanced composites enable the structural properties of sports products to be pushed to new levels. In particular, they allow increased strength-to-weight ratio and tougher impact properties to be achieved over conventional advanced composite materials. In elite sports where small margins often define winning performances, these enhancements can make the difference between winning and losing.”
  19. 19. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Application Examples Graphene enhanced resin automotive body panel developed in collaboration with the UK supercar company, BAC, the team responsible for the award-winning BAC Mono single-seat car. Haydale Composite Solutions (HCS) The graphene-enhanced resin is stronger than traditional materials, which has enabled the reduction in the amount of fibers in the composite material. Approximately 20% reductions in mass can improve performance and fuel economy in vehicles.
  20. 20. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Application Examples Haydale Composite Solutions produced graphene-enhanced electrically-conductive carbon fibre-reinforced composite materials (CFRP). The objective was to provide improved resistance to damage from a severe lightning-strike event on critical aircraft parts. Carbon fibre-reinforced composite (CFRP)
  21. 21. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Application Examples Test results, untreated versus graphene enhanced material. Figure 1: Back face of unmodified panel aFer lightning strike showing punch-through Figure 2: Back face of Haydale-modified panels aFer lightning strike showing no visible damage Carbon fibre-reinforced composite (CFRP)
  22. 22. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Application Examples Carbon fibre-reinforced composite (CFRP) 600% increase in through-thickness electrical conductivity of laminates with scope to increase by several orders of magnitude. Strength properties equivalent or better than control material.  Demonstrator produced proving manufacturing and demonstrating a typical Lightning strike zone 2/3 application. Potential for the reduction/elimination of parasitic mass (copper mesh) leading to lower manufacturing costs and mass saved. Other areas of application: EMC and RF Shielding application such as electronic enclosures  Anti-static, aircraft ducting and piping, interior  Most applications using CFRP/GRP that need metal coatings for reflectivity/conductivity 
  23. 23. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene Application Examples Potential Benefits (While maintaining same structural performance) Reduced number of plies Lighter weight Lower material cost Reduced process cost—less laminating time Lower component cost Results in overall lower cost composite materials for equivalent performance metrics.
  24. 24. Graphene and Composite Materials http://bit.ly/GrapheneSolution Graphene Enhanced Material Solutions Looking for a reliable graphene development partner?
  25. 25. Graphene and Composite Materials Graphene News and Information Weekly graphene intelligence newsletter. Graphene Bulk Pricing and other market oriented reports. The most up to date source of information on graphene commercialization. Network and connect with commercial partners. Visit www.TheGrapheneCouncil.org