A viewpoint on the place of CALL
within the Digital Humanities:
considering CALL journals, research data
and the sharing o...
Portugal & Clermont-FerrandPortugal & Clermont-Ferrand
22
Recent but strong relationships
Portugal and Clermont-Ferrand:
C...
Connecting CALL with otherConnecting CALL with other
disciplines / research fieldsdisciplines / research fields
33
Current...
OverviewOverview
44
JOURNALS AND MULTILINGUALJOURNALS AND MULTILINGUAL
ISSUES WITHIN THE CALLISSUES WITHIN THE CALL
COMMUNITYCOMMUNITY
55
1 2 ...
Survey on CALL journals andSurvey on CALL journals and
research dataresearch data
 Please participate in the online surve...
History of ReCALLHistory of ReCALL
77
Find the survey : http://Mulce.org
History of ReCALLHistory of ReCALL
88
June Thompson
- there from
the very
beginning
1989 1995? 2003?
Ana Gimeno
(ed)
History of ReCALLHistory of ReCALL
99
1995? 2003?
Does Eurocall support multi-languages?Does Eurocall support multi-languages?
1010
Communications in languages
other than E...
WorldCALL and multi-languagesWorldCALL and multi-languages
1111
Sum of papers, posters, courseware.
- When tandems involvi...
Unpleasant situations for (Euro)CALLUnpleasant situations for (Euro)CALL
 Nothing against EnglishNothing against English ...
What can we do?What can we do?
 Raise awareness through conferences:Raise awareness through conferences:
– Specify langua...
1414
After Eurocall99 (Besançon)
publications in ReCALL and in Alsic
After Eurocall2010
(Bordeaux)publications in
ReCALL a...
Exemples from other disciplinesExemples from other disciplines
1515
European publishing structures existEuropean publishing structures exist
1616
European publishing structures existEuropean publishing structures exist
1717
European publishing structures existEuropean publishing structures exist
1818
International CALL journal in Spanish & Port...
ORGANIZE AND PUBLISHORGANIZE AND PUBLISH
RESEARCH DATARESEARCH DATA
Enhance research quality in CALLEnhance research quali...
Different coverage for dataDifferent coverage for data
2020
Corpora,
see next
section
We start
here
Warning:
in this
prese...
Current situation in CALL (and many,Current situation in CALL (and many,
but not all, fields in Humanities)but not all, fi...
What other disciplines sayWhat other disciplines say
““Replication data setsReplication data sets include the original dat...
What Europe saysWhat Europe says
2323
COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION of 17.7.2012 on access to and preservation of scientific
i...
Data publication for CALL journals:Data publication for CALL journals:
proposal for a joint projectproposal for a joint pr...
Contents of the proposalContents of the proposal
 Reviewers will access data when readingReviewers will access data when ...
Link between publication & data:Link between publication & data:
example from earth sciencesexample from earth sciences
Ar...
WHAT WE STARTED TOWHAT WE STARTED TO
DO IN FRANCEDO IN FRANCE
2727
Datapublication (French project)Datapublication (French project)
 With the help of TGE-Adonis (national infrastructureWit...
An exempleAn exemple
2929
http://datapublication.tge-adonis.fr/data/d-001-102
http://sticef.univ-lemans.fr/num/vol2012/05-...
IRIS IS NOT THE PROJECTIRIS IS NOT THE PROJECT
WE ARE LOOKING ATWE ARE LOOKING AT
3030
3131
http://www.iris-database.org
Why not IRIS?Why not IRIS?
 Iris is an interesting OpenData project with links to journalsIris is an interesting OpenData...
CALL Datapublication projectCALL Datapublication project
 Make a common proposal at the European Union level (ResearchMak...
DATA & PROJECT(S),DATA & PROJECT(S),
LETEC CORPORALETEC CORPORA
With extracts from Wigham & Chanier (2013)With extracts fr...
First corpora in CALL : learner corporaFirst corpora in CALL : learner corpora
 Building corpora : collectingBuilding cor...
New type of corporaNew type of corpora
 LEarning and TEaching CorporaLEarning and TEaching Corpora
(LETEC) ((LETEC) (corp...
37
Simuligne
(2001)
UK-FR
fre
Copéas (2005)
eng
UK-FR
Tridem
(2005-06)
UK-FR-USA
eng, fre
Ecofralin
(2008)
CO-FR
fre,spa
V...
Data validity & reliability in CALL research?
• Questions related to validity and reliability
• Problems in Humanities, So...
Research data quality: Mulce project
• Interoperability:
▫ Structured and coherent data sets
=> analyses can be completed ...
LETEC Components
Instantiation
Pedagogical
scenario
Research
protocol
Analyses
40
"A LETEC corpus collects in a systematic...
Building a LETEC
stages=
Data analyses
41
42
Illustration of methodology-
• European project KA2 Languages
• CLIL approach (Content and Language Integrated
Learning)
▫...
Elaboration of research areas
• Interplay between verbal and non verbal modes
• Role of nonverbal in identity construction...
Pedagogical Design
• Macro-task– collaboratively elaborate a model in a
synthetic world (Second Life) as a response to an
...
Research protocol
• Research protocol design
▫ Protocol for data collection
▫ Researchers' roles
▫ Timetable of research a...
47
Data collection & coverage for Archi21
Data
collected
Pre-
questionnaires
Session data Post
questionnaires
Semi-
directive...
49
Primary data (anonymised)
Each resources has an ID and a
description given
LETEC global corpus: IMS content packaging
Mani...
Corpus deposit
• Mulce corpus repository : http://repository.mulce.org
Stage 3: Data organisation 51
Corpus diffusion
• Description of corpus; interface to browse structure; zip
file to download
Stage 3: Data organisation 52
53
verbal mode non verbal mode
audio textchat
proxemic
transmission
radio
transmission
public private
not detailed here,
see ...
Production & deposit of LETEC distinguished corpus
• Particular analysis of a selected part of the global
LETEC corpus
Cha...
Simple conversions from LETEC to analysis toolsSimple conversions from LETEC to analysis tools
5656
LETEC structure
(forma...
Type 2Type 2
Partager analyses avec outils associésPartager analyses avec outils associés
5757
Chanier, T. & Ciekanski, M....
Type 2Type 2
Partager analyses avec outils associésPartager analyses avec outils associés
5858
Chanier, T. & Ciekanski, M....
What providing access to dataWhat providing access to data
meansmeans
 Go in depth into discussions about models, whatGo ...
ANOTHER LIFE FORANOTHER LIFE FOR
LETEC DATALETEC DATA (AFTER REUSE FOR(AFTER REUSE FOR
CALL RESEARCH)CALL RESEARCH)
Refere...
CORPORA WHICH MAYCORPORA WHICH MAY
INCLUDE CALL CMCINCLUDE CALL CMC (COMPUTER(COMPUTER
MEDIATED COMMUNICATION)MEDIATED COM...
Reference corpora of differentReference corpora of different
languageslanguages
 Corpus in German, DWDSCorpus in German, ...
CMC macro andCMC macro and
micro structuresmicro structures
6363
Multimodality and CMC ?Multimodality and CMC ?
6464
The element <posting> is
the basic CMC-specific
element in our schema....
Modality interplay
1.5 mn video
* Paper: (Wigham & Chanier, 2013)
CALL journal
* Data: (Chanier, Saddour &
Wigham, 2012) L...
6666
Salut s que
<NOM_4>
c dcd à
ht 1 dvd pr sa cop
ki e pa la 2main?
CoMeRe.org: CMC corpus in FrenchCoMeRe.org: CMC corp...
PEDAGOGICAL CORPORAPEDAGOGICAL CORPORA
Example from sports scienceExample from sports science
6767
1 2 3 4
Training the pre-service teacher in sportTraining the pre-service teacher in sport
 Step1: course on building a lessonSte...
PEDAGOGICAL CORPORAPEDAGOGICAL CORPORA
CREATED OUT OF LETECCREATED OUT OF LETEC
CORPORACORPORA
Authors : Ciara Wigham, Thi...
Starting from a distinguished corpusStarting from a distinguished corpus
7070
Lewis, T. (2006) When Teaching is Learning: ...
Starting from a distinguished corpusStarting from a distinguished corpus
7171
Lead-in documentLead-in document
7272
5 mn video
7373
Wigham, C.R. & Chanier, T. (2013) Pedagogical corpus: Reflective Teaching Journals.
Mulce.org : Clermont Université. ...
7474
Wigham, C.R. & Chanier, T. (2013) Pedagogical corpus: Reflective Teaching Journals.
Mulce.org : Clermont Université. ...
OPEN ACCESS TOOPEN ACCESS TO
PUBLICATIONS & DATAPUBLICATIONS & DATA
OpenDataOpenData
7575
1 2 3 4
Survey on CALL journals ...
Enclosing the Commons of the MindEnclosing the Commons of the Mind
 I seriously doubt that we would create theI seriously...
FREE AND IMMEDIATEFREE AND IMMEDIATE
ACCESS TOACCESS TO
PUBLICATIONSPUBLICATIONS (ONCE(ONCE
ACCEPTED BY REVIEWERS)ACCEPTED...
Guidelines for researchers (EU level)Guidelines for researchers (EU level)
 “The Commission proposes to make open access ...
7979
Insitutional repository
National repository
OPEN ACCESS TOOPEN ACCESS TO
RESEARCH DATARESEARCH DATA
OpenDataOpenData
8080
OER : Open Educational Ressources are import...
OpendataOpendata
 Term which is starting to be widely usedTerm which is starting to be widely used
with different aims in...
Opendata defOpendata def
 “Open data is data that can be freely
used, reused and redistributed by
anyone – subject only, ...
Opendata criteriaOpendata criteria
 “Availability and Access: the data must be available as a
whole and at no more than a...
Why should we use licences?Why should we use licences?
 “In most jurisdictions there are intellectual property
rights in ...
Example of licences on learner corpora: ICLEExample of licences on learner corpora: ICLE
 No access given on the website,...
Example of licences on learner corpora: ELFAExample of licences on learner corpora: ELFA
 Open access, but for personal u...
Open access, ethics and licenceOpen access, ethics and licence
8787
For usage:
licence
For participants:
Informed
consent ...
Usual CC (open but not necessarilyUsual CC (open but not necessarily
compliant with OpenData)compliant with OpenData)
8888
2 licences on data fully compliant with2 licences on data fully compliant with
OpenDataOpenData
 CC0 : As creators, I may...
 What will happen if the attributionWhat will happen if the attribution
licence is not there anymore?licence is not there...
No confusion between attribution(IPR)No confusion between attribution(IPR)
and citation-referencesand citation-references
...
RecommendationsRecommendations
 ActionsActions
– Open our data (provided that ethics is OK –Open our data (provided that ...
Thank you for your attention!Thank you for your attention!
Thierry.chanier at univ-bpclermont.frThierry.chanier at univ-bp...
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Eurocall2013: A viewpoint on the place of CALL within the Digital Humanities: considering journals, research data and the sharing of research results.

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The term "Digital Humanities" (DH) received much attention at the MLA (Modern Language Association) convention in 2009. The term is now in widespread use within the Humanities. CALL may be directly concerned: our field belongs to the Humanities and, from the outset, we have had a strong interest in computers and computing. Although various meanings and interpretations can be attributed to the term DH, this presentation will address issues related to ways of promoting CALL research in order to meet what may soon become research standards within the Humanities.
Starting with a historical overview of the release of research results, i.e. in academic journals, we will examine whether CALL encourages multilingual publications. We will then turn to links between journals and research data. We will consider the position of several disciplines (including linguistics) regarding ways to enhance replicability by linking research results and researcher data, increasing the visibility and credibility of research.
Another move towards enhancing the quality of CALL research may be to collect, organize and share data stemming from learning situations in such a way that analyses can be clearly and overtly processed and discussed in our community. With this in mind, we will introduce the notion of Learning and Teaching Corpora (LETEC), and illustrate this methodology with data from online multimodal interactions. Beyond CALL research issues, such data may have different applications, both within the area of teacher-training (examples of Pedagogical Corpora will be given) and the general field of linguistics. Finally we will examine how sustained access to research results (articles and data) can be provided in open-access formats and criteria the CALL field will need to meet to become compliant with the so-called "OpenData".

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Eurocall2013: A viewpoint on the place of CALL within the Digital Humanities: considering journals, research data and the sharing of research results.

  1. 1. A viewpoint on the place of CALL within the Digital Humanities: considering CALL journals, research data and the sharing of research results Thierry Chanier, Université Blaise PascalThierry Chanier, Université Blaise Pascal Eurocall 2013, University of Évora , Portugal, 11-14 September, 2013 Download slides and all videos for this talk: link on http://mulce.org, main editorial article, Version 15th September 2013
  2. 2. Portugal & Clermont-FerrandPortugal & Clermont-Ferrand 22 Recent but strong relationships Portugal and Clermont-Ferrand: Cultures and languages between the past and the future (3mn video)
  3. 3. Connecting CALL with otherConnecting CALL with other disciplines / research fieldsdisciplines / research fields 33 Current situation Are we connected? SLA SLA Linguistics SLA Education / CAL CALL Digital Humanities
  4. 4. OverviewOverview 44
  5. 5. JOURNALS AND MULTILINGUALJOURNALS AND MULTILINGUAL ISSUES WITHIN THE CALLISSUES WITHIN THE CALL COMMUNITYCOMMUNITY 55 1 2 3 4
  6. 6. Survey on CALL journals andSurvey on CALL journals and research dataresearch data  Please participate in the online surveyPlease participate in the online survey  The survey is anonymous. I willThe survey is anonymous. I will publish the results on the EUROCALLpublish the results on the EUROCALL mailing list at the end of September.mailing list at the end of September.  Find the survey:Find the survey: – Link in the main editorial article on :Link in the main editorial article on : http://mulce.orghttp://mulce.org – Questions 1 to 5Questions 1 to 5 66
  7. 7. History of ReCALLHistory of ReCALL 77 Find the survey : http://Mulce.org
  8. 8. History of ReCALLHistory of ReCALL 88 June Thompson - there from the very beginning 1989 1995? 2003? Ana Gimeno (ed)
  9. 9. History of ReCALLHistory of ReCALL 99 1995? 2003?
  10. 10. Does Eurocall support multi-languages?Does Eurocall support multi-languages? 1010 Communications in languages other than English during Eurocall conferences (hard to be exhaustive, websites disappeared) France Spain France France Publications not in English after Eurocall conferences
  11. 11. WorldCALL and multi-languagesWorldCALL and multi-languages 1111 Sum of papers, posters, courseware. - When tandems involving ELT, count 1 for ELT and 1 for others - More than half of Unknown from Asia (English as L2) Target languages in WorldCALL13, v1 Target languages in WorldCALL13, v2 Half of « unknown » counted as ELT.
  12. 12. Unpleasant situations for (Euro)CALLUnpleasant situations for (Euro)CALL  Nothing against EnglishNothing against English (cf. my position on(cf. my position on French-FLE) (ReCALL accepts submissions inFrench-FLE) (ReCALL accepts submissions in other languages)other languages)  Language is culture and politicsLanguage is culture and politics  The humanities generally a multilingualThe humanities generally a multilingual domain: cf. pedagogy ≠ didactique ≠domain: cf. pedagogy ≠ didactique ≠ didaktikdidaktik  Can we be trusted by learners when weCan we be trusted by learners when we assert that other languages are used forassert that other languages are used for academic / scientific purposes?academic / scientific purposes? 1212
  13. 13. What can we do?What can we do?  Raise awareness through conferences:Raise awareness through conferences: – Specify language taught when submittingSpecify language taught when submitting – Conference organizers build statisticsConference organizers build statistics – Organize national events during conferencesOrganize national events during conferences (cf. Portugal this year, Spain, Belgium,(cf. Portugal this year, Spain, Belgium, France,…) and encourage com. in vernacularFrance,…) and encourage com. in vernacular languagelanguage  Publish in several languages (cf.Publish in several languages (cf. telecollaboration projects)telecollaboration projects)  Develop international CALL journals inDevelop international CALL journals in other languagesother languages 1313
  14. 14. 1414 After Eurocall99 (Besançon) publications in ReCALL and in Alsic After Eurocall2010 (Bordeaux)publications in ReCALL and in another journal Develop international CALL journalsDevelop international CALL journals
  15. 15. Exemples from other disciplinesExemples from other disciplines 1515
  16. 16. European publishing structures existEuropean publishing structures exist 1616
  17. 17. European publishing structures existEuropean publishing structures exist 1717
  18. 18. European publishing structures existEuropean publishing structures exist 1818 International CALL journal in Spanish & Portuguese (only one for America and Europe)?
  19. 19. ORGANIZE AND PUBLISHORGANIZE AND PUBLISH RESEARCH DATARESEARCH DATA Enhance research quality in CALLEnhance research quality in CALL 1919 1 2 3 4
  20. 20. Different coverage for dataDifferent coverage for data 2020 Corpora, see next section We start here Warning: in this presentation, we only consider data produced by CALL research, not data coming from other fields and used by CALL (cf. mixed situation in Corpus CALL)
  21. 21. Current situation in CALL (and many,Current situation in CALL (and many, but not all, fields in Humanities)but not all, fields in Humanities)  Some (not all) of our papers are basedSome (not all) of our papers are based on research dataon research data  These data (empty forms, forms filled,These data (empty forms, forms filled, spreadsheets, transcriptions, languagespreadsheets, transcriptions, language data and their computation, audio,data and their computation, audio, video, etc.) are not accessible tovideo, etc.) are not accessible to reviewers, nor to the readers oncereviewers, nor to the readers once papers are publishedpapers are published 2121
  22. 22. What other disciplines sayWhat other disciplines say ““Replication data setsReplication data sets include the original data andinclude the original data and any other information needed to reproduce theany other information needed to reproduce the numerical results in a published work.numerical results in a published work. […] making publicly available a replication data set for[…] making publicly available a replication data set for each of their empirical articles or books.each of their empirical articles or books. Citation credit should be apportioned both for theCitation credit should be apportioned both for the original article and separately for the data.“original article and separately for the data.“ 2222 Gary King (2007). "An Introduction to the Dataverse Network as an Infrastructure for Data Sharing," Sociological Methods and Research, Vol. 32, No. 2
  23. 23. What Europe saysWhat Europe says 2323 COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION of 17.7.2012 on access to and preservation of scientific information : http://ec.europa.eu/research/science- society/document_library/pdf_06/recommendation-access-and-preservation-scientific- information_en.pdf
  24. 24. Data publication for CALL journals:Data publication for CALL journals: proposal for a joint projectproposal for a joint project 25th July 201325th July 2013
  25. 25. Contents of the proposalContents of the proposal  Reviewers will access data when readingReviewers will access data when reading the paper (strengthen the review process)the paper (strengthen the review process)  Once the paper is accepted, data areOnce the paper is accepted, data are publishedpublished  The reader (researcher) can access theseThe reader (researcher) can access these data in order to replicate, join them todata in order to replicate, join them to her/his own data, etc.), cf. Opendataher/his own data, etc.), cf. Opendata  The author is the great winner! TwoThe author is the great winner! Two references to her/his work: data will have anreferences to her/his work: data will have an individual reference (but linked to) theindividual reference (but linked to) the paper’s referencepaper’s reference 2525
  26. 26. Link between publication & data:Link between publication & data: example from earth sciencesexample from earth sciences Arason, P et al. (2011): Plume-top altitude time-series during 2010Arason, P et al. (2011): Plume-top altitude time-series during 2010 volcanic eruption of Eyjafjallaj??l. Icelandic Meteorologicalvolcanic eruption of Eyjafjallaj??l. Icelandic Meteorological Office, Reykjavik,Office, Reykjavik, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.76069doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.760690,0, Supplement to:Supplement to: Arason, Pordur; Petersen, G N; Bjornsson, HArason, Pordur; Petersen, G N; Bjornsson, H (2011): Observations of the altitude of the volcanic plume during the(2011): Observations of the altitude of the volcanic plume during the eruption of Eyjafjallajl, April-May 2010.eruption of Eyjafjallajl, April-May 2010. Earth System Science DataEarth System Science Data,, 3, 9-17,3, 9-17, doi:10.5194/essd-3-9-2011doi:10.5194/essd-3-9-2011 2626 Journal site Data site
  27. 27. WHAT WE STARTED TOWHAT WE STARTED TO DO IN FRANCEDO IN FRANCE 2727
  28. 28. Datapublication (French project)Datapublication (French project)  With the help of TGE-Adonis (national infrastructureWith the help of TGE-Adonis (national infrastructure for humanities)for humanities) – Now part of Huma-NumNow part of Huma-Num  For Alsic and Sticef journals (as a starting point)For Alsic and Sticef journals (as a starting point)  Every journal has its entries, have an internalEvery journal has its entries, have an internal review process (cf. OJS) for datareview process (cf. OJS) for data  Reviewers can look at data when reading the paperReviewers can look at data when reading the paper (data are not open at this stage)(data are not open at this stage)  When the paper is accepted data are publishedWhen the paper is accepted data are published 2828 http://datapublication.tge-adonis.fr
  29. 29. An exempleAn exemple 2929 http://datapublication.tge-adonis.fr/data/d-001-102 http://sticef.univ-lemans.fr/num/vol2012/05-guichon/sticef_2012_guichon_05.htm
  30. 30. IRIS IS NOT THE PROJECTIRIS IS NOT THE PROJECT WE ARE LOOKING ATWE ARE LOOKING AT 3030
  31. 31. 3131 http://www.iris-database.org
  32. 32. Why not IRIS?Why not IRIS?  Iris is an interesting OpenData project with links to journalsIris is an interesting OpenData project with links to journals from UK and USA universities, sponsored by UK, but …from UK and USA universities, sponsored by UK, but …  Data are not part of the review processData are not part of the review process  Once a paper is accepted authors do as they pleased, e.g:Once a paper is accepted authors do as they pleased, e.g: some put the form of a questionnaire, not the data collectedsome put the form of a questionnaire, not the data collected (answers), nor the computation (spreadsheet)(answers), nor the computation (spreadsheet)  Metadata are not standard (just for search on the site, likeMetadata are not standard (just for search on the site, like Merlot)Merlot)  They are local and cannot be harvestedThey are local and cannot be harvested  No reference to the data (cf. DataCite) , no permalinkNo reference to the data (cf. DataCite) , no permalink  No crosslink between data and publication (which would notNo crosslink between data and publication (which would not make sense because data are not exhaustive) and have notmake sense because data are not exhaustive) and have not been part of the evaluation processbeen part of the evaluation process 3232
  33. 33. CALL Datapublication projectCALL Datapublication project  Make a common proposal at the European Union level (ResearchMake a common proposal at the European Union level (Research agency) via DARIAHagency) via DARIAH  Get logistical and official scientific support in order to design andGet logistical and official scientific support in order to design and open a website site (Datapublication)open a website site (Datapublication)  Where our 5 journals will have separate access for their editorialWhere our 5 journals will have separate access for their editorial board in order to manage distinct review processboard in order to manage distinct review process  Manage a joint design for the workflow of the review processManage a joint design for the workflow of the review process  Metadata format will be standard, permalink given, full reference withMetadata format will be standard, permalink given, full reference with link and full reference of paperslink and full reference of papers  When the web site is open, for every journal author’s guidelines needWhen the web site is open, for every journal author’s guidelines need to be changed (when authors submit papers which rely on data) andto be changed (when authors submit papers which rely on data) and links be implemented in order to point from the journal to the data sitelinks be implemented in order to point from the journal to the data site  Then the Datapublication website may be open for other journals inThen the Datapublication website may be open for other journals in humanities (best to get EU support) whether they are based in or outhumanities (best to get EU support) whether they are based in or out of EUof EU 3333
  34. 34. DATA & PROJECT(S),DATA & PROJECT(S), LETEC CORPORALETEC CORPORA With extracts from Wigham & Chanier (2013)With extracts from Wigham & Chanier (2013) 3434 1 2 3 4
  35. 35. First corpora in CALL : learner corporaFirst corpora in CALL : learner corpora  Building corpora : collectingBuilding corpora : collecting learners’production (essais),learners’production (essais), structuring, annotating, processingstructuring, annotating, processing  Using corporaUsing corpora – To enhance learning (DDL: data drivenTo enhance learning (DDL: data driven learning) under some circonstanceslearning) under some circonstances – To enhance researchTo enhance research  Thinking about : Eurocall SIG,Thinking about : Eurocall SIG, conferences, special issues, etc.conferences, special issues, etc. 3535
  36. 36. New type of corporaNew type of corpora  LEarning and TEaching CorporaLEarning and TEaching Corpora (LETEC) ((LETEC) (corpus d’apprentissagecorpus d’apprentissage))  data-sharing and repository fordata-sharing and repository for research on multimodal interactionsresearch on multimodal interactions 3636
  37. 37. 37 Simuligne (2001) UK-FR fre Copéas (2005) eng UK-FR Tridem (2005-06) UK-FR-USA eng, fre Ecofralin (2008) CO-FR fre,spa VMT-teamC (2006) math UK-USA-SG INFRAL (2009) deu,fra DE-FR FR FAVI (2006-08) fra ARCHI21 (2011) eng,fra FR SLIC (2013) USA-FR fra
  38. 38. Data validity & reliability in CALL research? • Questions related to validity and reliability • Problems in Humanities, Social Sciences and CALL: ▫ Visibility, accessibility of research data ▫ Data representative / anecdotal? ▫ Publication (already mentionned) • CALL data is often: ▫ not contextualised – pedagogical & technological situations (Kern et al., 2004) ▫ tangled in specific software using proprietary formats • Replication for interaction analysis in online learning near impossible: ▫ variables that are difficult to control ▫ replication does not imply that phenomenon previously observed will reoccur (Reffay et al., 2012) 38
  39. 39. Research data quality: Mulce project • Interoperability: ▫ Structured and coherent data sets => analyses can be completed by researchers who did not participate in the course • Sustainability: ▫ Independent from online platforms ▫ Stored in independent formalisms • Open access to research data & appropriate licences • Accessibility: ▫ Finding the research data thanks to harvesting protocols based on standard metadata – OLAC (Open Language Archives Community) 39
  40. 40. LETEC Components Instantiation Pedagogical scenario Research protocol Analyses 40 "A LETEC corpus collects in a systematic and structured way all the data from interactions which occur during a course which is partially or entirely online. These data are enriched by technical, pedagogical and scientific information as well as information about the participants and are organized to allow contextualized analyses to be performed.“ (Mulce-documentation, 2013) Public licence Private licence ethics & rights
  41. 41. Building a LETEC stages= Data analyses 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. Illustration of methodology- • European project KA2 Languages • CLIL approach (Content and Language Integrated Learning) ▫ Architecture + French / English L2 • Hybrid course "Building Fragile Spaces" : 5-day studio Feb. 2011 • 17 students, 2 architecture tutors, 1 EFL tutor, 1 FFL tutor Working with external partners: exchanges 43
  44. 44. Elaboration of research areas • Interplay between verbal and non verbal modes • Role of nonverbal in identity construction • Interplay between textchat & voicechat modalities Support for L2 verbal participation and production Wigham (2012) – PhD Thesis http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00762382 Stage 1: Design 44
  45. 45. Pedagogical Design • Macro-task– collaboratively elaborate a model in a synthetic world (Second Life) as a response to an architectural problem brief • Architectural studio, hybrid CLIL approach • 4 workgroups Stage 1: Design Learning design Online environments Participants’ roles Learning & support activities 45
  46. 46. Research protocol • Research protocol design ▫ Protocol for data collection ▫ Researchers' roles ▫ Timetable of research activities Stage 1: Design researcher 46 Wigham & Chanier, 2013 ReCALL
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. Data collection & coverage for Archi21 Data collected Pre- questionnaires Session data Post questionnaires Semi- directive interviews Environ ment Kwiksurveys Second Life VoiceForum Kwiksurveys Skype Data type Spreadsheet file Video screen captures Audio recordings Spreadsheet file Audio recordings Quantity & coverage of data 17 student questionnaires 20 group sessions & 2 presentation sessions 19h40m 64 forum messages 16 student questionnaires 5 student interviews 2h30 pre-course post-courseduring course Stage 2: Data collection 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. Primary data (anonymised) Each resources has an ID and a description given LETEC global corpus: IMS content packaging Manifest : structured data Structured Interaction Data Model (Mce_sid, 2011) XML Information about each component of the corpus Stage 3: Data organisation 50
  51. 51. Corpus deposit • Mulce corpus repository : http://repository.mulce.org Stage 3: Data organisation 51
  52. 52. Corpus diffusion • Description of corpus; interface to browse structure; zip file to download Stage 3: Data organisation 52
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. verbal mode non verbal mode audio textchat proxemic transmission radio transmission public private not detailed here, see Wigham & Chanier, (2013) ReCALL 25(1) Multimodal data transcription Stage 4: Data transcription & diffusion 54 Saddour, I., Wigham, C., Chanier, T. Manuel de transcription. (2011) - http://edutice.archives-ouvertes.fr/edutice-00676230
  55. 55. Production & deposit of LETEC distinguished corpus • Particular analysis of a selected part of the global LETEC corpus Chanier, T. Saddour, I. & Wigham, C.R. (2012). (dir.) Distinguished Corpus: Transcription of Verbal and Nonverbal Interactions of the Second Life Reflection archi21-slrefl-av-j2. Mulce.org : Clermont Université. [oai : mulce.org:mce-archi21- slrefl-av-j2 ; http://repository.mulce.org] • Only contains transformed data (=the transcriptions) • Refers to a selection of the original data in global corpus (=videos) • Software used for transcription cited (=ELAN) Stage 4: Data transcription & diffusion 55
  56. 56. Simple conversions from LETEC to analysis toolsSimple conversions from LETEC to analysis tools 5656 LETEC structure (format Mulce-struct) LETEC (format Tatiana) Conversions Analysis
  57. 57. Type 2Type 2 Partager analyses avec outils associésPartager analyses avec outils associés 5757 Chanier, T. & Ciekanski, M. (2009). (editors). Corpus distinguable Copeas T5 contexte. Mulce.org : Clermont Université. [ oai:mulce.org:mce-copeas-T5_contexte-all ; http://repository.mulce.org ]
  58. 58. Type 2Type 2 Partager analyses avec outils associésPartager analyses avec outils associés 5858 Chanier, T. & Ciekanski, M. (2009). (editors). Corpus distinguable Copeas T5 contexte. Mulce.org : Clermont Université. [ oai:mulce.org:mce-copeas-T5_contexte-all ; http://repository.mulce.org ] Various interpretations on data : - (Ciekanski & Chanier, 2007) Context (Goodwin & Duranti, 1992 ) “imagine that the tutor led his tutorial via postings in the text-chat while students talked about other topics in the audio channel. It is unlikely that the group would accept such a position for the tutor, and we draw from multimodal social semiotics to help explain why. “ - (Lamy, 2012) Social semiotics (Kress & Leeuwen, 2001)
  59. 59. What providing access to dataWhat providing access to data meansmeans  Go in depth into discussions about models, whatGo in depth into discussions about models, what they explainedthey explained  Carefully compare previous and new situationsCarefully compare previous and new situations  Limit research cycles which may not be soLimit research cycles which may not be so interesting:interesting: – Re-inventing the wheel: new techno. environments, newRe-inventing the wheel: new techno. environments, new affordances, but…affordances, but… – Back to the endless comparison with F2F, with theBack to the endless comparison with F2F, with the standpoint that when online you loose things (cf. currentstandpoint that when online you loose things (cf. current papers on webcams, presence, anxiety, etc.)papers on webcams, presence, anxiety, etc.) – Could we at last reason on new possibilities to discussCould we at last reason on new possibilities to discuss and learn in L2 online?and learn in L2 online? 5959 (De Los Arcos, Coleman, Hampel, 2009)
  60. 60. ANOTHER LIFE FORANOTHER LIFE FOR LETEC DATALETEC DATA (AFTER REUSE FOR(AFTER REUSE FOR CALL RESEARCH)CALL RESEARCH) Reference corpus & Pedagogical coporaReference corpus & Pedagogical copora 6060 1 2 3 4
  61. 61. CORPORA WHICH MAYCORPORA WHICH MAY INCLUDE CALL CMCINCLUDE CALL CMC (COMPUTER(COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATION)MEDIATED COMMUNICATION) Linguistic perspective: reference corpusLinguistic perspective: reference corpus 6161
  62. 62. Reference corpora of differentReference corpora of different languageslanguages  Corpus in German, DWDSCorpus in German, DWDS Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache,Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache,  Corpus in Flemish / Dutch, SoNaRCorpus in Flemish / Dutch, SoNaR SSTEVINTEVIN NNederlandstaligederlandstalig RReferentiecorpuseferentiecorpus  Corpus in French (in progress)Corpus in French (in progress)  Common aims:Common aims: – Billions of tokens, 500 M structured &Billions of tokens, 500 M structured & annotated (POS), access for linguisticannotated (POS), access for linguistic researchresearch – Extension to Internet communicationExtension to Internet communication 6262 http://www.dwds.de/
  63. 63. CMC macro andCMC macro and micro structuresmicro structures 6363
  64. 64. Multimodality and CMC ?Multimodality and CMC ? 6464 The element <posting> is the basic CMC-specific element in our schema. In CMC documents it represents the largest structural unit that can be assigned to one author and one point in time. The category posting is defined as a content unit that has been sent to the server “en bloc”. TEI and CMC, (Beißwenger et al., 2012) (Chanier, Saddour & Wigham, 2012) LETEC corpus
  65. 65. Modality interplay 1.5 mn video * Paper: (Wigham & Chanier, 2013) CALL journal * Data: (Chanier, Saddour & Wigham, 2012) LETEC corpus
  66. 66. 6666 Salut s que <NOM_4> c dcd à ht 1 dvd pr sa cop ki e pa la 2main? CoMeRe.org: CMC corpus in FrenchCoMeRe.org: CMC corpus in French SMS / texts Tweets Blogs Forums Text chat Etc. CoMeRe: Communication Médiée par les Réseaux)
  67. 67. PEDAGOGICAL CORPORAPEDAGOGICAL CORPORA Example from sports scienceExample from sports science 6767 1 2 3 4
  68. 68. Training the pre-service teacher in sportTraining the pre-service teacher in sport  Step1: course on building a lessonStep1: course on building a lesson  Step2: personal live experience in a school ;Step2: personal live experience in a school ; record interaction (video) ; reflexionrecord interaction (video) ; reflexion (document)(document)  Step3: back at university: share experienceStep3: back at university: share experience and reflection (and reflection (process not deep enoughprocess not deep enough))  Step4 : teacher uses selected data fromStep4 : teacher uses selected data from previous research for cross confrontationprevious research for cross confrontation 6868 (Researcher in physical activity: N. Gal-Petitfaux, Université Blaise Pascal)
  69. 69. PEDAGOGICAL CORPORAPEDAGOGICAL CORPORA CREATED OUT OF LETECCREATED OUT OF LETEC CORPORACORPORA Authors : Ciara Wigham, Thierry ChanierAuthors : Ciara Wigham, Thierry Chanier 6969 1 2 3 4
  70. 70. Starting from a distinguished corpusStarting from a distinguished corpus 7070 Lewis, T. (2006) When Teaching is Learning: A Personal Account of Learning to Teach Online. CALICO, Vol 23, No. 3, May 2006.pp 581-600 http://calico.org/html/article_110.pdf
  71. 71. Starting from a distinguished corpusStarting from a distinguished corpus 7171
  72. 72. Lead-in documentLead-in document 7272 5 mn video
  73. 73. 7373 Wigham, C.R. & Chanier, T. (2013) Pedagogical corpus: Reflective Teaching Journals. Mulce.org : Clermont Université. [oai : mulce.org:mce-peda-rtjournals ;
  74. 74. 7474 Wigham, C.R. & Chanier, T. (2013) Pedagogical corpus: Reflective Teaching Journals. Mulce.org : Clermont Université. [oai : mulce.org:mce-peda-rtjournals ;
  75. 75. OPEN ACCESS TOOPEN ACCESS TO PUBLICATIONS & DATAPUBLICATIONS & DATA OpenDataOpenData 7575 1 2 3 4 Survey on CALL journals and research data : - Link in the main editorial article on : http://mulce.org - Questions 10 to 17
  76. 76. Enclosing the Commons of the MindEnclosing the Commons of the Mind  I seriously doubt that we would create theI seriously doubt that we would create the Web today—at least if policy makers andWeb today—at least if policy makers and market incumbents understood what themarket incumbents understood what the technology might become early enoughtechnology might become early enough toto stop it. (p.278)stop it. (p.278)  Almost everything onAlmost everything on the Internet is copyrighted,the Internet is copyrighted, even if its creators do not know that and wouldeven if its creators do not know that and would prefer it to be in the public domain. (p. 26)prefer it to be in the public domain. (p. 26) (Boyle, J.2008,(Boyle, J.2008, The Public Domain: Enclosing theThe Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind)Commons of the Mind) Boyle is one of the creatorsBoyle is one of the creators of the Creative Common – CC projectof the Creative Common – CC project 7676
  77. 77. FREE AND IMMEDIATEFREE AND IMMEDIATE ACCESS TOACCESS TO PUBLICATIONSPUBLICATIONS (ONCE(ONCE ACCEPTED BY REVIEWERS)ACCEPTED BY REVIEWERS) Open archivesOpen archives 7777 1 2 3 4 Chanier, T. "Commentary: Open Access to Research and the Individual Responsibility of Researchers". Language Learning & Technology, vol. 11, 2 (2007).
  78. 78. Guidelines for researchers (EU level)Guidelines for researchers (EU level)  “The Commission proposes to make open access to scientific publications a general principle of Horizon 2020, building on the already existing activities in FP7 (e.g. eligibility of open access publishing costs, embargo for 'Green' open access of six to twelve months). 7878 http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/background-paper- open-access-october-2012_en.pdf
  79. 79. 7979 Insitutional repository National repository
  80. 80. OPEN ACCESS TOOPEN ACCESS TO RESEARCH DATARESEARCH DATA OpenDataOpenData 8080 OER : Open Educational Ressources are important, but not considered here 1 2 3 4
  81. 81. OpendataOpendata  Term which is starting to be widely usedTerm which is starting to be widely used with different aims in mind, among otherwith different aims in mind, among other things:things: – 1) Academic world: share research results1) Academic world: share research results – 2) Government and public institutions: open their2) Government and public institutions: open their data to the publicdata to the public  Here we mainly consider the 1Here we mainly consider the 1stst perspectiveperspective 8181
  82. 82. Opendata defOpendata def  “Open data is data that can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike." OpenDefinition.org 8282
  83. 83. Opendata criteriaOpendata criteria  “Availability and Access: the data must be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably by downloading over the internet. The data must also be available in a convenient and modifiable form.  Reuse and Redistribution: the data must be provided under terms that permit reuse and redistribution including the intermixing with other datasets. The data must be machine- readable.  Universal Participation: everyone must be able to use, reuse and redistribute – there should be no discrimination against fields of endeavor or against persons or groups. For example, ‘non-commercial’ restrictions that would prevent ‘commercial’ use, or restrictions of use for certain purposes (e.g. only in education), are not allowed. “OpenDefinition.org 8383
  84. 84. Why should we use licences?Why should we use licences?  “In most jurisdictions there are intellectual property rights in data that prevent third-parties from using, reusing and redistributing data without explicit permission. Even in places where the existence of rights is uncertain, it is important to apply a license simply for the sake of clarity. Thus, if you are planning to make your data available you should put a license on it — and if you want your data to be open this is even more important.” OpenDefinition.org 8484
  85. 85. Example of licences on learner corpora: ICLEExample of licences on learner corpora: ICLE  No access given on the website, exceptNo access given on the website, except « pay to look at »« pay to look at »  Nothing about reuse, mixing, etc.Nothing about reuse, mixing, etc. 8585
  86. 86. Example of licences on learner corpora: ELFAExample of licences on learner corpora: ELFA  Open access, but for personal use (hence not forOpen access, but for personal use (hence not for research)research)  Important restriction (NC), where are the sound files?Important restriction (NC), where are the sound files? 8686 https://elomake.helsinki.fi/lomakkeet/43518/lomake.html
  87. 87. Open access, ethics and licenceOpen access, ethics and licence 8787 For usage: licence For participants: Informed consent form + Anonymization process Open Data: http://opendefinition.org/guide/ Note : Incoherence between licences on our sites: changes are not yet achieved
  88. 88. Usual CC (open but not necessarilyUsual CC (open but not necessarily compliant with OpenData)compliant with OpenData) 8888
  89. 89. 2 licences on data fully compliant with2 licences on data fully compliant with OpenDataOpenData  CC0 : As creators, I may have hadCC0 : As creators, I may have had some rights (rights on models, rightssome rights (rights on models, rights on data, etc.) on the work and I waiveon data, etc.) on the work and I waive them (permanent , irrevocable)them (permanent , irrevocable)  PPDL : I do not even mention the factPPDL : I do not even mention the fact that I may have had rights overthat I may have had rights over somethingsomething 8989
  90. 90.  What will happen if the attributionWhat will happen if the attribution licence is not there anymore?licence is not there anymore?  I may not be cited?I may not be cited? 9090
  91. 91. No confusion between attribution(IPR)No confusion between attribution(IPR) and citation-referencesand citation-references  We give users the way to refer to our workWe give users the way to refer to our work ((metadata : OLAC – bibliographicCitationmetadata : OLAC – bibliographicCitation) and will) and will use this in our list of publication & works. Foruse this in our list of publication & works. For exemple:exemple:  1) creator of the corpus1) creator of the corpus – Wigham, C.R. (2013).Wigham, C.R. (2013). Distinguished Corpus: Interplay betweenDistinguished Corpus: Interplay between textchat and audio modalities during the Second Life Reflectivetextchat and audio modalities during the Second Life Reflective SessionsSessions. Mulce.org : Clermont Université. [oai : mulce.org:mce-. Mulce.org : Clermont Université. [oai : mulce.org:mce- archi21-modality-textchat ; http://repository.mulce.org]archi21-modality-textchat ; http://repository.mulce.org]  2) creator and editor2) creator and editor – Stahl, Gerry ; Weimar, Steve ; Shumar, Wes (2009).Stahl, Gerry ; Weimar, Steve ; Shumar, Wes (2009). LETECLETEC Corpus Virtual Math TeamCorpus Virtual Math Team. Reffay, C. (editor). Mulce.org :. Reffay, C. (editor). Mulce.org : Clermont Université. [oai : mulce.org:mce-vmt-letec-teamc ;Clermont Université. [oai : mulce.org:mce-vmt-letec-teamc ; http://repository.mulce.orghttp://repository.mulce.org]] 9191
  92. 92. RecommendationsRecommendations  ActionsActions – Open our data (provided that ethics is OK –Open our data (provided that ethics is OK – anonymisation)anonymisation) – Choose licences with the fewest restrictionsChoose licences with the fewest restrictions – Cite others and your data as bibliographic referencesCite others and your data as bibliographic references – List them in your workList them in your work  ImplicationsImplications – Acknowledgement will come (from institutions, otherAcknowledgement will come (from institutions, other colleagues)colleagues) – CALL research will progress (re-analysis, coverageCALL research will progress (re-analysis, coverage extended with mixing)extended with mixing) – CALL data will be reused by other fieldsCALL data will be reused by other fields 9292 Open our data! Open Data Open Data If we want to be connected to Digital Humanities
  93. 93. Thank you for your attention!Thank you for your attention! Thierry.chanier at univ-bpclermont.frThierry.chanier at univ-bpclermont.fr http://lrl.univ-bpclermont.fr/spip.php?rubrique98http://lrl.univ-bpclermont.fr/spip.php?rubrique98 9393

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