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Training & Development A Part Of HRM Studies Er. S Sood

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Training & Development A Part Of HRM Studies Er. S Sood

  1. 1. JSR: POWER GROUP CBS: THE BRAND NAME OF SUCCESS Training & Development. A PART OF HRM By: Er. S. Sood
  2. 2. Training: “ it is an act of increasing the knowledge & skills of an employee for doing a specific job”. e.g. Trainee acquire new skills, technical knowledge, problem-solving ability etc . Training improves the performance of employees in the training process becomes clear from the following lines: “ I Hear, I Forget, I See, I Remember, I Do, I Understand” By: Er. S. Sood
  3. 3. !! No Doubt !! Training is closely related with education & development but needs to be differentiated from these terms !!! By: Er. S. Sood
  4. 4. Now there is always a confusion: IS TRAINING CAN BE PRONOUNCIATED AS EDUCATION WHAT YOU SAY!!!! By: Er. S. Sood
  5. 5. (Training is a skill learning), (While Education is Conceptual Learning). Though Training & Education differ in nature& Orientation, They are Complementary to each other. There is some Education in all Training & in all Education there is some Training. Conceptual : Something formed in the mind; a thought or notion. C omplementary : Something Additive By: Er. S. Sood
  6. 6. Development: It is a future oriented training focusing on personal growth of the employees. It is systematic & organized procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual & theoretical knowledge for general purpose. By: Er. S. Sood
  7. 7. Difference between Training & development Proactive - Anticipating events such as problems, markets, trends, and consumer demands and planning ahead for them. Reactive - Reacting to events when they occur with little to no anticipation of events . By: Er. S. Sood Sr.No Training Development 1 It is a short term process It is a long term process 2 It utilizes a systematic & organized procedure by which Non Managerial personnel learn technical knowledge & skills for a definitive purpose. It utilizes a systematic & organized procedure by which Managerial personnel learn conceptual & theoretical knowledge for general purpose. 3 It helps individual to learn how to perform his present job satisfactory. It prepares individual for future job & growth in all aspects. 4. Training is a reactive process Devp is proactive process. 5. Training is result of initiatives taken by management, it is result of some outside motivation. Devp is mostly the result of Internal Motivation
  8. 8. Objectives of Training: <ul><li>The basic obj. of training is to help devp. capacities & capabilities of employees both new & old by upgrading their skills & knowledge for the benefit of organization. </li></ul><ul><li>T aims to help existing employees in improving their level of performance on their present job assignments.( e.g. to new employees it becomes very necessary to provide training & induction process) </li></ul><ul><li>Aim of T are not only providing new knowledge & job skills to the employees, but creating in themselves consciousness & the greater awareness to recognize their responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it is not possible for organization to fill in some imp work positions from outside. Under such conditions the T or apprenticeship programs helps to develop & get workforce from inside. </li></ul><ul><li>The main aim of T is to bring out both efficiency & effectiveness of work & work culture. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  9. 9. Need & Imp. Of Training: <ul><li>Increased Productivity: </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Employee Morale: </li></ul><ul><li>Less Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Less Wastages: </li></ul><ul><li>Easy Adaptability: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Turnover/Absenteeism: </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Devp.: </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  10. 10. Benefits of Training to Organization: <ul><li>Improved Profitability. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Knowledge & Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Improves Morale of Work Force </li></ul><ul><li>Helps People Identify with Org. Goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Better Corporate Image. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates Authenticity & Trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves Inter-Org. Relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Org. Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Information for Future Needs in all Areas of Org. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  11. 11. <ul><li>Improves Decision Making Process. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in Development for Promotion from Within. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in Developing Leadership Skills, Motivation, Loyalty, Better Attitudes, & many other Aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to Reduce The Cost of Operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates an Appropriate Climate for Growth, Communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps Employees To Adjust With Technological Development & changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in handling Conflicts, thereby Helping to Prevent Stress& Tension. </li></ul>Cont….. By: Er. S. Sood
  12. 12. Training Process: 1. Determining Training Needs 2. Establishing Training Policies 3. Setting Goals & Objectives of Training 4. Preparing Training Budget 5. Deciding About the Training Venue. 6. Deciding About the Methods & Techniques to be Deployed in T 7. Determining Methods of Evaluating Training By: Er. S. Sood
  13. 13. 1. Determining Training Needs: !! Whether Training is Needed? !! If Yes, What Type of Training is Needed? !! Whether Training will Actually Improves the Employee Performance on the Job? Answer can be analyzed through Thayer & McGhee model: By: Er. S. Sood
  14. 14. According to Thayer & McGhee Model T Needs Can be Identified Through the following types of Analysis: 1. Det. T Needs: <ul><li>a. Org Analysis : it involves a study of entire org. in terms of its objectives, its resources allocation &utilization, growth potential & its environment. Its purpose is to determine where T emphasis should be placed within the organization. Org analysis consists of : </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Objectives : this is a study of short & long term objectives & the strategies followed at various levels to meet these objectives. These obj. may be the targets in line with environment. E.g. Profitability, Reputation, Social Service, vision of growth etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Utilization Analysis : how the orgs. Utilizes various resources viz. Financial, Physical, or human resources. How to get optimum utilization from those resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Cont… </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  15. 15. (3) Env. Scanning : in this analysis, the economic, social, political & technological Env. Of the org. is examines. It may constitute of Internal & External factor. Internal which can be controlled & External Which can’t be controlled. (4). Org. Climate Analysis : The climate of an Org. reflects the employees attitudes. Its also reflects the mgmt attitude towards employee development. w/o adequate mgmt support & appropriate supervisory style No T Programs cannot be successful. (b). Task or Role Analysis : for those who r new to their jobs. Particularly with lower level workers. , as it is common to hire inexperienced workers & train them. This is complete study of job analysis, skills, & requirements of job. By: Er. S. Sood
  16. 16. <ul><li>©. Manpower Analysis : here , the persons to be trained & the changes required in the knowledge, skills & aptitude an employee are determined. 3 issues can be resolved in this analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Whether performance is satisfactory & training is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the employee is capable of being trained & the specific areas in which training is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether training will improve the employees performance on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>It needs to be emphasized that all T must be directed towards the satisfaction of the needs for the company as a whole, for specific fxns or group of employees or for individuals. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  17. 17. 2. Establishing Training Policies: Companies plays very vital role in the formulation & designing of a training programme. Every org. should have a well establishes training policy. Such a policy represent the Top Mgmt’s responsibility for training of its employees & comprises the rules & procedure governing governing the stds. & scope of training & development. By: Er. S. Sood
  18. 18. 3. Setting Goals & Objectives of Training <ul><li>Immediate Obj. of Training should be to help an employee to improve performance on his present job. </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>mainly concerned with efficiency, in org. working& o/p’s such as enhanced sales, reduced costs & improved productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Performance Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Related to individual performance in terms of both efficiency & quality, org’s effective performance within allocated funds while also keeping in view the fulfillment of corporate objectives& amount of benefits derived. </li></ul><ul><li>Cont……. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  19. 19. c) Instructional Objectives: Pertains to trainees grasp & applicability of the lessons or instructions as received during the learning process, which can be generally evaluated at the end of T programme by some sort of obj. tests. d) Personal Growth Objectives: Indicative of stimulating feelings of self- confidence, self competence, self image& other aspects of self realization. e) Reaction Obj: These are primarily subjective in nature. Participants being very much alive to the learning situations give expression to their feelings & come out with reactions about the training programmes. This helps in improving the programme content & instructional methods. f) Innovation or Change making Obj’s: These constitutes V.Imp type of Objs. Which are primarily developmental in nature & have a large effect & return. By: Er. S. Sood
  20. 20. 4. Preparing T Budget: Budget means Allocation of Funds to be provided for T in order to carry out T Activities. 5. Deciding About the T Venue: The decision about the T Venue depends invariably on the type of T to be given. For in Company & On Job T, the venue naturally is plant itself. While in case of Off Job T & T through external sources, the venue has to be somewhat away from the Trainees’ working environments. The venue of T will be the place where the outside agency is located. Invariably: By: Er. S. Sood
  21. 21. 6. Deciding about the methods & techniques to be deployed in T: <ul><li>T may range from highly specified instructions in the procedures to be adopted while performing a particular job, to very general instructions concerning economy & society: </li></ul><ul><li>Factors contribute in selecting T Methods & Techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of Knowledge, nature of skills called for in particular jobs to be filled. </li></ul><ul><li>Backgrounds of trainees for assessing their capacities & potential & ascertaining their aptitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of facilities by way of cost , time, material, equipments etc. as available for particular T & for particular situation. </li></ul><ul><li>No. of persons to be trained & developed. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  22. 22. 7. Determining methods of evaluating T: Evaluation is the measurement of the effectiveness of performance after T & collecting useful feedback for future T: <ul><li>Judging & Measuring Rxns of Participants in various aspects as outlined in the T Programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing & Measuring how far the Learning has been gainful & effective, that is, what exactly has been achieved by the way of new knowledge , understanding& skills by the participants. This is done by the means of tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring results or changes in terms of cost, Grievances, quality & production. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  23. 23. Designing a Training Programme. <ul><li>Responsibility for T: To be effective , a Training Programme must be properly organized. T is quite a serious task which cannot be undertaken by a single department. The responsibility for T may be shared among the following: </li></ul><ul><li>The Top Mgmt .( Framing & Authorizing basic T policies, Reviewing & Approving T programmes & budgets) </li></ul><ul><li>The Personal Department .(Planning, Establishing & Evaluating instructional programmes.) </li></ul><ul><li>The line Supervisor .(Implementing & Application of Devp. Plans) </li></ul><ul><li>The employees .(Providing Feedback, Reviews progress for further improvements.) </li></ul>Jan 27th 2010 By: Er. S. Sood
  24. 24. 2. Selection& Motivation of the Trainees. Selection of Candidates for T should be made only after careful screening of the prospective employees for the effectiveness of the programme. “ It is necessary that a Trainee should give proper background information before he starts learning new job skills & gets knowledge . ” “ Trainers have to explain the importance of the job, its relationship with work flow & the Importance of Learning. ” By: Er. S. Sood
  25. 25. 3. Preparation of Trainer. Trainer must be well qualified & may be obtained from within or outside the Organization. “ As Training is based upon the needs of the Organization, the trainer must have a clear cut picture of objectives of T in mind. Trainer needs professional expertise in order to fulfill his responsibilities.” If he is ill informed about the T process or knows little about possible connection between T & Mgmt, he deserve the casual treatment. Casual> something w/o thinking & w/o motive. By: Er. S. Sood
  26. 26. 4. Training material. <ul><li>It may include: </li></ul><ul><li>Study notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Pamphlets. </li></ul><ul><li>Charts. </li></ul><ul><li>Manuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Movie slides etc . </li></ul><ul><li>It must be ensured that all material is distributed or circulated among the Trainees & Trainers so that miscommunication could be avoided . </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  27. 27. 5.Training period. Length of T period depends upon Skills of the Trainees, Purpose of Training, Learning Capacity of Trainees & T Media used. It must be ensured the timings of Training, whether before or after or during working hours, should be decided by personnel manager taking in view the issues like productivity/ production of benefits to be achieved by Training. By: Er. S. Sood
  28. 28. 6. Performance Tryout. The trainee is asked to do the job several times slowly. His mistakes are corrected & if necessary the complicated steps are explained again. As soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do the job rightly he is put on his own & training is over. By: Er. S. Sood
  29. 29. 7. Follow up. Follow up process reinforces the learning process. It brings the effectiveness in T Programme. It helps the mgmt to design future T Programmes. The feedback is generated through follow up to reveal weakness or errors, if any. “ The supervisor has to keep strict vigil on the person under T & his performance. If any doubts are there in the mind of employee, supervisor have to ask these doubts from employees & provide them solutions.” By: Er. S. Sood
  30. 30. Training Methods & Techniques 1. On the Job T : most universal form of employees development. O T J is the heart & soul of all T in Business & Industry. Also sometimes pronounced as “SHOP TRAINING” <ul><li>This type of T is applicable on all the levels to a wide range of semiskilled, skilled & Technical jobs, as well as supervisory & management Devp. Programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of OTJ Training : </li></ul><ul><li>Job Instruction Training(JIT).. </li></ul><ul><li>“ comes into light after world war 2. it is four step instructional process. It basically emphasis or teaches the workers how to do their current jobs.” </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  31. 31. Cont…… # the trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose & desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevance of T. # the trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. The Trainer Demonstrates to him the right way of doing the job. # the trainee is then asked to copy the trainer’s demonstration. Demonstrations by trainer & practice by the trainer are repeated till the trainee master the right track to perform job as per standards. # Finally the employee does the job independently w/0 supervision. By: Er. S. Sood
  32. 32. <ul><li>2 ) Coaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching involves direct personal instructions & guidance, usually with extensive demonstration & continues critical appraisal & correction. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of coaching depends upon the patience & communication skills of the coach.. So the coach must have to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain appropriate ways of doing things. </li></ul><ul><li>Make clear “why” some actions are taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer possible alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>State the observation accurately & critically. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer suggestions whenever requires & follow up. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  33. 33. <ul><li>3) Mentoring. </li></ul><ul><li>It is somewhat different from T method. In mentoring, senior person in the organization assumes the responsibility for T as well as Grooming of a junior person. “a mentor acts as a teacher, guide philosopher, supporter & facilitator of the junior person.” </li></ul><ul><li>Basic objective of the mentoring is to help an employee gain psychological maturity & effectiveness & get integrated with the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>A good mentor has to: </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the mentee & understand him. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge his intellect & stimulate the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Coach. </li></ul><ul><li>Build self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Provide wise counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Teach by examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Share experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Offer encouragement. </li></ul><ul><li>Cont…… </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  34. 34. <ul><li>A person can learn a lot from his mentor if he: </li></ul><ul><li>listens. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts on advice. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows commitment to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave ego @ the door. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Is open minded. </li></ul><ul><li>Is willing to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Is proactive .( Anticipating events such as problems, markets, trends, and consumer demands and planning ahead for them. ) </li></ul><ul><li>4) Position Rotation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the broadening of the background of trainee in the organization. If the trainee is rotated periodically from one job to another, he acquires a Greater Knowledge. He understands the larger organization perspectives & different fxnl areas. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides the chance of employees development from within organization, in terms of job enlargement & promotions as per time to time requirements. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  35. 35. 5) Apprenticeship In present scenario A T is a structures process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instructions & on the job training. “ It is widely used to train individuals for many occupations.” 6) Committee assignments. In this method , the trainees are asked to perform special assignments & to solve actual org problems. Sometimes , a task force is created which consists of a number of trainees representing different fxns in the organization.By this trainees acquire the knowledge about the assigned activities & learn how to work with the pre fixed standards of organization. By: Er. S. Sood
  37. 37. Off The Job T: <ul><li>It means in this process trainees have to leave their workplace & devote their entire time to training. </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques of off the job T : </li></ul><ul><li>Vestibule T : In vestibule T, a training center is set up & actual job conditions are duplicated or stimulated in it. Expert Trainers are employed to provide T which are identical with those used @ the work place. this type of T is used primarily when the large No of employees must be trained quickly, as needed, as a result of expansion of business activities by firm or industries, although it is also helpful as a preliminary to on the job Training. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  38. 38. Benefits of the Vestibule T are: <ul><li>Fundamental advantage is that a number of employees are trained in short time. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainees can concentrate on learning w/o disturbance of workplace noise. </li></ul><ul><li>It permits the trainees to practice w/o fear of being observed. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a specialized & superior method of instructions, free from any pressure of getting out production. </li></ul><ul><li>The interest & motivation of the trainee are high as the real job conditions are duplicated. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  39. 39. Demerits of Vestibule T: <ul><li>Expensive, as location is out of coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative time consuming. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of productivity while trainees are away from work places. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  40. 40. 3. Classroom T: Classroom T is the traditional ay of education which places the trainees in the classroom. It is most suitable for teaching concepts & problem solving skills. It is also useful in orientation & safety Training programmes. It may also include courses in re-training & upgrading. 4. Internship T: In this process educational institutions & business firms have joint programme of T. e.g. internship of 6 months after MBBS course. Or 2 months Industrial T while pursuing MBA or Pgdm. By: Er. S. Sood
  41. 41. 5. Conferences <ul><li>Is a favorite T method. Many organizations have adopted guided discussion type of conferences in their T programmes, in order to escape the limitations of the lecture method. Here participants pool their ideas& experiences to arrive @ imp methods of dealing with the problems which are the common subject f discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences may include buzz sessions that divide the conference into small groups for intensive discussion. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  42. 42. 6. Role Playing: <ul><li>Is the method of human interactions that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situations. Role playing involves action, dong & practice. The trainee play thee role of certain characters, e.g. the different position holders in the org. By role playing, a trainee can broaden his experience by trying diff approaches/roles, while in actual practice, he often has only one role to play. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Programmed Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>It is step by step process that includes 3 parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting questions, facts or problems to the trainees. </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing the trainees to respond. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood
  43. 43. C. Electronic T: <ul><li>Computerized & internet based tools has provide revolution to T process. </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Visual Tools : TV Sets, projectors, OHP, PPT’s, video conferencing, tapes etc. selection is dependent on situation . </li></ul><ul><li>Computer based T : CD, Pen drives, hard disks etc. e.g. computer lab T. or S/W T. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Performance support system(EPSS) : ppl don’t remember everything they learn. The T , in this method, focuses on the skills of the employees need every day for performing their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Distance & internet based T : e.g. video conferencing, internet, business portals or tele-training. </li></ul>By: Er. S. Sood