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Bizmasters360.com: A Different Perspective on Culture Change - Part I

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A Different Perspective on Culture Change - Part I
By Dr. Ted Marra
21 September
I can already sense what you’re thinking!...
So,tryingto keepitshort and withsome value added,here we goandagain I mention that what you
will readbelowiswhatIhave perc...
there wassuch intense negativityinthe organisationbecasue Siemenshadbeatenthe costreduction
drum for so many years, people...
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Bizmasters360.com: A Different Perspective on Culture Change - Part I

  1. 1. A Different Perspective on Culture Change - Part I By Dr. Ted Marra 21 September I can already sense what you’re thinking! The last thing we need is another article on cultural or organisational change!Please,give us abreak!CertainlyIknow all toowell the number of consulting organisations out there like Senn-Delaney and all the other ‘big’ and ‘small players’ as well as independentconsultantswhobelieve they have the unique edge or insight into this issue. I have a goodfriendandcolleague,JohnChildresswhoisheadof PrincipiaGroupinLondonwhojust recently publishedabookonCulture Change. Youcan easilyburyyourself inthe literature and be fooled into thinking that this issue is something akin to the ‘theory of relativity’ when it isn’t. No one issaying it’s easy and unless there is strong commitment from the top and a clear approach which is flawlessly executed the results won’t be achieved – at least not in this lifetime. In fact, I believe I may have read somewhere that 60-80% of ‘change programs’ fail – you can correct me if I am wrong. Traditionally when I have been invited into an organisation to help facilitate cultural change,theyalwayslike toknow,‘Howlongwill ittake?’ Itell themthatthisdependson where they are now and where they need to go in the future to become an enduring organisations that continues to set the standard for performance or to achieve their ideal state consistent with their vision–assumingtheyhave one!However,the shortansweristhatit couldeasilybe 3-5years. Well, senior management, being normally impatient, are not happy campers. But it’s a big job and even when it is done it’s not done. As I will soon be writing about in future articles, ‘Who in an organisationhas ownershipforitsculture?’ To me, the Human Resource organisation should be the steward and ensure, along with the rest of the leadership team, that the culture is regularly (annually) reviewedandassessed, refined or re-energised to remain in lock-step with the changing and turbulent operating environment, modifications to the vision as well as all the technological, competitive and changing customer requirements occurring on an on-going basis. The one thing you don’t want to do is what Antony Jenkins, the new CEO who took over Barclays Bank after the Libor fraud scandal in 2013 which was to publically announce (paraphrasing): ‘We have to make our organisationmore customerfocused … bladeebla… and our first step to move our organisation in that direction will be to lay off 4000 of our people!’ I am also aware that many of the approaches often appear to look more like ‘rocket science’ than common sense. This, I guess, is where I am going to try and ‘weigh in’ with this article. What I am going to share with you are two things: (1) what I have observed in my 42 years and some 50 cultural/organisational change programmes of national or global extent for organisations such as Xerox,Shell,Duke Power,StoraEnso,Electrolux, Siemens, Chevrolet Motor Division and the list goes on and (2) share what I have learned from the perspective of a ‘frontline’ employee. I won’tgo intoall the detailsinthisarticle,buthopefully provide you with enough to give you some helpful insights based on my experience. These may be totally different than those of you reading thisarticle. That’sfine andin fact that’s greatas it leadstorefreshingdialogue. Let’s face it, culture change, in my opinion, is more of an art than an science.
  2. 2. So,tryingto keepitshort and withsome value added,here we goandagain I mention that what you will readbelowiswhatIhave perceivedorobservedfroma frontlineemployeeperspective as to the steps in a successful cultural or organisational change process. Step #1: Frontline employees hear the words of management Management states their intentions, aspirations or vision and why it is important to the organisation’s future long-term success. Hopefully some thought has gone into this and those thoughtsreflecthavinglistenedandlearnedfromemployees,customersandsuppliersandother key stakeholders too as appropriate. It is important to remember that the message communicated by management must be well engineered and inspiring as well as informative and indicate that it is a ‘teameffort’ – all one team,seniormanagementandall employeesworkingtogethertowardabetter organisationanda betterfuture. Thismessage willsetthe expectationsof employees –expectations which will either be met or not. In the latter case, namely failure to meet expectations set by management,the situationismostlikelytoendindisappointment forall partiesinvolved, mistrustof management and failure to make any demonstrable change in the culture. However, each employee’scontributionwillbe valuable.The specificcontributionwillbe detailed asan integral part of the cultural change process – what contribution is expected as well as the level of performance expected in achieving that contribution – clear and realistic, yet at the same time challenging. Behindthe scenes,seniormanagementmusthave awell-defined plan – one component of which is the communication strategy (which ensures regular, 2-way, open and honest, complete and transparent communication) and an execution strategy. I will provide some suggestions in Part II about these strategies. What managementneedstounderstandisthatforthose employees that are more actively involved in this change effort, it cannot be just ’another job as assigned’ and needs to be a priority – getting signoff fromtheirdirect manager and also being evaluated on their performance in supporting the effortand beingrecognisedforit. Thatrecognitioncan even be a write-up in the internal employee magazine highlighting them and their work or their team as an example. Step #2: Frontline employees see things happen It is here that the manifestation of management’s intentions starts to become real for employees. Theymay see andparticipate in‘townhall’meetings,askedtovolunteerorbe nominated for special strategic business improvement teams, traveling road shows put on by various members of senior staff indifferentlocationstobuildawareness and gain stronger and more focused support and buy- in from employees. But remember, many organisations follow the ‘program of the month’ approach – or have in the past. As a result, employees have become conditioned not to become too excited because managementintheirinfinitewisdomwill replace this program with another one in 30 days – so just wait and see. As an example,whenworkingwith SiemensTelecommunicationsinthe U.K., I suggested 3 sessions. Each session had 35 volunteers plus approximately 5 - 7 middle and senior managers and making sure the CEO was at each session! Eachsessionhadsome 4 elements:acleansing,definingthe future we want,providingsome skillsandknowledgeand thendefining an action plan. I decided that since
  3. 3. there wassuch intense negativityinthe organisationbecasue Siemenshadbeatenthe costreduction drum for so many years, people were being made redundant, service levels were dropping, customers were becoming upset and more, that first I had to do was drive out this negativity or it would linger in people’s minds acting like an anchor keeping us from moving forward. So I had everyone in the audience (and this was tough because the British are not open with ‘feelings’ like hate, love, frustration - being much more comfortable sharing information and facts). I captured it all on a flipchart andit was ‘ugly’ (evenmanagementwas shocked), made sure we had it all, gained agreementthat it was correct. Then I ripped the two full flip chart pages off, crumpled them into a ball and threw them in the waste paper basket. Then I said, OK, that was the past now let’s begin to define a new future – one that we want. The concepthere wasto create a critical massof ‘change agents’through the organisation at every level and function who could network with one another, support one another, listen and learn from the other employees, communicate with senior management and get their support on the combined action plan which evolved from the three meetings. It worked. When I originally arrived on the scene, the CEO told me he and the management committee estimated that their organisation could only survive another 18 months under present conditions. Together we got the ship turned around. It isimportant that three keys elements are a part of this movement: (1) every effort is made to be inclusive –involvement,participation,engagementalongwith the communication discussed above; (2) sustainedseniormanagementcommitmentandinvolvementand(3) ensuringthere are no‘mixed signals’ and everyone in management is reading from the same page – consistency. Step #3: Frontline employees begin to understand their role more fully at a high level (details to follow in the next steps) In this case I am focusing on becoming a more customer-focused organisation, but the approach would work regardless of the focus, e.g., becoming people-centric. Note that itwas Xerox whichonce said:‘There are only two positions in an organisation. Either you serve the customer directly or you serve someone who does’. Truer words have not been spoken. From my perspective, if you, as a manager or senior manager do not see it that way, possibly you should consider a ‘brain transplant’? It ishere where,if the issue isbecomingmore customer-focused,eachemployee is helped to do the following with the help of the ‘change agents’ created in the organisation if an approach similar to Siemens was taken or otherwise with the continuing support of team leaders, supervision and management at all levels: Who are my customers? (internal and external) o If I were to rank these customers in terms of importance, what would that be and why?  What is the quality of the relationship I have with each?  Where do I need to improve?  How can I improve?
  4. 4. How will I or we measure the quality of the relationships with my most important customers? o I suggestbeginningwithafocuson ‘mostimportant’customersfirst. Toooftenwhat I have found in organisations is that those customers which are strategically most important are the ones with which the organisation has the worst quality relationships – internally or externally!  Take HiltonHotelsEurope,a clientof some yearsago. They have a customer segment called the ‘Diamond’ customers. Hilton identified some 7 segments,butthiswas theirmost strategically important one. Why? These are people who spend an average of 150 nights per year in a hotel – many are top consultants, those in property development or construction and otherprofessions. While theyonlyrepresent5% of the employee base, they generate some 45% of the revenue for Hilton Europe. When these customers become unhappy as they did and begin spending more nights at Radissonorother hotel chains,there iscause foralarm. Fortunatelythrough holding in-depth focus groups in a number of locations, we were able to discoverthe sourcesof theirunhappinessandworkwithseniormanagement to develop an effective retention strategy.  Now here’s the pay-off. By focusing on the most important customers first (e.g.,if youwere tryingtobecome more people-centric,youmightfocusfirst on high-potential talent as an example – you would have to make that decision), any changes to processes, systems, policies, training and development of personnel or others would have a ‘spill-over’ effect on all customers!). Everyone would gain some benefit. However, clearly, you would not just stop by focusing only on the most strategically important customers,youcouldthenmove to‘Tier2’ customers next. Butthere should be less to do as changes were already made to benefit ‘Tier 1’ customers. Soon,however,you willreachthe pointof diminishingreturns. Whetheryou would make too many changes, adjust the value proposition too much for ‘Tier 3’ would be a strategic decision. Besides, the changes made for Tier I and Tier 2 would impact positively Tier 3 customers in many cases. Explain the details of my involvement in this change process so I understand clearly what I must do (the next step discussed in Part II deals with building capability to execute) Help me gain perspective o If I am a linkinchainthat goesfrominside the organisationandtouchesthe external customer,howwill we all worktogethermore effectivelyandefficientlyto serve that
  5. 5. external customer while building better internal working relationships between functional silos? o Helpme understandhow myactioncan positively or negatively impact the external customer o How can I be a ‘change agent’ to better support the process? o What is the extent of the customer experience with organisation, where are thy having the greatest problems, where are we as frontline employees having the greatest challenges satisfying customers, how do we give the customer a ‘wow’ experience and build their loyalty to a higher level? The above representjustataste of what could or should be included in each of the first three steps of a customer-focusedcultural change processasseenfromthe perspectiveof afrontline employee. These three steps, atthe top level,wouldbe identical foranychange program. InPart II we will cover the remaining three steps plus provide an example showing where an organisation is today versus where it needs to go tomorrow. The change process and the plan followed to ensure execution needs to be designed to get you to where you need to be but only after the baseline has been established – only after you understand clearly where your organisation is today. A Different Perspective on Culture Change - Part II By Dr. Ted Marra 1 October For those readersof Part I and possiblysome newreaders aswell,Ihope thatthisarticle continues to add value andprovide adifferentperspective –one throughthe eyesof a frontlineemployee. I believeitisworthnotingsome of the activitieswhichI have foundsenior executives need to engage inbeyondthose alreadystatedinPartI whichcan contribute tomakingthischange process successful. In Steps#1 and#2 especially,seniorexecutivesshouldactlike ‘missionaries’goingoutintothe far cornersof theirorganisationconvertingunbelievers. Whetherthisisthroughatravellingroadshow approach where eachexecutive mustgive apreparedpresentationonwhatishappening,why itis happening(e.g.,need)andhowthe people andthe organisationbenefitaswell as anopenand honest2-waydialogue withemployeesorthere are ‘townhall’meetingswherelarge groupsof employeescome togetherheldatvarious locationsandtimes. If the organisationoperateson2-3 shifts, executivesneed to be out there at whatever time of day or nightis necessary to engage people andlet them know that managementis seriousand committed100%. Use of the intranet and settingup messages(wordsor pictures) foruse asscreensaversall help – some may be fromthe CEO and others. If the approachsuggestedinPartI regardingestablishing DomainDecisionCouncils,one Council beingrelatedto‘Organisational change–adaptation,learning,creativityandinnovation,atleast one of the Council membersshouldbe the Sponsorand or facilitator/coach for the Strategic
  6. 6. BusinessImprovement(or Change) Team which supports the Council. There may be more than one SBIT or SBCT. In Part I we discussedthe firstthree StepsIhave observedinchange programs. Iwill continue with the remainingstepsandalsoofferanexample fromapastclient. So,in Part I we discussedthe followingSteps: Hear the words See thingshappen Understandmyrole The unfortunate fact,inmy experience,hasbeenthat managementhasspent too littletime on helpingtheir peopleto understandtheir roles – oftenleavingthemsomewhatinastate of uncertainty,leadingthemtothinkof thisonce againas ‘the program of the month’andevenif it goesahead,notreallybeingcommittedtoit. In anychange programit iscritical that the old‘feet, head, heart’ model be employed – begunmany yearsago at Xerox and Corningamongothers.Inthe past, as we know – and still fartoo oftentoday, the ‘3C’s’ ofmanagement still prevail–command,control and coordinate. We,managementinour infinite wisdom,willtellyouwhattodo, whentodo, how to do itand whoto do it withandwe will watch overyoulike policemenorpolicewomentocatchyou doingsomethingwrong. Obviouslythat approach stoppedworkingahundredyearsagobutis keptalive bythose seniorexecutivesamong Collins‘Level IandLevel II’executivesfromhisbook‘Goodto Great’or Senge’s‘unconscious incompetent’managementinhisbook‘The LearningOrganisation’.Focusonjustobedience, diligence andexpertise wasnotenough. Some yearsago, a fewmore enlightenedseniorexecutivesrealisedthattheirpeople mightaddmore value,increase theircreative contributionstothe successof the organisationand have stronger commitmentandmotivationif theydidmore than‘justbarkorders’whichcausedemployeesfeetto move or make themjump,more outof fearthan respect. So,theybeganthe transformationto‘gettingintothe head’ of theirpeople –to explain whythey are doingit– itsimportance tothe organisationand what’sinit forthemthe employee (WIIFM). Theywere right. Thenthe ‘eureka’came. Some of these more enlightenedseniorexecutivesthoughtthatmore energy and passion – greatermotivationandcreativitycouldcome by‘engagement’ –creatinga stronger‘emotional attachment’of theirpeople tothe organisationandwhatitstandsfor. It isonly by gettingto‘heart’of the matter – and theirpeople thatthiscan be achieved. While digressingslightlywiththe above discussion,ithelpstohighlightwhychange inmany organisationsonlyoccurswhenthere iscrisisasopposedtooccurringon a continuousbasisandwhy, evenina crisissituation,successful executionisinthe 20-40% maximumrange – usuallyatthe lower end. So,what thenare the nextStepsfromthe frontline perspective?Let’shave alook: Step #4: Management builds the trust and capability of frontline employees
  7. 7. Quite frankly,anotherreasonsuchahighpercentage of change programsfail isthat oftenthisStepis either left out or minimised – that is, management does the nominal necessary in preparing their people often because of cost considerations or they take employees for granted or are just simply cluelessof the need –I mean,whatare we paying our employees for anyway? If they can’t do their job,thenget rid of them! They are just ‘tools’ to get a job done. So they set their employees up for ‘failure’ – it is never a failure of leadership – just the people in the organisation. Wouldn’t life be wonderful – simple, easy if it wasn’t for our people screwing up all the time they say! This is probably the single most critical Step in the process from a people perspective. It is the one which, through senior management’s actions, clearly communicates whether this change program is real or not and whether they, the employee are viewed as an asset or a tool by the degree to which leadership invests in them. It is an absolute fact that trust is built on clear, 2-way, regular (frequent) open and honest communication at all levels – transparency – the sharing of all relevant information between management and employees. While that is not the only factor that contributes to building and maintaining trust, it is probably near the top of the list. You can add others as I could, but won’t digress further at the moment. Here are some of things frontline employees are looking for – hoping for in this Step: Show me I am valued – not just a tool o Investinme – traininganddevelopment,coaching,supportandmore as appropriate  Provide me with the knowledge, skills and development I need to be successful and to contribute to my full potential in helping this change program be successful Engage me and ensure I am involved/participating throughout o Showme that we are ‘all one team’ workingtowarda commonpurpose to make this organisation more successful and a better place to work Communicate with me (see above) o Make sure the messages are clear and mutually reinforcing  Include celebrations of successes and recognition Win my heart and mind Set my performance expectations o Ensure all Human Resource systems (recognition, performance evaluation, job descriptions, reward system) are all aligned to reinforce the behaviors that lead to mutual success. Showing appreciation too goes a long way Make me confident that this is not just another in a long line of initiatives which will pass quickly – a part of the ‘program of the month’ series Once again, what I have seen is that many organisations, as I have said, either skip this step or do a sub-optimal job with it. Instead, they ‘rush to accountability’. A big mistake and one that can torpedo a change effort as can the setting of unrealistic targets – especially in terms of time limits evenmore than the tasks themselves. Change takestime –needsto be well thought out or planned and then even better executed. You can’t rush change or something, I guarantee, will go wrong.
  8. 8. What management must do relative to support is empower employees to do what is in the best interest of the organisation – empowerment will only work in an organisation where there is trust and where the old ‘command, control and coordinate’ way of doing business is dead and buried. Employeesmustfeel confidentintheirown capability and in taking initiative without fear. It is only when the above things are done and then experienced and acknowledged by the people of the organisationthattheywillinglytake ‘ownership’ for what needs to be done and happily get it done. Duringthistime and the earlier Steps, leadership needs to be practicing ‘MBWA+’ – you remember how revolutionary ‘management by walking around’ was when Tom Peters and Robert Waterman, right introduced it? I mean at that point in time, 1982, about the only way an employee knew their seniormanagementwasbyseeingpictureshangingonthe wallsinthe organisation’s reception area or the newspaper or internal magazines. If a senior executive came into an office and stood by an employee,the employee wouldhave noearthlyknowledge of whothe person was even if it was the CEO! You notice the ‘+’ I added above to MBWA. That simply means that leadership today must ‘walk aroundwitha purpose inmind,namely toengage employees – to inspire, to listen and learn and act on what they hear, find out the barriers getting in employees ways of contributing to their full potential and eliminating them while at the same time strengthening the relationship between management and the employees. This is what starts to get to ‘the heart of the matter’. Yet it is surprising how challenging this ‘MBWA+’ is for senior executives! I worked with the top partner of American Express in the Balkans for over a year conducting regular weekly strategic learning sessions of 2-3 hours for the CEO and Management Committee. One of their homework assignments was to form pairs, go out into a part of the organisation they knew little or nothing aboutand sit andtalk to a randomgroup of employeesabouthow it felt to work there, the vision of the organisation – didthe employees understand it, was it inspiring, did they know how they could contribute to achieving it and also any other suggestions for organisational performance improvement.Theywere scared to death! I told them prior to this that of all the leadership teams I had worked with around the globe, I would put them in the top 25%, yet their confidence, their experience levelingoingoutandengagingtheiremployees was incredibly low when it should have been second nature to them and something enjoyable – not frightening! It is not unreasonable – in fact, it is desirable, if senior executives deliver some of the training/learning and development programs needed for team leaders, supervisors, first line managers or middle managers. Middle management is often called the ‘great frozen layer’ and unlessseniormanagementstartsaskingthemdifferentandbetterquestionsand working with them – engagingthem,theywillactas an inhibitortothe processaswell asbeingunsure asto their role or competencies needed in pulling it off. These individuals are critical to success. Throughoutthe ‘change’process,Isuggesttaking‘pulsingsurveys’. Thismightmeaneverymonthor quarter randomly selecting 25% of the workforce from all functions and levels – a true random sample and asking a short series of 5-7 questions. These questions might include such things as (1) Do youfeel youhave a growingunderstandingof the importance of thischange tothe organisation?; (2) Do you feel that the change process is working, that things that need to change really are changing?;(3) Do you feel youhave hadthe opportunitytohave yourvoice heardandto be involved inthe process?;(4) Do youbelieve thatonce thischange process is completed, the organisation will
  9. 9. be a better place to work (or more successful)?; (5) How do you feel about working in this organisationnowcomparedtobefore thischange processbegan?Now,these are notintendedto be just‘yes/no’questionseventhough what I have shared indicates that. These need to be rephrased and other open-ended questions could be asked including what else could be done or should be done or what employees see as opportunities for improvement or ideas for innovation. Step #5: Frontline employees are assigned and accept accountability – ownership occurs Now,afterbuildingcapabilityandstrengthening trustthroughinvesting in people, they are ready to accept accountability willingly – ready and willing to reciprocate and take initiative. It is here where the following types of actions should be observed by frontline employees: Definingthe specifics of whatImustdo differently and/or better starting now to ensure the program is a success o It is critical that job descriptions, performance evaluations, recognition and reward criteria be aligned. I have seen so many organisations where there is mass confusion. The jobdescriptionsaysone thing,butthe performance evaluation is on key job elements which are not the same. These criteria are not the same as those used for recognition or reward. o I have been in so many organisations where I have asked employees, ‘If your boss came up to you, patted you on the back and thanked you for doing a great job, wouldyouwhatyou haddone?Couldyou repeat it so you could get another ‘pat on the back’ as an acknowledgement? The answer has too often been ‘no’. o Knowing what I am being measured on as an employee is critical to their success – no secrets, no sin of omission – just transparency  The measurement system – indeed the measures or KPI’s need to be credible inthe eyesof the employees –somethingthatif theycan’tcontrol it directly at least they have significant influence on. You can’t have them responsible for EBIT or market share! o There needs to be a clear linkage between the performance measurement system and the HR systems – performance evaluation,recognitionandrewardasa minimum Emphasismustalsobe on a balance betweenachievingthe results or outcomes desired and ‘how’those resultsoroutcomeswere achieved. Leavingatrail of dead bodies behind in the zeal to attain targets is unacceptable! The collateral damage is too great. However, doing it throughexhibiting behaviours consistent with the values/beliefs of the organisation is the key here. Role models get the maximum rewards – these are individuals who not only achieve theirobjectivesbutdoso bylivingthe values of the organisation such as teamwork, respect for the individual or others which may be in place. The performance evaluation session should be used for development purposes o Management at every level should be acting as teachers and coaches helping employees to be more successful – giving the support needed – listening for any ‘cries for help’ – reading between the lines o Succession planning is also important such as Rothwell’s strategic succession approach. How well employees respond to change, how well they act as ‘change agents’themselvesandshow personal leadership must be taken into consideration
  10. 10. in identifying high potential people and ensuring their succession into the right positions in the organisation. It must be that accountability extends upward to include senior management and the Domain Decision Council discussed earlier as one of these Councils maybe the ‘Renewal’ Council where I define renewal inmybook,‘The WisdomChronicles:Competing to Win’ (http://www.amazon.com) as the seamlessintegrationof learning,adaptation,creativity and innovation – it is the ‘gene’ in the organisation’sDNA whichenablesittoeffectivelyandefficientlychange continuouslythroughtime – keepingitsbusinessmodel freshandenduring resulting in continued superior results which set the standardfor othersto follow. Itisalsoone of the three elements which I believe contributes to the anti-fragilityof an organisation as discussed by Taleb and also by my friend and colleague, Dr. Tony Bendell. Step #6: Frontline employees make behaviors and new practices a part of daily work life It ishere where seniormanagementaswell asall keyindividualswhetherteamleaders, supervisors, first line managers, middle managers and high-potential people need to ensure that the changes from this program are ‘embedded’ in the organisation – that they are embedded in the minds of employees and become ‘just the way we do business around here’. Again,constantvigilance isa key. Relentless reinforcement is a key by senior management. Senior managementleadingbyexampleis a key. Aligning human resource systems especially recognition, performance evaluation and rewards at all levels is key to reinforcing the desired behaviours. Change needstobecome away of life andsomething that employees do not fear, but embrace as it provides them with opportunities to become involved, to learn and to grow as well. These are the ‘core’ elements employees are looking for (see my Article: What Employees Really Want). This final stage also needs to be comprehended in the change strategy execution process. The amountof time required to embed the change is clearly dependent on the size of the organisation and how far-flung it is – e.g., local national, regional, global. It is also dependent upon people embracing the changes more quickly or more slowly depending upon such things as trust, respect and behaviors – moving up the learning curve. Ultimately people reach Peter Senge’s 4th stage of ‘unconscious competence’. But the fact is thatchange mustbe continuous – notjust a ‘one-off’activity. This is where ‘renewal’ comes into play, but very few organisations have learned this. Examples include P&G, Apple, Amazon, Nordstrom and a few select others. Here is an example fromapastclientof mine. I went into this organisation and conducted in-depth interviewswithsenior management, small group interviews with middle management and others, and focus groups with frontline employees. From that I was able to create a ‘current state cultural profile’shownonthe left and work with senior management and others to create a ‘desired future state’whichiswhat yousee on the right. This was done at the outset of the change process among other things to help everyone see where we were and where we needed to go. The strategy developed were the steps for getting there (following the 6 steps above):
  11. 11. and also As youcan see fromcomparingthe leftandright columns,thisorganisationhadsome challenges ahead. Settingprioritieswaspartof the key. Understandinginterdependencieswasanother. We got the jobdone.

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