Bizmasters360.com: A Different Perspective on Culture Change - Part I
A Different Perspective on Culture Change - Part I
By Dr. Ted Marra
I can already sense what you’re thinking! The last thing we need is another article on cultural or
organisational change!Please,give us abreak!CertainlyIknow all toowell the number of consulting
organisations out there like Senn-Delaney and all the other ‘big’ and ‘small players’ as well as
independentconsultantswhobelieve they have the unique edge or insight into this issue. I have a
goodfriendandcolleague,JohnChildresswhoisheadof PrincipiaGroupinLondonwhojust recently
publishedabookonCulture Change. Youcan easilyburyyourself inthe literature and be fooled into
thinking that this issue is something akin to the ‘theory of relativity’ when it isn’t.
No one issaying it’s easy and unless there is strong commitment from the top and a clear approach
which is flawlessly executed the results won’t be achieved – at least not in this lifetime. In fact, I
believe I may have read somewhere that 60-80% of ‘change programs’ fail – you can correct me if I
am wrong. Traditionally when I have been invited into an organisation to help facilitate cultural
change,theyalwayslike toknow,‘Howlongwill ittake?’ Itell themthatthisdependson where they
are now and where they need to go in the future to become an enduring organisations that
continues to set the standard for performance or to achieve their ideal state consistent with their
vision–assumingtheyhave one!However,the shortansweristhatit couldeasilybe 3-5years. Well,
senior management, being normally impatient, are not happy campers. But it’s a big job and even
when it is done it’s not done. As I will soon be writing about in future articles, ‘Who in an
organisationhas ownershipforitsculture?’ To me, the Human Resource organisation should be the
steward and ensure, along with the rest of the leadership team, that the culture is regularly
(annually) reviewedandassessed, refined or re-energised to remain in lock-step with the changing
and turbulent operating environment, modifications to the vision as well as all the technological,
competitive and changing customer requirements occurring on an on-going basis.
The one thing you don’t want to do is what Antony Jenkins, the new CEO who took over Barclays
Bank after the Libor fraud scandal in 2013 which was to publically announce (paraphrasing): ‘We
have to make our organisationmore customerfocused … bladeebla… and our first step to move our
organisation in that direction will be to lay off 4000 of our people!’
I am also aware that many of the approaches often appear to look more like ‘rocket science’ than
common sense. This, I guess, is where I am going to try and ‘weigh in’ with this article. What I am
going to share with you are two things: (1) what I have observed in my 42 years and some 50
cultural/organisational change programmes of national or global extent for organisations such as
Xerox,Shell,Duke Power,StoraEnso,Electrolux, Siemens, Chevrolet Motor Division and the list goes
on and (2) share what I have learned from the perspective of a ‘frontline’ employee.
I won’tgo intoall the detailsinthisarticle,buthopefully provide you with enough to give you some
helpful insights based on my experience. These may be totally different than those of you reading
thisarticle. That’sfine andin fact that’s greatas it leadstorefreshingdialogue. Let’s face it, culture
change, in my opinion, is more of an art than an science.
So,tryingto keepitshort and withsome value added,here we goandagain I mention that what you
will readbelowiswhatIhave perceivedorobservedfroma frontlineemployeeperspective as to the
steps in a successful cultural or organisational change process.
Step #1: Frontline employees hear the words of management
Management states their intentions, aspirations or vision and why it is important to the
organisation’s future long-term success. Hopefully some thought has gone into this and those
stakeholders too as appropriate. It is important to remember that the message communicated by
management must be well engineered and inspiring as well as informative and indicate that it is a
‘teameffort’ – all one team,seniormanagementandall employeesworkingtogethertowardabetter
organisationanda betterfuture. Thismessage willsetthe expectationsof employees –expectations
which will either be met or not. In the latter case, namely failure to meet expectations set by
management,the situationismostlikelytoendindisappointment forall partiesinvolved, mistrustof
management and failure to make any demonstrable change in the culture. However, each
employee’scontributionwillbe valuable.The specificcontributionwillbe detailed asan integral part
of the cultural change process – what contribution is expected as well as the level of performance
expected in achieving that contribution – clear and realistic, yet at the same time challenging.
Behindthe scenes,seniormanagementmusthave awell-defined plan – one component of which is
the communication strategy (which ensures regular, 2-way, open and honest, complete and
transparent communication) and an execution strategy. I will provide some suggestions in Part II
about these strategies.
What managementneedstounderstandisthatforthose employees that are more actively involved
in this change effort, it cannot be just ’another job as assigned’ and needs to be a priority – getting
signoff fromtheirdirect manager and also being evaluated on their performance in supporting the
effortand beingrecognisedforit. Thatrecognitioncan even be a write-up in the internal employee
magazine highlighting them and their work or their team as an example.
Step #2: Frontline employees see things happen
It is here that the manifestation of management’s intentions starts to become real for employees.
Theymay see andparticipate in‘townhall’meetings,askedtovolunteerorbe nominated for special
strategic business improvement teams, traveling road shows put on by various members of senior
staff indifferentlocationstobuildawareness and gain stronger and more focused support and buy-
in from employees.
But remember, many organisations follow the ‘program of the month’ approach – or have in the
past. As a result, employees have become conditioned not to become too excited because
managementintheirinfinitewisdomwill replace this program with another one in 30 days – so just
wait and see.
As an example,whenworkingwith SiemensTelecommunicationsinthe U.K., I suggested 3 sessions.
Each session had 35 volunteers plus approximately 5 - 7 middle and senior managers and making
sure the CEO was at each session! Eachsessionhadsome 4 elements:acleansing,definingthe future
we want,providingsome skillsandknowledgeand thendefining an action plan. I decided that since
there wassuch intense negativityinthe organisationbecasue Siemenshadbeatenthe costreduction
drum for so many years, people were being made redundant, service levels were dropping,
customers were becoming upset and more, that first I had to do was drive out this negativity or it
would linger in people’s minds acting like an anchor keeping us from moving forward. So I had
everyone in the audience (and this was tough because the British are not open with ‘feelings’ like
hate, love, frustration - being much more comfortable sharing information and facts). I captured it
all on a flipchart andit was ‘ugly’ (evenmanagementwas shocked), made sure we had it all, gained
agreementthat it was correct. Then I ripped the two full flip chart pages off, crumpled them into a
ball and threw them in the waste paper basket.
Then I said, OK, that was the past now let’s begin to define a new future – one that we want. The
concepthere wasto create a critical massof ‘change agents’through the organisation at every level
and function who could network with one another, support one another, listen and learn from the
other employees, communicate with senior management and get their support on the combined
action plan which evolved from the three meetings.
It worked. When I originally arrived on the scene, the CEO told me he and the management
committee estimated that their organisation could only survive another 18 months under present
conditions. Together we got the ship turned around.
It isimportant that three keys elements are a part of this movement: (1) every effort is made to be
inclusive –involvement,participation,engagementalongwith the communication discussed above;
(2) sustainedseniormanagementcommitmentandinvolvementand(3) ensuringthere are no‘mixed
signals’ and everyone in management is reading from the same page – consistency.
Step #3: Frontline employees begin to understand their role more fully at a high level (details to
follow in the next steps)
In this case I am focusing on becoming a more customer-focused organisation, but the approach
would work regardless of the focus, e.g., becoming people-centric.
Note that itwas Xerox whichonce said:‘There are only two positions in an organisation. Either you
serve the customer directly or you serve someone who does’. Truer words have not been spoken.
From my perspective, if you, as a manager or senior manager do not see it that way, possibly you
should consider a ‘brain transplant’?
It ishere where,if the issue isbecomingmore customer-focused,eachemployee is helped to do the
following with the help of the ‘change agents’ created in the organisation if an approach similar to
Siemens was taken or otherwise with the continuing support of team leaders, supervision and
management at all levels:
Who are my customers? (internal and external)
o If I were to rank these customers in terms of importance, what would that be and
What is the quality of the relationship I have with each?
Where do I need to improve?
How can I improve?
How will I or we measure the quality of the relationships with my most important
o I suggestbeginningwithafocuson ‘mostimportant’customersfirst. Toooftenwhat
I have found in organisations is that those customers which are strategically most
important are the ones with which the organisation has the worst quality
relationships – internally or externally!
Take HiltonHotelsEurope,a clientof some yearsago. They have a customer
segment called the ‘Diamond’ customers. Hilton identified some 7
segments,butthiswas theirmost strategically important one. Why? These
are people who spend an average of 150 nights per year in a hotel – many
are top consultants, those in property development or construction and
otherprofessions. While theyonlyrepresent5% of the employee base, they
generate some 45% of the revenue for Hilton Europe. When these
customers become unhappy as they did and begin spending more nights at
Radissonorother hotel chains,there iscause foralarm. Fortunatelythrough
holding in-depth focus groups in a number of locations, we were able to
discoverthe sourcesof theirunhappinessandworkwithseniormanagement
to develop an effective retention strategy.
Now here’s the pay-off. By focusing on the most important customers first
(e.g.,if youwere tryingtobecome more people-centric,youmightfocusfirst
on high-potential talent as an example – you would have to make that
decision), any changes to processes, systems, policies, training and
development of personnel or others would have a ‘spill-over’ effect on all
customers!). Everyone would gain some benefit. However, clearly, you
would not just stop by focusing only on the most strategically important
customers,youcouldthenmove to‘Tier2’ customers next. Butthere should
be less to do as changes were already made to benefit ‘Tier 1’ customers.
Soon,however,you willreachthe pointof diminishingreturns. Whetheryou
would make too many changes, adjust the value proposition too much for
‘Tier 3’ would be a strategic decision. Besides, the changes made for Tier I
and Tier 2 would impact positively Tier 3 customers in many cases.
Explain the details of my involvement in this change process so I understand clearly what I
must do (the next step discussed in Part II deals with building capability to execute)
Help me gain perspective
o If I am a linkinchainthat goesfrominside the organisationandtouchesthe external
customer,howwill we all worktogethermore effectivelyandefficientlyto serve that
external customer while building better internal working relationships between
o Helpme understandhow myactioncan positively or negatively impact the external
o How can I be a ‘change agent’ to better support the process?
o What is the extent of the customer experience with organisation, where are thy
having the greatest problems, where are we as frontline employees having the
greatest challenges satisfying customers, how do we give the customer a ‘wow’
experience and build their loyalty to a higher level?
The above representjustataste of what could or should be included in each of the first three steps
of a customer-focusedcultural change processasseenfromthe perspectiveof afrontline employee.
These three steps, atthe top level,wouldbe identical foranychange program. InPart II we will cover
the remaining three steps plus provide an example showing where an organisation is today versus
where it needs to go tomorrow. The change process and the plan followed to ensure execution
needs to be designed to get you to where you need to be but only after the baseline has been
established – only after you understand clearly where your organisation is today.
A Different Perspective on Culture Change - Part II
By Dr. Ted Marra
For those readersof Part I and possiblysome newreaders aswell,Ihope thatthisarticle continues
to add value andprovide adifferentperspective –one throughthe eyesof a frontlineemployee.
I believeitisworthnotingsome of the activitieswhichI have foundsenior executives need to
engage inbeyondthose alreadystatedinPartI whichcan contribute tomakingthischange process
In Steps#1 and#2 especially,seniorexecutivesshouldactlike ‘missionaries’goingoutintothe far
cornersof theirorganisationconvertingunbelievers. Whetherthisisthroughatravellingroadshow
approach where eachexecutive mustgive apreparedpresentationonwhatishappening,why itis
happening(e.g.,need)andhowthe people andthe organisationbenefitaswell as anopenand
honest2-waydialogue withemployeesorthere are ‘townhall’meetingswherelarge groupsof
employeescome togetherheldatvarious locationsandtimes. If the organisationoperateson2-3
shifts, executivesneed to be out there at whatever time of day or nightis necessary to engage
people andlet them know that managementis seriousand committed100%. Use of the intranet
and settingup messages(wordsor pictures) foruse asscreensaversall help – some may be fromthe
CEO and others.
If the approachsuggestedinPartI regardingestablishing DomainDecisionCouncils,one Council
one of the Council membersshouldbe the Sponsorand or facilitator/coach for the Strategic
BusinessImprovement(or Change) Team which supports the Council. There may be more than
one SBIT or SBCT.
In Part I we discussedthe firstthree StepsIhave observedinchange programs. Iwill continue with
the remainingstepsandalsoofferanexample fromapastclient.
So,in Part I we discussedthe followingSteps:
Hear the words
The unfortunate fact,inmy experience,hasbeenthat managementhasspent too littletime on
helpingtheir peopleto understandtheir roles – oftenleavingthemsomewhatinastate of
uncertainty,leadingthemtothinkof thisonce againas ‘the program of the month’andevenif it
In anychange programit iscritical that the old‘feet, head, heart’ model be employed – begunmany
yearsago at Xerox and Corningamongothers.Inthe past, as we know – and still fartoo oftentoday,
the ‘3C’s’ ofmanagement still prevail–command,control and coordinate. We,managementinour
infinite wisdom,willtellyouwhattodo, whentodo, how to do itand whoto do it withandwe will
watch overyoulike policemenorpolicewomentocatchyou doingsomethingwrong. Obviouslythat
approach stoppedworkingahundredyearsagobutis keptalive bythose seniorexecutivesamong
Collins‘Level IandLevel II’executivesfromhisbook‘Goodto Great’or Senge’s‘unconscious
diligence andexpertise wasnotenough.
Some yearsago, a fewmore enlightenedseniorexecutivesrealisedthattheirpeople mightaddmore
value,increase theircreative contributionstothe successof the organisationand have stronger
commitmentandmotivationif theydidmore than‘justbarkorders’whichcausedemployeesfeetto
move or make themjump,more outof fearthan respect.
So,theybeganthe transformationto‘gettingintothe head’ of theirpeople –to explain whythey
are doingit– itsimportance tothe organisationand what’sinit forthemthe employee (WIIFM).
Thenthe ‘eureka’came. Some of these more enlightenedseniorexecutivesthoughtthatmore
energy and passion – greatermotivationandcreativitycouldcome by‘engagement’ –creatinga
stronger‘emotional attachment’of theirpeople tothe organisationandwhatitstandsfor. It isonly
by gettingto‘heart’of the matter – and theirpeople thatthiscan be achieved.
While digressingslightlywiththe above discussion,ithelpstohighlightwhychange inmany
organisationsonlyoccurswhenthere iscrisisasopposedtooccurringon a continuousbasisandwhy,
evenina crisissituation,successful executionisinthe 20-40% maximumrange – usuallyatthe lower
So,what thenare the nextStepsfromthe frontline perspective?Let’shave alook:
Step #4: Management builds the trust and capability of frontline employees
Quite frankly,anotherreasonsuchahighpercentage of change programsfail isthat oftenthisStepis
either left out or minimised – that is, management does the nominal necessary in preparing their
people often because of cost considerations or they take employees for granted or are just simply
cluelessof the need –I mean,whatare we paying our employees for anyway? If they can’t do their
job,thenget rid of them! They are just ‘tools’ to get a job done. So they set their employees up for
‘failure’ – it is never a failure of leadership – just the people in the organisation. Wouldn’t life be
wonderful – simple, easy if it wasn’t for our people screwing up all the time they say!
This is probably the single most critical Step in the process from a people perspective. It is the one
which, through senior management’s actions, clearly communicates whether this change program
is real or not and whether they, the employee are viewed as an asset or a tool by the degree to
which leadership invests in them.
It is an absolute fact that trust is built on clear, 2-way, regular (frequent) open and honest
communication at all levels – transparency – the sharing of all relevant information between
management and employees. While that is not the only factor that contributes to building and
maintaining trust, it is probably near the top of the list. You can add others as I could, but won’t
digress further at the moment.
Here are some of things frontline employees are looking for – hoping for in this Step:
Show me I am valued – not just a tool
o Investinme – traininganddevelopment,coaching,supportandmore as appropriate
Provide me with the knowledge, skills and development I need to be
successful and to contribute to my full potential in helping this change
program be successful
Engage me and ensure I am involved/participating throughout
o Showme that we are ‘all one team’ workingtowarda commonpurpose to make this
organisation more successful and a better place to work
Communicate with me (see above)
o Make sure the messages are clear and mutually reinforcing
Include celebrations of successes and recognition
Win my heart and mind
Set my performance expectations
o Ensure all Human Resource systems (recognition, performance evaluation, job
descriptions, reward system) are all aligned to reinforce the behaviors that lead to
mutual success. Showing appreciation too goes a long way
Make me confident that this is not just another in a long line of initiatives which will pass
quickly – a part of the ‘program of the month’ series
Once again, what I have seen is that many organisations, as I have said, either skip this step or do a
sub-optimal job with it. Instead, they ‘rush to accountability’. A big mistake and one that can
torpedo a change effort as can the setting of unrealistic targets – especially in terms of time limits
evenmore than the tasks themselves. Change takestime –needsto be well thought out or planned
and then even better executed. You can’t rush change or something, I guarantee, will go wrong.
What management must do relative to support is empower employees to do what is in the best
interest of the organisation – empowerment will only work in an organisation where there is trust
and where the old ‘command, control and coordinate’ way of doing business is dead and buried.
Employeesmustfeel confidentintheirown capability and in taking initiative without fear. It is only
when the above things are done and then experienced and acknowledged by the people of the
organisationthattheywillinglytake ‘ownership’ for what needs to be done and happily get it done.
Duringthistime and the earlier Steps, leadership needs to be practicing ‘MBWA+’ – you remember
how revolutionary ‘management by walking around’ was when Tom Peters and Robert Waterman,
right introduced it? I mean at that point in time, 1982, about the only way an employee knew their
seniormanagementwasbyseeingpictureshangingonthe wallsinthe organisation’s reception area
or the newspaper or internal magazines. If a senior executive came into an office and stood by an
employee,the employee wouldhave noearthlyknowledge of whothe person was even if it was the
You notice the ‘+’ I added above to MBWA. That simply means that leadership today must ‘walk
aroundwitha purpose inmind,namely toengage employees – to inspire, to listen and learn and act
on what they hear, find out the barriers getting in employees ways of contributing to their full
potential and eliminating them while at the same time strengthening the relationship between
management and the employees. This is what starts to get to ‘the heart of the matter’.
Yet it is surprising how challenging this ‘MBWA+’ is for senior executives! I worked with the top
partner of American Express in the Balkans for over a year conducting regular weekly strategic
learning sessions of 2-3 hours for the CEO and Management Committee. One of their homework
assignments was to form pairs, go out into a part of the organisation they knew little or nothing
aboutand sit andtalk to a randomgroup of employeesabouthow it felt to work there, the vision of
the organisation – didthe employees understand it, was it inspiring, did they know how they could
contribute to achieving it and also any other suggestions for organisational performance
improvement.Theywere scared to death! I told them prior to this that of all the leadership teams I
had worked with around the globe, I would put them in the top 25%, yet their confidence, their
experience levelingoingoutandengagingtheiremployees was incredibly low when it should have
been second nature to them and something enjoyable – not frightening!
It is not unreasonable – in fact, it is desirable, if senior executives deliver some of the
training/learning and development programs needed for team leaders, supervisors, first line
managers or middle managers. Middle management is often called the ‘great frozen layer’ and
unlessseniormanagementstartsaskingthemdifferentandbetterquestionsand working with them
– engagingthem,theywillactas an inhibitortothe processaswell asbeingunsure asto their role or
competencies needed in pulling it off. These individuals are critical to success.
Throughoutthe ‘change’process,Isuggesttaking‘pulsingsurveys’. Thismightmeaneverymonthor
quarter randomly selecting 25% of the workforce from all functions and levels – a true random
sample and asking a short series of 5-7 questions. These questions might include such things as (1)
Do youfeel youhave a growingunderstandingof the importance of thischange tothe organisation?;
(2) Do you feel that the change process is working, that things that need to change really are
changing?;(3) Do you feel youhave hadthe opportunitytohave yourvoice heardandto be involved
inthe process?;(4) Do youbelieve thatonce thischange process is completed, the organisation will
be a better place to work (or more successful)?; (5) How do you feel about working in this
organisationnowcomparedtobefore thischange processbegan?Now,these are notintendedto be
just‘yes/no’questionseventhough what I have shared indicates that. These need to be rephrased
and other open-ended questions could be asked including what else could be done or should be
done or what employees see as opportunities for improvement or ideas for innovation.
Step #5: Frontline employees are assigned and accept accountability – ownership occurs
Now,afterbuildingcapabilityandstrengthening trustthroughinvesting in people, they are ready to
accept accountability willingly – ready and willing to reciprocate and take initiative.
It is here where the following types of actions should be observed by frontline employees:
Definingthe specifics of whatImustdo differently and/or better starting now to ensure the
program is a success
o It is critical that job descriptions, performance evaluations, recognition and reward
criteria be aligned. I have seen so many organisations where there is mass
confusion. The jobdescriptionsaysone thing,butthe performance evaluation is on
key job elements which are not the same. These criteria are not the same as those
used for recognition or reward.
o I have been in so many organisations where I have asked employees, ‘If your boss
came up to you, patted you on the back and thanked you for doing a great job,
wouldyouwhatyou haddone?Couldyou repeat it so you could get another ‘pat on
the back’ as an acknowledgement? The answer has too often been ‘no’.
o Knowing what I am being measured on as an employee is critical to their success –
no secrets, no sin of omission – just transparency
The measurement system – indeed the measures or KPI’s need to be
credible inthe eyesof the employees –somethingthatif theycan’tcontrol it
directly at least they have significant influence on. You can’t have them
responsible for EBIT or market share!
o There needs to be a clear linkage between the performance measurement system
and the HR systems – performance evaluation,recognitionandrewardasa minimum
Emphasismustalsobe on a balance betweenachievingthe results or outcomes desired and
‘how’those resultsoroutcomeswere achieved. Leavingatrail of dead bodies behind in the
zeal to attain targets is unacceptable! The collateral damage is too great. However, doing it
throughexhibiting behaviours consistent with the values/beliefs of the organisation is the
key here. Role models get the maximum rewards – these are individuals who not only
achieve theirobjectivesbutdoso bylivingthe values of the organisation such as teamwork,
respect for the individual or others which may be in place.
The performance evaluation session should be used for development purposes
o Management at every level should be acting as teachers and coaches helping
employees to be more successful – giving the support needed – listening for any
‘cries for help’ – reading between the lines
o Succession planning is also important such as Rothwell’s strategic succession
approach. How well employees respond to change, how well they act as ‘change
agents’themselvesandshow personal leadership must be taken into consideration
in identifying high potential people and ensuring their succession into the right
positions in the organisation.
It must be that accountability extends upward to include senior management and the Domain
Decision Council discussed earlier as one of these Councils maybe the ‘Renewal’ Council where I
define renewal inmybook,‘The WisdomChronicles:Competing to Win’ (http://www.amazon.com)
as the seamlessintegrationof learning,adaptation,creativity and innovation – it is the ‘gene’ in the
organisation’sDNA whichenablesittoeffectivelyandefficientlychange continuouslythroughtime –
keepingitsbusinessmodel freshandenduring resulting in continued superior results which set the
standardfor othersto follow. Itisalsoone of the three elements which I believe contributes to the
anti-fragilityof an organisation as discussed by Taleb and also by my friend and colleague, Dr. Tony
Step #6: Frontline employees make behaviors and new practices a part of daily work life
It ishere where seniormanagementaswell asall keyindividualswhetherteamleaders, supervisors,
first line managers, middle managers and high-potential people need to ensure that the changes
from this program are ‘embedded’ in the organisation – that they are embedded in the minds of
employees and become ‘just the way we do business around here’.
Again,constantvigilance isa key. Relentless reinforcement is a key by senior management. Senior
managementleadingbyexampleis a key. Aligning human resource systems especially recognition,
performance evaluation and rewards at all levels is key to reinforcing the desired behaviours.
Change needstobecome away of life andsomething that employees do not fear, but embrace as it
provides them with opportunities to become involved, to learn and to grow as well. These are the
‘core’ elements employees are looking for (see my Article: What Employees Really Want).
This final stage also needs to be comprehended in the change strategy execution process. The
amountof time required to embed the change is clearly dependent on the size of the organisation
and how far-flung it is – e.g., local national, regional, global. It is also dependent upon people
embracing the changes more quickly or more slowly depending upon such things as trust, respect
and behaviors – moving up the learning curve. Ultimately people reach Peter Senge’s 4th
But the fact is thatchange mustbe continuous – notjust a ‘one-off’activity. This is where ‘renewal’
comes into play, but very few organisations have learned this. Examples include P&G, Apple,
Amazon, Nordstrom and a few select others.
Here is an example fromapastclientof mine. I went into this organisation and conducted in-depth
interviewswithsenior management, small group interviews with middle management and others,
and focus groups with frontline employees. From that I was able to create a ‘current state cultural
profile’shownonthe left and work with senior management and others to create a ‘desired future
state’whichiswhat yousee on the right. This was done at the outset of the change process among
other things to help everyone see where we were and where we needed to go. The strategy
developed were the steps for getting there (following the 6 steps above):
As youcan see fromcomparingthe leftandright columns,thisorganisationhadsome challenges
ahead. Settingprioritieswaspartof the key. Understandinginterdependencieswasanother. We
got the jobdone.
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