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Social Marketing Workshops
R. Craig Lefebvre, PhD
Auckland | Wellington | Christchurch
August 2010
What We’ll Cover

 The social marketing space
 Segmentation
 Design Thinking
 Pricing (demarketing and behavioural
  economics)
 Theories (for evangelism, social networks and
  politicians)
 Social technologies and the 4Ps
 Communities and social marketing
What is social marketing?

                 Thinking about
                 ideas, practices,
                 and social causes
                 in the context of
                 markets.
Markets Are the Context for
Risk – Not People




…someone who has a personal or situational
disadvantage in the marketplace that might create
negative outcomes for the individual or society.
Focused on markets, their wants
and needs, aspirations and
lifestyle
“The most frequently cited benefit of the internet was in
helping people tap into [their] social networks” –
Susannah Fox.
Aggregated behavior change –
priority segments of the
population, not individuals, are
the focus of programs
Segmentation: The 1st Critical
Step
 Who are the people at
  highest risk?

 Who are the people
  most open to change?

 Who are the
  people/groups critical to
  the success of the
  program?
Designing products, services
and behaviors that fit their
reality (compatibility)
Realigning incentives and costs
for products, services and
behavior change (relative
advantage and risk)
Price

 Geographical, social, behavioral,
    psychological, physical and structural – and
    financial
   Investments and Opportunities lost (and
    gained)
   Perceived benefits vs costs
   Reducing barriers
   Increasing incentives
Creating equitable opportunities
and access (trialability)
Communicating change in
linguistically, culturally
relevant and ubiquitous ways
(communicability)
How Effective are Health
Communication Campaigns?




                  5%
“They’d send me a
text saying, ‘Have
papa come pick me
up,’ and I couldn’t
open it,” she said of
her granddaughters.
“They finally told me I
had to learn.”
Design Questions

 What if we called ourselves story-tellers - what if we
  called them creators instead of consumers?
 What if out brand was about helping people reach
  their goals?
 What if a social change movement could be
  successful with little to no promotion?
 What if we embraced experiments (or prototyping)
  instead of waiting for the perfect answer?
Design Questions II

 What if the people we served created the
    messages?
   What if we invited people at the extremes to put
    our messages in surprising places?
   What if people were clamoring to play with us?
   What if we understood our stakeholders as well
    as we understand the people we serve?
   What if social marketers were synonymous with
    trusted advisors?
WHO ARE THEY?
dependable,
capable, sensible
and careful

‘finicky’ eaters

inconvenient or too
time-consuming to
prepare and cook
fresh vegetables

busy and hectic
lives
PRICE = ?

 Barrier       Social capital
 Trust         Attention
 Dignity       Reinforcement
 Exclusion     External attributions
 Status quo    Sustainability
Demarketing Strategies

 Product = replacement and displacement
 Price = increased taxation
 Place = prohibition of purchase and
  consumption opportunities
 Promotion = counter advertising, mandatory
  warning labels, restrictions on advertising
  and promotions
Behavioral Economics
 Applies scientific research on human and social,
  cognitive and emotional factors to better
  understand economic decisions by consumers,
  borrowers, investors, and how they affect
  market prices, returns and the allocation of
  resources. (Wikipedia)
Personal Biases
 Loss Aversion - people are more averse to losing things than
    they are inclined to gaining things.
   Status Quo Bias - one of the best predictors of our future
    behavior is our current behavior. This is because inertia is so
    powerful.
   The Dual Self - people have competing preferences, with
    different preferences dictating different actions at different
    times.
   Attention Constraints – people get distracted. Simply paying
    attention to one’s goals is often half the battle in reaching
    them.
   Resource Slack – In planning for the future, people
    realistically assumed that money will be tight, but they
    expect free time to magically materialize.
Process of Behavior Change
Framework
         Preknowledgeable


            Knowledgeable


               Approving


                Intending


               Practicing


              Advocating
 Piotrow, PT, Kincaid, DL, Rimon, JG & Rinehart, W. (1997). Health communication: Lessons from family
 planning and reproductive health. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Sexual Networks: Likoma Island,
Malawi




  “Connectedness of 65% of population surveyed - not driven by highly active individuals – fairly
  evenly spread.”
  Kohler & Helleringer, 2006, The Structure of Sexual Networks and the Spread of HIV in Sub-
  Saharan Africa: Evidence from Likoma Island (Malawi).
Smokers’ Network
Obesity Network
Social Marketing in
Social Networks
 ‘Bridging’ and ‘bonding’ (building, strengthening
  and using social connections)
 Audience Benefits: access social network
  resources and solves a problem
 Focus on ‘boundary spanners’
 Enhance salience and attractiveness of the ‘out
  group’ [positive deviants] – put the practitioners
  of ‘new’ behaviors in a light that attracts
  imitation or modeling.
 Build sustainable local capacities/assets
MINDSPACE
The MINDSPACE Effects
Messenger     We are heavily influenced by who communicates with us
Incentives    Our responses to incentives are shaped by predictable
              mental shortcuts, such as strongly avoiding losses
Norms         We are strongly influenced by what other people do
Defaults      We tend to ‘go with the flow’ of pre-set options
Salience      Our attention is drawn to what is novel and seems
              relevant for us
Priming       Our actions are often influenced by sub-conscious clues
Affect        Our emotional associations can powerfully shape our
              actions
Commitments   We seek to be consistent with our public promises, and
              reciprocate acts
Ego           We act in ways that make us feel better about ourselves
Social Media and Social Marketing
How do I add
social media
features to my
behavior
change
products,
services and
programs?
Social Media and Social Marketing
How do I use these
technologies to overcome
psychological and social
barriers (costs) people
have to engaging in new
behaviors, develop new
incentives and reinforcers
and create new ways of
providing social support
to people who are trying
to change behaviors?
Social Media and Social Marketing
How can I place-
shift; use SNS, co-
presence and
virtual worlds;
and add GPS to
create scalable
behavior change
programs?
Social Media and Social Marketing
How do I
facilitate
conversations
among people,
not aim
messages at
them?
Are we available when, where and how
people want us to be?
Community Based Social
Marketing
1) mobilize the               6) develop a
   community                     comprehensive
2) develop a community           marketing plan
   profile                    7) develop program
3) select a target behavior      materials and
4) build community               interventions
   capacity                   8) implement the
                                 program
5) conduct community-
   based participatory        9) evaluate program
   consumer research             effectiveness
Assets in Community
Development
 Skills of local residents
 Power of local
  associations
 Resources of public,
  private and non-profit
  institutions
 Physical and economic
  resources of local
  places.



 http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/abcd/abcdbackground.html
A Systematic Way to Change Our
World
R. Craig Lefebvre, PhD
 George Washington University School of Public Health and
Health Services, Washington, DC; University of South Florida
            School of Public Health, tampa, FL.

         socialShift, Sarasota, FL & Washington, DC
          social|design, marketing and media


        On Social Marketing and Social Change
          http://socialmarketing.blogs.com

       http://twitter.com/chiefmaven

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Nz social marketing-workshops

  • 1. Social Marketing Workshops R. Craig Lefebvre, PhD Auckland | Wellington | Christchurch August 2010
  • 2. What We’ll Cover  The social marketing space  Segmentation  Design Thinking  Pricing (demarketing and behavioural economics)  Theories (for evangelism, social networks and politicians)  Social technologies and the 4Ps  Communities and social marketing
  • 3.
  • 4. What is social marketing? Thinking about ideas, practices, and social causes in the context of markets.
  • 5. Markets Are the Context for Risk – Not People …someone who has a personal or situational disadvantage in the marketplace that might create negative outcomes for the individual or society.
  • 6.
  • 7. Focused on markets, their wants and needs, aspirations and lifestyle
  • 8.
  • 9. “The most frequently cited benefit of the internet was in helping people tap into [their] social networks” – Susannah Fox.
  • 10. Aggregated behavior change – priority segments of the population, not individuals, are the focus of programs
  • 11.
  • 12. Segmentation: The 1st Critical Step  Who are the people at highest risk?  Who are the people most open to change?  Who are the people/groups critical to the success of the program?
  • 13.
  • 14. Designing products, services and behaviors that fit their reality (compatibility)
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. Realigning incentives and costs for products, services and behavior change (relative advantage and risk)
  • 18. Price  Geographical, social, behavioral, psychological, physical and structural – and financial  Investments and Opportunities lost (and gained)  Perceived benefits vs costs  Reducing barriers  Increasing incentives
  • 19.
  • 20. Creating equitable opportunities and access (trialability)
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Communicating change in linguistically, culturally relevant and ubiquitous ways (communicability)
  • 25.
  • 26. How Effective are Health Communication Campaigns? 5%
  • 27. “They’d send me a text saying, ‘Have papa come pick me up,’ and I couldn’t open it,” she said of her granddaughters. “They finally told me I had to learn.”
  • 28.
  • 29. Design Questions  What if we called ourselves story-tellers - what if we called them creators instead of consumers?  What if out brand was about helping people reach their goals?  What if a social change movement could be successful with little to no promotion?  What if we embraced experiments (or prototyping) instead of waiting for the perfect answer?
  • 30. Design Questions II  What if the people we served created the messages?  What if we invited people at the extremes to put our messages in surprising places?  What if people were clamoring to play with us?  What if we understood our stakeholders as well as we understand the people we serve?  What if social marketers were synonymous with trusted advisors?
  • 31.
  • 32. WHO ARE THEY? dependable, capable, sensible and careful ‘finicky’ eaters inconvenient or too time-consuming to prepare and cook fresh vegetables busy and hectic lives
  • 33. PRICE = ?  Barrier  Social capital  Trust  Attention  Dignity  Reinforcement  Exclusion  External attributions  Status quo  Sustainability
  • 34. Demarketing Strategies  Product = replacement and displacement  Price = increased taxation  Place = prohibition of purchase and consumption opportunities  Promotion = counter advertising, mandatory warning labels, restrictions on advertising and promotions
  • 35. Behavioral Economics  Applies scientific research on human and social, cognitive and emotional factors to better understand economic decisions by consumers, borrowers, investors, and how they affect market prices, returns and the allocation of resources. (Wikipedia)
  • 36. Personal Biases  Loss Aversion - people are more averse to losing things than they are inclined to gaining things.  Status Quo Bias - one of the best predictors of our future behavior is our current behavior. This is because inertia is so powerful.  The Dual Self - people have competing preferences, with different preferences dictating different actions at different times.  Attention Constraints – people get distracted. Simply paying attention to one’s goals is often half the battle in reaching them.  Resource Slack – In planning for the future, people realistically assumed that money will be tight, but they expect free time to magically materialize.
  • 37. Process of Behavior Change Framework Preknowledgeable Knowledgeable Approving Intending Practicing Advocating Piotrow, PT, Kincaid, DL, Rimon, JG & Rinehart, W. (1997). Health communication: Lessons from family planning and reproductive health. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
  • 38.
  • 39. Sexual Networks: Likoma Island, Malawi “Connectedness of 65% of population surveyed - not driven by highly active individuals – fairly evenly spread.” Kohler & Helleringer, 2006, The Structure of Sexual Networks and the Spread of HIV in Sub- Saharan Africa: Evidence from Likoma Island (Malawi).
  • 42. Social Marketing in Social Networks  ‘Bridging’ and ‘bonding’ (building, strengthening and using social connections)  Audience Benefits: access social network resources and solves a problem  Focus on ‘boundary spanners’  Enhance salience and attractiveness of the ‘out group’ [positive deviants] – put the practitioners of ‘new’ behaviors in a light that attracts imitation or modeling.  Build sustainable local capacities/assets
  • 44. The MINDSPACE Effects Messenger We are heavily influenced by who communicates with us Incentives Our responses to incentives are shaped by predictable mental shortcuts, such as strongly avoiding losses Norms We are strongly influenced by what other people do Defaults We tend to ‘go with the flow’ of pre-set options Salience Our attention is drawn to what is novel and seems relevant for us Priming Our actions are often influenced by sub-conscious clues Affect Our emotional associations can powerfully shape our actions Commitments We seek to be consistent with our public promises, and reciprocate acts Ego We act in ways that make us feel better about ourselves
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47. Social Media and Social Marketing How do I add social media features to my behavior change products, services and programs?
  • 48. Social Media and Social Marketing How do I use these technologies to overcome psychological and social barriers (costs) people have to engaging in new behaviors, develop new incentives and reinforcers and create new ways of providing social support to people who are trying to change behaviors?
  • 49. Social Media and Social Marketing How can I place- shift; use SNS, co- presence and virtual worlds; and add GPS to create scalable behavior change programs?
  • 50. Social Media and Social Marketing How do I facilitate conversations among people, not aim messages at them?
  • 51. Are we available when, where and how people want us to be?
  • 52. Community Based Social Marketing 1) mobilize the 6) develop a community comprehensive 2) develop a community marketing plan profile 7) develop program 3) select a target behavior materials and 4) build community interventions capacity 8) implement the program 5) conduct community- based participatory 9) evaluate program consumer research effectiveness
  • 53. Assets in Community Development  Skills of local residents  Power of local associations  Resources of public, private and non-profit institutions  Physical and economic resources of local places. http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/abcd/abcdbackground.html
  • 54.
  • 55. A Systematic Way to Change Our World
  • 56. R. Craig Lefebvre, PhD George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Washington, DC; University of South Florida School of Public Health, tampa, FL. socialShift, Sarasota, FL & Washington, DC social|design, marketing and media On Social Marketing and Social Change http://socialmarketing.blogs.com http://twitter.com/chiefmaven