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Literature during the american period

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Literature during the american period

  1. 1. Literature during The American Period
  2. 2. Historical Background <ul><li>Philippine Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine – American conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>1900s – peace movements </li></ul>
  3. 3. Literature <ul><li>Desire for freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Love of country </li></ul><ul><li>Fight against colonialism and imperialism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Literature <ul><li>characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freedom of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>search for and use of a new medium </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. American Influences <ul><li>schools </li></ul><ul><li>new education system </li></ul><ul><li>cleanliness and hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>English language </li></ul><ul><li>politics </li></ul><ul><li>freedom of speech </li></ul>
  6. 6. Newspapers <ul><li>El Grito del Pueblo – Pascual Poblete - 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>El Nuevo Dia – Sergio Osmena - 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>El Renacimiento – Rafael Palma - 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Manila Daily Bulletin - 1900 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Three Groups of Writers <ul><li>Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino </li></ul>
  8. 8. Three Groups of Writers <ul><li>The writers in Spanish were accustomed to write on nationalism like honoring Rizal and other heroes. </li></ul><ul><li>Cecilio Apostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Jesus Balmori, Manuel Bernabe and Claro M. Recto </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cecilio Apostol <ul><li>masterpiece - A Rizal </li></ul><ul><li>his poems were used to teach the Spanish language (RA 1881) </li></ul><ul><li>pen name - Catulo </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fernando Maria Guerrero <ul><li>masterpiece - Crisalidas </li></ul><ul><li>Prince of Filipino lyric poets in Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>favorite theme – eternal sadness of things </li></ul>
  11. 11. Claro M. Recto <ul><li>Bajos Los Cocoteros </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Philippine Constitution </li></ul>
  12. 12. Jesus Balmori <ul><li>Mi Casa de Nipa, Mi Choza de Nipa </li></ul><ul><li>pen name - Batikuling </li></ul><ul><li>Premio Zobel award for his contributions to Philippine Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Poet Laureate in Spanish </li></ul>
  13. 13. Manuel Bernabe <ul><li>translated Omar Khayyam’s Rubaiyat in Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>King of Balagtasan in Spanish </li></ul>
  14. 14. Three Groups of Writers <ul><li>The writers in Tagalog continued in their lamentations on the conditions of the country and their attempts to arouse love for one’s native tongue. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Three Groups of Writers <ul><li>Poets of the Heart (Makata ng Puso) </li></ul><ul><li>Lope K. Santos, Iñigo Ed. Regalado, Carlos Gatmaitan, Pedro Deogracias del Rosario, Ildefonso Santos, Amado V. Hernandez, Nemecio Carabana, and Mar Antonio </li></ul>
  16. 16. Three Groups of Writers <ul><li>Poets of Life (Makata ng Buhay) </li></ul><ul><li>Lope K Santos, Jose Corazon de Jesus, Florentino Collantes, Patricio Mariano, Carlos Gatmaitan, and Amado V. Hernandez. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Three Groups of Writers <ul><li>Poets of the Stage (Makata ng Tanghalan) </li></ul><ul><li>Aurelio Tolentino, Patricio Mariano, Severino Reyes, and Tomas Remigio. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lope K. Santos <ul><li>masterpiece - Banaag at Sikat </li></ul><ul><li>Balarila ng Wikang Pambansa </li></ul><ul><li>Father of the Filipino Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>“ Apo” of the Tagalog writers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Amado V. Hernandez <ul><li>masterpiece - Luha ng Buwaya, Ang Panday </li></ul><ul><li>Isang Dipang Langit </li></ul><ul><li>First King of Balagtasan </li></ul><ul><li>A Pillar in TagalogLiterature </li></ul>
  20. 20. Jose Corazon de Jesus <ul><li>Masterpiece – Ang Isang Punongkahoy (a Tree) </li></ul><ul><li>Bayan Ko </li></ul><ul><li>Huseng Batute </li></ul><ul><li>The Legendary Lyric Poet </li></ul><ul><li>King of Balagtasan </li></ul>
  21. 21. Aurelio Tolentino <ul><li>masterpiece – Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas </li></ul><ul><li>coined the word dula </li></ul><ul><li>Father of the Tagalog Drama </li></ul><ul><li>A theater at the CCP was named after him - Tanghalang Aurelio Tolentino </li></ul>
  22. 22. Severino Reyes <ul><li>masterpiece – Walang Sugat </li></ul><ul><li>Mga Kuwento ni Lola Basyang </li></ul><ul><li>Father of the Tagalog Plays, Father of the Tagalog Zarzuela </li></ul><ul><li>pen name – Lola Basyang </li></ul>
  23. 23. Three Groups of Writers <ul><li>The writers in English imitated the themes and methods of the Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-1910 </li></ul><ul><li>The Period of Imitation: 1910-1925 </li></ul><ul><li>The Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-1941 </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Period of Reorientation <ul><li>1900 – English – medium of instruction in the public schools </li></ul><ul><li>El Renacimiento – Rafael Palma – 1901 </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines Free Press – 1905 </li></ul><ul><li>Sursum Corda – Justo Juliano – 1907 – first work published in English </li></ul><ul><li>My Mother and Air Castles – Juan F. Salazar 1909 </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Period of Imitation <ul><li>1919 – UP College Folio </li></ul><ul><li>1920 – Bulletin, Philippine Herald </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – The Philippine Review, the Independent, Rising Philippines and Citizens, and the Philippine Education Magazine. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Period of Self-Discovery <ul><li>Writers had acquired the mastery of English writing; confident and competent </li></ul>
  27. 27. Essays <ul><li>scholarly and characterized by sobriety, substance and structure </li></ul><ul><li>serious essay, especially the editorial type </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos P. Romulo, Jorge C. Bocobo, Mauro Mendez, and Vicente Hilario </li></ul>
  28. 28. Essays <ul><li>Political, social reflective essays (through newspaper columns) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical essays </li></ul><ul><li>Personal or Familiar essays </li></ul>
  29. 29. Informal Essays <ul><li>works are spiced with humor, wit, and satire </li></ul><ul><li>Ignacio Manlapaz, Godefredo Rivera, Federico Mangahas, Francisco B. Icasiano, Salvador P. Lopez, Jose Lansang and Amando G. Dayrit </li></ul>
  30. 30. Short Stories <ul><li>Imitation of foreign models </li></ul><ul><li>Ignacio Manlapaz, Godefredo Rivera, Federico Mangahas, Francisco B. Icasiano, Salvador P. Lopez, Jose Lansang and Amando G. Dayrit </li></ul>
  31. 31. Francisco Benitez <ul><li>What is an Educated Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>First editor of Philippine Journal of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Dean of UP College of Education </li></ul>
  32. 32. Paz Marquez Benitez <ul><li>First Filipino modern English language short story writer </li></ul><ul><li>Dead Stars (1925) </li></ul><ul><li>One of the founders of Philippine Women’s College (now PWU) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Zoilo Galang <ul><li>A Child of Sorrow – first Philippine novel written in English (1921) </li></ul><ul><li>Nadia (1929) </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia of the Philippines (1957) </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino encyclopedist and the 1 st English-language Filipino novelist </li></ul>
  34. 34. Carlos P. Romulo <ul><li>The Voice of Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>I Am a Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>I Saw the Fall of the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>My Brother Americans </li></ul>
  35. 35. Jose Garcia Villa <ul><li>National Artist of the Philippines for Literature 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced – reversed consonance rime scheme and extensive use of punctuation in poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Comma Poet </li></ul><ul><li>Pen name -Doveglion </li></ul>
  36. 36. Rafael Zulueta da Costa <ul><li>Like the Molave and Other Poems </li></ul><ul><li>Commonwealth Literary Award for Poetry 1940 </li></ul>
  37. 37. Salvador P. Lopez <ul><li>Literature and Society – a collection of critical reflections and serious essays </li></ul>
  38. 38. Vidal A. Tan <ul><li>Modern High School Arithmetic for the Philippines (1924) </li></ul><ul><li>The Husband of Mrs. Cruz </li></ul>
  39. 39. Wilfrido Maria Guerrero <ul><li>The first Filipino to have a theater named after him – The Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero Theater of the U.P. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted: A Chaperon </li></ul><ul><li>National Artist for Philippine Theater – 1997 (post-humous) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Manuel E. Arguilla <ul><li>How my Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife (1940) </li></ul><ul><li>Epilogue to Reconciliation (1936) </li></ul><ul><li>“ the best craftsman among Filipino fictionists in English, (whose voice) is the only really authentic voice. He is shamelessly Filipino” Dean Leopoldo Yabes </li></ul><ul><li>Republic Cultural Heritage Award 1972 (posthumous) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Nick Joaquin <ul><li>Republic Cultural Heritage Award (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>National Artist of the Philippines for Literature (1976) </li></ul><ul><li>The most important Filipino writer in English </li></ul><ul><li>The third most important writer (after Jose Rizal and Claro M. Recto) </li></ul><ul><li>Pen name – Quijano de Manila </li></ul>
  42. 42. Nick Joaquin <ul><li>May Day Eve (1947) </li></ul><ul><li>The Woman Who Had Two Navels (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>Summer Solstice (1972) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Carmen Guerrero Nakpil <ul><li>Woman Enough and Other Essays (1963) </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines: The Land and the People (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime Achievement Award 2005 for her outstanding achievement in history </li></ul><ul><li>Icon of Philippine literature and journalism </li></ul>
  44. 44. N.V.M. Gonzales <ul><li>“ Literature is an affair of letters.” N.V.M. Gonzales </li></ul><ul><li>The Winds of April, The Bamboo Dancers, A Season of Grace, Children of the Ash-Covered Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Palanca Memorial Awardee for Literature </li></ul><ul><li>National Artist Award for Literature 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Centennial Award for Literature 1998 </li></ul>
  45. 45. References <ul><li>http://filipinoheritage.zxq.net/sikatpinoy/fernando_guerrero.htm </li></ul><ul><li>tp://filipinoheritage.zxq.net/sikatpinoy/claro_recto.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jes%C3%BAs_Balmori </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Manuel_Bernabe </li></ul><ul><li>http://filipinoheritage.zxq.net/sikatpinoy/lope_santos.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://filipinoheritage.zxq.net/sikatpinoy/amado_hernandez.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://filipinoheritage.zxq.net/sikatpinoy/jose_corazon_dejesus.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jose_Corazon_de_Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Aurelio_Tolentino </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kapampangan_people </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severino_Reyes </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Severino_Reyes </li></ul><ul><li>http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Benitez </li></ul>
  46. 46. References <ul><li>http://www.nhi.gov.ph/downloads/ed0006.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paz_M%C3%A1rquez-Ben%C3%Adtez </li></ul><ul><li>http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoilo_Galang </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.panitikan.com.ph/authors/g/zgalang.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://viewsfromthepampang.blogspot.com/2009/08/155-zoilo-galang-kapampangan.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Child_of_Sorrow </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_P._Romulo </li></ul><ul><li>http://carlospromulo.org/bio/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jose_Garcia_Villa </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R._Zulueta_da_Costa </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_P._Lopez </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Salvador_P._Lopez </li></ul>
  47. 47. References <ul><li>http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Vidal_A._Tana </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilfrido_Ma._Guerrero </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-ncca/org-awards/theater/wilfrido_ma_guerrero.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Wilfrido_Ma._Guerrero </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Arguilla </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Manuel_Arguilla </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nick_Joaquin </li></ul><ul><li>http://pinoylit.webmanila.com/filipinowriters/njoaquin.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Carmen_Guerrero_Nakpil </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carmen_Guerrero_Nakpil </li></ul>
  48. 48. References <ul><li>http://www.balikbayanmagazine.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=195:carmen-guerrero-nakpil-the-muse-of-our-history&catid=43:-belles-lettres-&Itemid=9 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nvmgonzalez.org/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N._V._M._Gonzalez </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Vidal_A._Tan </li></ul>

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