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B737 NG Engines

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B737 NG Engines

  1. 1. B 737 NG Ground School. •B 737 NG Ground School. See the aircraft study guide at www.theorycentre.com The information contained here is for training purposes only. It is of a general nature it is unamended and does not relate to any individual aircraft. The FCOM must be consulted for up to date information on any particular aircraft.
  2. 2. ENGINES
  3. 3. Introduction The airplane is powered by two CFM56–7 engines. The engine is a dual–rotor, axial–flow turbofan. The N1 rotor consists of a fan, a low–pressure compressor and a low– pressure turbine. The N2 rotor consists of a high–pressure compressor and a high– pressure turbine. The N1 and N2 rotors are mechanically independent. The N2 rotor drives the engine gearboxes. A bleed–air–powered starter motor is connected to the N2 rotor via the accessory gearbox.
  4. 4. Introduction 737-800 is powered by dual rotor CFM56-7 turbofan engines: CFM is a joint company of GE Commercial fan and Snecma Moteurs of France
  5. 5. •N1 rotor comprises of a FAN. • 3 stage booster section (low pressure compressor) • 4 stage low pressure turbine •The low pressure section produces 80% of Thrust. •Produced by Snecma
  6. 6. Engine General Data. Fan Diameter 155 cm. N1 Red line 104% 5,380 RPM •N1 rotor comprises of a FAN. • 3 stage booster section (low pressure compressor) • 4 stage low pressure turbine •The low pressure section produces 80% of Thrust. •Produced by Snecma
  7. 7. •N2 rotor comprises of a 9 stage high pressure compressor & a single stage high pressure turbine. •Based on the GE 101 engine designed for the B1B bomber.
  8. 8. ENGINE GENERAL DATA N2 RED Line 105% 15,183 RPM •N2 rotor comprises of a 9 stage high pressure compressor & a single stage high pressure turbine. •Based on the GE 101 engine designed for the B1B bomber.
  9. 9. •N2 rotor drives the engine accessory gearbox
  10. 10. ENGINE GENERAL DATA. EGT. RED line 950º C Engine start limit 725º C
  11. 11. AFT OVERHEAD PANEL FWD OVERHEAD PANEL ENGINE PANEL
  12. 12. Electronic Engine Control (EEC) Each engine has a full authority digital EEC. Each EEC has two independent control channels, with automatic channel transfer if the operating channel fails. With each engine start the EEC alternates between control channels if on the previous start N2 exceeded 76% RPM The EEC uses thrust lever inputs to automatically control forward and reverse thrust. N1 is used by the EEC to set thrust in two control modes: normal and alternate. Manual selection of the control mode can be made with the EEC switches on engine panel.
  13. 13. EEC Normal Mode In the normal mode, the EEC uses sensed flight conditions and bleed air demand to calculate N1 thrust ratings. The EEC compares commanded N1 to actual N1 and adjusts fuel flow through the hydro mechanical unit (HMU) to achieve the commanded N1.
  14. 14. EEC Normal Mode The maximum rated thrust is available at the forward thrust lever stop.The full rated takeoff thrust for the installed engine is available at a thrust lever position less than the forward stop. Fixed or assumed temperature derated takeoff thrust ratings are set at thrust lever positions less than full rated takeoff. The EEC limits the maximum thrust according to the airplane model.
  15. 15. EEC Alternate Mode The EEC can operate in either of two alternate modes, soft or hard. If required signals are not available to operate in the normal mode, the EEC automatically changes to the soft alternate mode. When this occurs, the ALTN switch illuminates and the ON indication remains visible. In the soft alternate mode, the EEC uses the last valid flight conditions to define engine parameters which allows the mode change to occur with no immediate change in engine thrust. Thrust rating shortfalls or exceedances may occur as flight conditions change. The soft alternate mode remains until the hard alternate mode is entered Engine 1 in SOFT ALTN Engine 2 Normal mode.
  16. 16. The soft alternate mode remains until the hard alternate mode is entered by either retarding the thrust lever to idle or manually selecting ALTN with the EEC switch on the aft overhead panel. Note: Loss of either DEU results in a loss of signal to both EECs. The EEC ALTN lights illuminate and each EEC reverts to the alternate mode to prevent the engines from operating on a single source of data. When the hard alternate mode is entered, the EEC reverts to the alternate mode thrust schedule. Hard alternate mode thrust is always equal to or greater than normal mode thrust for the same lever position. i.e. at idle thrust there will be no difference, at settings close to maximum there will be approximately 10% thrust difference for any given thrust lever position. If the hard alternate mode is entered by reducing the thrust lever to idle while in the soft alternate mode, the ALTN switch remains illuminated and the ON indication remains visible. When ALTN is selected manually, the ON indication is blanked. Both engines in HARD ALTN mode. Putting both engines into alternate avoids thrust lever stager due to thrust differences between the two modes.
  17. 17. EEC
  18. 18. Structural Limit Protection The EEC provides N1 and N2 redline over speed protection in both normal and alternate modes. The EGT limit must be observed by the crew because the EEC does not provide EGT redline exceedance protection.
  19. 19. Idle Operation The EEC automatically selects ground minimum idle, flight minimum idle, and approach idle. Ground minimum idle is selected for ground operations and flight minimum idle is selected for most phases of flight. Approach idle is selected in flight if flaps are in landing configuration or engine anti–ice is ON for either engine. At the same airspeed and altitude, N1 and N2% RPM will be higher for approach idle than for flight minimum idle. This higher% RPM improves engine acceleration time in the event of a go–around. Approach idle is maintained until after touchdown, when ground minimum idle is selected. In flight, if a fault prevents the EEC from receiving flap or anti–ice signals, approach idle schedule begins below 15,000 feet MSL.
  20. 20. The EEC must receive electrical power to supply engine operating data to the flight deck engine indications. The electronic engine control (EEC) alternator usually supplies electrical power to the EEC. The EEC alternator is the primary electrical power source for the EEC. When the N2 speed is more than 15 % and alternator power quality is in limits, the EEC gets power from the EEC alternator. The on side AC transfer bus supplies electrical power to the EECs when the alternator can not supply power. When the EEC is not powered N1 and N2 tachometer information is connected directly to the DEU’s and will be displayed, oil quantity and engine vibration are also displayed directly from the engine sensors. During battery start with no power on the airplane, only N1, N2, and oil quantity are available. The EEC is not powered until the engine accelerates to a speed greater than 15% N2. At 15% N2, the EEC becomes energized and pointers/digits for all engine parameters are displayed.
  21. 21. •Engine Indications •Primary and secondary engine indications are provided. Engine indications are displayed on the upper display unit (DU), Primary indications can be moved automatically or manually to the lower DU or manually to the Captain’s or First Officer’s inboard DU.
  22. 22. Primary Engine Indications N1 and EGT are the primary engine indications. The primary engine indications are normally displayed on the upper DU. If that unit fails, the display automatically moves to the lower DU. The primary engine indications can also be manually selected to either the Captain’s or First Officer’s inboard DU, or the lower DU, using the respective display select panel.
  23. 23. N1 RPM Readouts Reference N1 bugs. (digital) Show the active N1 limit Displayed (white) – normal operating range. Displayed (red) – • operating limit exceeded • on ground after engine shutdown, red box indicates an inflight exceedance has occurred.
  24. 24. N1 Redlines Displayed (red) – N1% RPM operating limit N1 Command Sectors Displayed (white) – momentary difference between actual N1 and value commanded by thrust lever position.
  25. 25. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Redlines Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Amber Bands Displayed (amber) – lower end of band displays Displayed (red) – maximum takeoff EGT limit . maximum continuous EGT limit .
  26. 26. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Start Limit Lines Displayed (red) – until the engine achieves stabilized idle (approximately 59% N2).
  27. 27. SECONDARY ENGINE INDICATIONS N2, fuel flow, oil pressure, oil temperature, oil quantity, and engine vibration are the secondary engine indications. The secondary engine indications, except for fuel flow, are manually selected to either the Captain’s or First Officer’s inboard DU, or the lower DU, using the respective display select panel and the ENG switch on the engine display control panel. Fuel flow is displayed full time on the upper display unit below the primary engine indications. The secondary engine indications are automatically displayed when: • the displays initially receive electrical power • in flight when an engine start lever is moved to CUTOFF • in flight when an engine N2 RPM is below idle (flight idle is 72% N2) • a secondary engine parameter is exceeded. ENG switch; first push displays second push blanks When the secondary engine indications are automatically displayed, they cannot be cleared until the condition is no longer present.
  28. 28. SECONDARY ENGINE INDICATIONS Normally displayed on the lower display unit but can be selected to the inboard DU’s by the pilot The lower DU is normally kept black in flight. If any engine parameter is exceeded the entire display shows automatically!
  29. 29. Normal Display Format N1, EGT, and N2 are displayed as both digital readouts and round dial/moving pointer indications. The digital readouts display numerical values while the moving pointers indicate relative value.
  30. 30. Oil pressure, oil temperature, and engine vibration indications are both digital readouts and vertical indication/moving pointers. Fuel flow and oil quantity are digital readouts only. All digital readouts are enclosed by boxes. The dials and vertical indications display the normal operating range, caution range, and operating limits. Normal operating range is displayed on a dial or vertical indication in white.
  31. 31. N1, EGT, and N2 have operating limits indicated by redlines. EGT also displays an amber caution limit. If one of these indications exceeds the red or amber line, the digital readout, box, pointer, and indicator change colour to red or amber.
  32. 32. The oil temperature and oil pressure vertical indications have a caution range and an operating limit redline.
  33. 33. Low Oil Pressure (OIL PRESS) Amber Band Displayed (amber) – low oil pressure caution range beginning at red line.: • variable depending on N2% RPM above 65% N2 • amber band not displayed below 65% N2.
  34. 34. If the oil temperature or pressure reaches the caution range, the digital readout, digital readout box, and pointer all change colour to amber. If one of these indications reach the operating limit, the digital readout, digital readout box, and pointer all change colour to red.
  35. 35. Oil quantity and vibrations do not have any limits. If Vibration is above normal levels the digital box changes to revers video showing a white box with black digits . Similarly if oil quantity is low the indicator changes to revers video.
  36. 36. An engine failure alert indication (ENG FAIL) is displayed in amber on the EGT indicator when the respective engine is operating at a condition below sustainable idle (50% N2) and the engine start lever is in the IDLE position. The alert remains until the engine recovers, the engine start lever is moved to CUTOFF, or the engine fire warning switch is pulled
  37. 37. Compact Display In compact format, the primary and secondary engine indications are combined on the same display. The N1 and EGT indications are displayed as they are normally. All other indications change to digital readouts only. N2, oil temperature, and oil pressure digital readouts turn red or amber if an exceedance occurs. Primary and secondary engine indications are displayed in compact format on the upper DU when the secondary engine indications are selected for display (manually or automatically) and the lower DU is unavailable. Alternatively, the compacted indications are displayed on the lower DU if the upper DU is unavailable.
  38. 38. T12 sensor For Fan Inlet TAT RAM AIR INLET For EEC Cooling.
  39. 39. Electronic Engine Control (EEC) Engine Panel Non Dispatchable Fault • Light remains illuminated ONLY WHILE ENGINE IS RUNNING. •When engine is shut down the fault is stored in BITE logic and the light will not illuminate at next start. •This light comes on for non dispatchable faults including the EEC is operating with a single working channel. Light is INHIBITED IN FLIGHT. From 80 Knots Until 30 sec after landing Illuminated on the ground, engine running – Do NOT dispatch due to system fault
  40. 40. Engine Fuel System Fuel is delivered under pressure from fuel pumps located in the fuel tanks. The fuel flows through a fuel spar shutoff valve located at the engine mounting wing stations. The fuel passes through the first stage engine fuel pump where pressure is increased. It then passes through two fuel/oil heat exchangers where IDG oil and main engine oil heat the fuel. A fuel filter then removes contaminants. Fuel automatically bypasses the filter if the filter becomes contaminated. Before the fuel bypass occurs, the fuel FILTER BYPASS alert illuminates on the fuel control panel. The second stage engine fuel pump adds more pressure before the fuel reaches the hydro mechanical unit (HMU). To meet thrust requirements, the EEC meters fuel through the HMU. The spar fuel shutoff valve and engine fuel shutoff valve allow fuel flow to the engine when both valves are open. The valves are open when the engine fire warning switch is in and the start lever is in IDLE. Both valves close when either the start lever is in CUTOFF or the engine fire warning switch is out. SPAR VALVE CLOSED and ENG VALVE CLOSED lights located on the overhead panel indicate valve position. Fuel flow is measured after passing through the engine fuel shutoff valve and is displayed on the display unit. Fuel flow information is also provided to the FMS.
  41. 41. Fuel control levers. No1 cutoff No2 idle. Fire switches must be down to open spar and engine fuel shutoff valves.
  42. 42. Engine Oil System Oil from the individual engine tank is circulated under pressure, through the engine to lubricate the engine bearings and accessory gearbox. The oil quantity indicator, oil temperature indicator, oil pressure indicator and LOW OIL PRESSURE alert are all located on the display unit. The oil system is pressurized by the engine driven oil pump. Oil from the pump, goes to the engine bearings and gearbox. Sensors for the oil temperature indicator, oil pressure indicator and LOW OIL PRESSURE alert are located downstream of the oil pump prior to engine lubrication. Oil is returned to the oil tank by engine driven scavenge pumps. From the scavenge pumps oil passes through a scavenge filter. If the filter becomes saturated with contaminants, oil automatically bypasses the filter. Prior to the oil bypassing the scavenge filter, the OIL FILTER BYPASS alert illuminates on the upper display unit. Prior to returning to the oil tank, the oil passes through the main engine oil cooler where it is cooled by engine fuel to maintain proper oil temperature.
  43. 43. After 10 seconds LOW OIL PRESSURE Alert Illuminated (amber) – • steady – oil pressure at or below red line • blinking – with a condition of low oil pressure. Alert is displayed and solid amber boxes are displayed in unannunciated positions for that engine. All three boxes blink for ten seconds, then alert remains on steady and solid amber boxes are removed Note: Blinking is inhibited: • during takeoff from 80 knots to 400 feet RA, or 30 seconds after reaching 80 knots, whichever occurs first • during landing below 200 feet RA until 30 seconds after touchdown • during periods when blinking is inhibited, alerts illuminate steady.
  44. 44. OIL FILTER BYPASS Alert Illuminated (amber) – • steady – indicates an impending bypass of scavenge oil filter • blinking – with an impending bypass. Alert is displayed and solid amber boxes are displayed in unannunciated positions for that engine. All three boxes blink for ten seconds, then alert remains on steady and solid amber boxes are removed Note: Blinking is inhibited: • during takeoff from 80 knots to 400 feet RA, or 30 seconds after reaching 80 knots, whichever occurs first • during landing below 200 feet RA until 30 seconds after touchdown • during periods when blinking is inhibited, alerts illuminate steady.
  45. 45. Engine Start System Starter operation requires pressurized air and electrical power. Air from the bleed air system powers the starter motor. The APU, an external ground cart, or the other operating engine provides the bleed air source. The minimum duct pressure required for a cross bleed start is 30 PSI. In the GRD position, the engine start switch uses battery power to close the engine bleed air valve and open the start valve to allow pressure to rotate the starter. When the start valve opens, an amber START VALVE OPEN alert is provided on the upper display unit. The starter rotates the N2 compressor through the accessory drive gear system. When the engine accelerates to the recommended value (25% N2 or max motoring), moving the engine start lever to the IDLE position opens the fuel valves on the wing spar and engine, and causes the EEC to supply fuel and ignition to the combustor where the fuel ignites. Initial fuel flow indications lag actual fuel flow by approximately two seconds, therefore, during engine start, an EGT rise may occur before fuel flow indication. At starter cutout speed (approximately 56% N2), the EEC removes power from the start switch holding solenoid. The engine start switch returns to OFF, the engine bleed air valve returns to the selected position, and the start valve closes.
  46. 46. •STARTING PROCEDURE. The Captain calls the start sequence Normally Number 2 first on the 737. The F/O selects Ground
  47. 47. GRD commands the starter control valve to open and arms the ignition. The starter turns the gearbox. The gearbox turns the HP compressor N2.
  48. 48. When The engines is at Maximum motoring the captain moves the FUEL CONTROL lever to IDLE
  49. 49. The B737 Engine has 2 fuel valves. ENGINE FUEL SHUTOFF VALVE SPAR VALVE
  50. 50. When the captain moves the Fuel Control Lever to Idle Both fuel valves OPEN. The ignition is turned on and fuel flows into the combustion chamber.
  51. 51. Abnormal Start Protection (Ground Starts Only) During ground starts, the EEC monitors engine parameters to detect impending hot starts, engine stalls, EGT start limit exceedances, and wet starts. These protection features do not function during inflight starts. If an impending hot start is detected by a rapid rise in EGT or EGT approaching the start limit, or a compressor stall occurs, the white box surrounding the EGT digital readout flashes white. The flashing white box resets when the start lever is moved to CUTOFF or the engine reaches idle N2. Current versions of EEC software (7.B.Q and later) automatically turn off the ignition and shuts off fuel to the engine for an impending hot start or stall. If the EGT exceeds the starting limit, the EGT display, both box and dial, turn red. The EEC automatically turns off the ignition and shuts off fuel to the engine. The alert terminates and the display returns to white when EGT drops below the start limit. Following shutdown of both engines, the EGT box turns red to remind the crew of the exceedance. A wet start occurs if the EGT does not rise after the start lever is moved to IDLE. If a wet start is detected, the EEC turns off the ignition and shuts off fuel to the engine 15 seconds after the start lever is moved to IDLE.
  52. 52. Engine Ignition System Each engine has two igniter plugs. The EEC arms the igniter plug(s) selected by the ignition select switch. The left igniter plug receives power from the associated AC transfer bus. The right igniter plug receives power from the AC standby bus. Auto-Relight An auto-relight capability is provided for flameout protection. Whenever the EEC detects an engine flameout, both igniters are activated. A flameout is detected when an uncommanded rapid decrease in N2 occurs, or N2 is below idle RPM.
  53. 53. Ignition RIGHT IGNITER AC STANDBY BUS EEC High Energy Ignition unit (HEIU) TRANSFER BUS LEFT IGNITER
  54. 54. Ignition Ground start uses only the selected igniter. Right is normally used for the first start of each day to check the standby system ignition.
  55. 55. Ignition
  56. 56. Ignition
  57. 57. Ignition Selecting FLT start uses both igniters regardless of the switch position.
  58. 58. Inflight Starting Two methods of starting an engine inflight are available, windmill and crossbleed. None of the ground start protection features are functional during inflight start. Note: At low N2 values, the oil scavenge pump may not provide enough pressure to return oil to the tank, causing a low oil quantity indication. Normal oil quantity should be indicated after start. If crossbleed starting is required, the X–BLD indication (XB for the compact engine display) is displayed above the N2 dial. This indication is based on airplane altitude, airspeed and N2 RPM.
  59. 59. START VALVE OPEN Alert Illuminated (amber) – • steady – respective engine start valve open and air is supplied to starter • blinking – uncommanded opening of start valve. Alert is displayed and solid amber boxes are displayed in unannunciated positions for that engine. All three boxes blink for ten seconds, then alert remains on steady and solid amber boxes are removed Note: Blinking is inhibited: • during takeoff from 80 knots to 400 feet RA, or 30 seconds after reaching 80 knots, whichever occurs first • during landing below 200 feet RA until 30 seconds after touchdown • during periods when blinking is inhibited, alerts illuminate steady.
  60. 60. Thrust Reverser Each engine is equipped with a hydraulically operated thrust reverser, consisting of left and right translating sleeves. Aft movement of the reverser sleeves causes blocker doors to deflect fan discharge air forward, through fixed cascade vanes, producing reverse thrust. The thrust reverser is for ground operations only and is used after touchdown to slow the airplane, reducing stopping distance and brake wear.
  61. 61. Hydraulic pressure for the operation of engine No. 1 and engine No. 2 thrust reversers comes from hydraulic systems A and B, respectively. If hydraulic system A and/or B fails, alternate operation for the affected thrust reverser is available through the standby hydraulic system. When the standby system is used, the affected thrust reverser deploys and retracts at a slower rate and some thrust asymmetry can be anticipated. Thrust reverse Normal Stow position.
  62. 62. When reverse thrust is selected, an electro–mechanical lock releases, the isolation valve opens and the thrust reverser control valve moves to the deploy position, allowing hydraulic pressure to unlock and deploy the reverser system. An interlock mechanism restricts movement of the reverse thrust lever until the reverser sleeves have approached the deployed position. Thrust Reverse Deployed.
  63. 63. When either reverser sleeve moves from the stowed position, the amber REV indication, located on the upper display unit, illuminates. As the thrust reverser reaches the deployed position, the REV indication illuminates green and the reverse thrust lever can be raised to detent No. 2. This position provides adequate reverse thrust for normal operations. When necessary, the reverse thrust lever can be pulled beyond detent No. 2, providing maximum reverse thrust.
  64. 64. The thrust reverser can be deployed when either radio altimeter senses less than 10 feet altitude, or when the air/ground sensor is in the ground mode. Movement of the reverse thrust levers is mechanically restricted until the forward thrust levers are in the idle position.
  65. 65. Downward motion of the reverse thrust lever past detent No. 1 (reverse idle thrust) initiates the command to stow the reverser. When the lever reaches the full down position, the control valve moves to the stow position allowing hydraulic pressure to stow and lock the reverser sleeves. After the thrust reverser is stowed, the isolation valve closes and the electro–mechanical lock engages. Thrust reverse Stow or Auto Re-Stow command.
  66. 66. When the reverser sleeves are in the stow position, an electro–mechanical lock and a hydraulically operated locking actuator inhibit motion to each reverser sleeve until reverser extension is selected. Additionally, an auto–restow circuit compares the actual reverser sleeve position and the commanded reverser position. In the event of incomplete stowage or uncommanded movement of the reverser sleeves toward the deployed position, the auto–restow circuit opens the isolation valve and commands the control valve to the stow position directing hydraulic pressure to stow the reverser sleeves. Once the auto–restow circuit is activated, the isolation valve remains open and the control valve is held in the stowed position until the thrust reverser is commanded to deploy or until corrective maintenance action is taken.
  67. 67. The REVERSER light, located on the aft overhead panel, illuminates when the thrust reverser is commanded to stow and extinguishes 10 seconds later when the isolation valve closes. Any time the REVERSER light illuminates for more than approximately 12 seconds, a malfunction has occurred and the MASTER CAUTION and ENG system annunciator lights illuminate. Engine Panel
  68. 68. REVERSER Lights Illuminated (amber) – one or more of following has occurred: • isolation valve or thrust reverser control valve is not in commanded Position • one or more thrust reverser sleeves are not in commanded state • auto–restow circuit has been activated • a failure has been detected in synchronization shaft lock circuitry. Engine Panel
  69. 69. ENGINE LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS. Engine Limit Display Markings Maximum and minimum limits are red. Caution limits are amber. Engine Ignition Engine ignition must be on for: • takeoff • landing • operation in heavy rain • anti-ice operation. Starter duty cycle: • Do not exceed 2 minutes during each start attempt • A minimum of 10 seconds is needed between start attempts (Oil is thrown out of the gears by centrifugal force during start. The 10 seconds allows for re-oiling of the gears.)
  70. 70. ENGINE LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS. Do the ABORTED ENGINE START checklist for one or more of the following abort start conditions: • the N1 or N2 does not increase or increases very slowly after the EGT increases • there is no oil pressure indication by the time that the engine is stable at idle • the EGT does not increase by 10 seconds after the engine start lever is moved to IDLE • the EGT quickly nears or exceeds the start limit Do not re–engage the ENGINE START switch until engine RPM is below 20% N2. Engine starter and or gearbox damage may be caused if RPM is above 20% when the starter is engaged. Engine High oil temperature. If the oil temperature is in the red band do the engine failure or shutdown checklist. If temperature is in the amber band for more than 45 minutes do the engine failure or shutdown checklist.
  71. 71. What protection is supplied with EEC’s in soft or hard alternate mode ?
  72. 72. What protection is supplied with EEC’s in soft or hard alternate mode ? •Structural Limit Protection The EEC provides N1 and N2 redline overspeed protection in both normal and alternate modes. The EGT limit must be observed by the crew because the EEC does not provide EGT redline exceedance protection.
  73. 73. The amber REVERSER light will illuminate under what conditions?
  74. 74. The Amber REVERSER light will illuminate under what conditions? Isolation valve or thrust reverser control valve not in commanded position Thrust reverser sleeve position sensors are in disagreement Auto-re-stow circuit has been activated A failure has been detected in synchronisation shaft lock circuitry
  75. 75. What is required before thrust reversers can be deployed?
  76. 76. What is required before thrust reversers can be deployed? Forward thrust levers idle, (Mechanical lock) AND either RA<10 feet OR ground mode
  77. 77. •ENGINES For how long can an engine be operated with the oil temperature indication coloured amber?
  78. 78. •ENGINES For how long can an engine be operated with the oil temperature indication coloured amber?
  79. 79. The maximum continuous EGT is indicated by:
  80. 80. The maximum continuous EGT is indicated by:
  81. 81. During Takeoff, How is the low oil pressure alert displayed?
  82. 82. During Takeoff, How is the low oil pressure alert displayed? ALL BOXES FLASH FOR 10 SECONDS FLASHING IS INHIBITED DURING TAKEOFF. Note: Blinking is inhibited: • during takeoff from 80 knots to 400 feet RA, or 30 seconds after reaching 80 knots, whichever occurs first • during landing below 200 feet RA until 30 seconds after touchdown • during periods when blinking is inhibited, alerts illuminate steady.
  83. 83. The engine oil pressure amber band displays when?
  84. 84. The engine oil pressure amber band displays when? Amber band is only displayed above 65% N2 and is variable depending on N2 RPM.
  85. 85. The engine fuel system is heated by what?
  86. 86. The engine fuel system is heated by what? The IDG fuel cooled oil cooler. The main engine fuel cooled oil cooler.
  87. 87. The engine starter cut out should occur at:
  88. 88. The engine starter cut out should occur at: At starter cutout speed (approximately 56% N2), the EEC removes power from the start switch holding solenoid. The engine start switch returns to OFF, the engine bleed air valve returns to the selected position, and the start valve closes.
  89. 89. The engine EEC is operating in the soft alternate mode, this is indicated by what?
  90. 90. EEC Alternate Mode The EEC can operate in either of two alternate modes, soft or hard. If required signals are not available to operate in the normal mode, the EEC automatically changes to the soft alternate mode. When this occurs, the ALTN switch illuminates and the ON indication remains visible. In the soft alternate mode, the EEC uses the last valid flight conditions to define engine parameters which allows the mode change to occur with no immediate change in engine thrust. Thrust rating shortfalls or exceedances may occur as flight conditions change. The soft alternate mode remains until the hard alternate mode is entered Engine 1 in SOFT ALTN Engine 2 Normal mode.
  91. 91. The EEC automatically selects approach idle in flight when?
  92. 92. Idle Operation The EEC automatically selects ground minimum idle, flight minimum idle, and approach idle. Ground minimum idle is selected for ground operations and flight minimum idle is selected for most phases of flight. Approach idle is selected in flight if flaps are in landing configuration or engine anti–ice is ON for either engine. At the same airspeed and altitude, N1 and N2% RPM will be higher for approach idle than for flight minimum idle. This higher% RPM improves engine acceleration time in the event of a go–around. Approach idle is maintained until after touchdown, when ground minimum idle is selected. In flight, if a fault prevents the EEC from receiving flap or anti–ice signals, approach idle schedule begins below 15,000 feet MSL.
  93. 93. For a cross bleed start the minimum duct pressure required is?
  94. 94. For a cross bleed start the minimum duct pressure required is? Supplementary Procedure. •Supplementary Procedure 7.5
  95. 95. What is the maximum RPM for starter motor engagement?
  96. 96. What is the maximum RPM for starter motor engagement?
  97. 97. What is the maximum starter motor duty cycle?
  98. 98. What is the maximum starter motor duty cycle?
  99. 99. The right igniter is powered from which Bus ?
  100. 100. The right igniter is powered from which Bus ? Engine Ignition System Each engine has two igniter plugs. The EEC arms the igniter plug(s) selected by the ignition select switch. The left igniter plug receives power from the associated AC transfer bus. The right igniter plug receives power from the AC standby bus.
  101. 101. The END of ENGINES. •The END of AUTO FLIGHT Part 1 Now take the test at www.theorycentre.com For more information info@theorycentre.com

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