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SCHULZ, Thomas: Flexible and modular software framework as a solution for operational excellence in
manufacturing. In: Proceedings of Factory Automation 2012, Veszprém : University of Pannonia, pp. 8-11, 2012




       Flexible and modular software framework as a solution for
                 operational excellence in manufacturing
                                     THOMAS SCHULZ
     GE Intelligent Platforms Europe S.A., Landwehrstr. 54, 64293 Darmstadt, GERMANY
                                       t.schulz@ge.com

Abstract: Continuous improvements in key areas of manufacturing operations can help reduce
manufacturing costs, protect profit margins, and increase yield while maintaining product quality. With a
phased approach to Operational Excellence, it is able to apply a continuous improvement regimen,
delivering value-added results. Open and layered Software Solutions deliver information that enables the
optimization of manufacturing activities from order launch to finished goods and allows manufacturers to
react effectively to changes in demand, to compete at a high level, and to enhance profitability. The
ability to adapt to flexible requirements and frequent changes has emerged as a new paradigm for
successful implementation of Operational Excellence Solutions. Hereby common information systems are
mostly not able to fulfill the requirement of adaptability for manufacturing changes. The purpose of using
open and layered frameworks is to establish incremental and iterative development of reusable software
components and models based on an industry standard architecture for complex manufacturing systems.

Keywords: Operational Excellence, Manufacturing Executions Systems, Software Framework

1 Introduction                                            section. The finally conclusion in Section 4
Today’s manufacturers operate in an increasingly          concludes this paper.
demanding environment that includes global
competition, increasing pressures for cost                2 Operational excellence
reductions and new products, quality-driven               Solutions for operational excellence in
compliance, and improvements in on-time. Rapid            manufacturing require a large amount of data.
technological advancements provide operations             Small changes in the manufacturing environment
managers with tremendous opportunities for                can produce many different changes to the data
improvement. Pressure of intense competition              input for the framework model. As a
requires organizations to seek out new tools for          manufacturing system progresses from a concept
handling their current processes and also gaining         to a detailed design to an installed and operating
access to new markets.                                    facility, the data model of the software framework
    The growing complexity of information                 must change.
technology landscapes in manufacturing is a                  Typical small changes include equipment
challenge for many companies. A large number of           selection and location, control rules and operating
standard software packages - mostly extended and          procedures for equipment and material handling
modified – individual software solutions, legacy          systems, arriving material and customer order
applications,   and      different   infrastructure       characteristics, and operating hours. Some
components lead to high cost and limited ability          examples of changes that have a broader impact
to respond quickly to new business requirements.          are new products that are being made, complete
    The paper is organized as follows. The next           new production processes or even changes to the
section describes operational excellence in               plant layout. The speed of these will increase in
manufacturing, the challenges that manufacturing          the future and will have continuous impact on the
operations and manufacturing software systems             commercial success of companies in several
are facing nowadays. Section 3 introduces a               manufacturing areas [1].
software framework for modular and flexible
applications bases on a service-oriented                  2.1 Manufacturing operations
architecture. The illustration of the flexible and        The ability to adapt to frequent changes has
modular solution path is given in the end of this         emerged as a new paradigm for successful
                                                          business operations. Hereby common information


8
systems are mostly not able to fulfill the              • Product flexibility enables a manufacturing
requirement of adaptability for business or               system to make a variety of part types with
organizational changes. However, the ability to           the same equipment.
adapt to changes is crucial for business                • Operation flexibility refers to the ability to
organizations and the support of business                 produce a set of products using different
processes by information systems plays a crucial          machines, materials, operations, and
part.                                                     sequence of operations.
    According to [2], the challenges that               • Capacity flexibility allows a manufacturing
manufacturing organizations are facing nowadays           system to vary the production volumes of
present are wide ranging and include: intense             different products to accommodate changes
competition, global markets, global financing,            in demand, while remaining profitable.
global strategy, enhanced product variety, mass
customization, service businesses, quality             3 Software framework
improvement, flexibility, advances in technology,
                                                       A framework is the realization mode of the
employee involvement, environment and ethical
                                                       configurability of information system. It includes
issues.
                                                       an integrated collection of components that
    Several articles on manufacturing flexibility
                                                       collaborate to produce a reusable architecture for
like [3] and [4] describes several types of
                                                       a family of related applications (see also [8] and
flexibility such as machine, labor, material
                                                       [9].
handling, routing, operation, expansion, volume,
                                                           Implementing software frameworks used for
mix, new product, market, and modification. In
                                                       operational excellence in manufacturing is still a
this paper, we define manufacturing flexibility as
                                                       challenging task due to the heterogeneity of data
the ability of manufacturing to adapt its
                                                       structures and information systems. Traditional
capabilities to produce quality products in a time
                                                       techniques approach software design and
and cost effective manner in response to changing
                                                       implementation as if a system will remain static
product characteristics, material supply, and
                                                       and have a long and stable life. The problem
demand, or to employ technological process
                                                       stems in our case from dynamics.
enhancements.
                                                           The cornerstone of operational excellence
                                                       journey is tightly integrated Framework of Proficy
2.1 Manufacturing software systems                     software solutions, which enable the critical
Manufacturing shop floor information and control       capabilities needed to meet improvement goals. In
flow management is still a challenging task due to     this section we introduce the core concepts
the heterogeneity of data structures and               needed to implement our approach of modular
information systems. The objective of vertical         and flexible application systems.
integration from the enterprise application (ERP)
to the production control level (DCS, PLC) is still
                                                       3.1 Service-oriented architecture
unrivalled. The exchange of data between these
                                                       Software architecture is the fundamental
two levels is done either manually or semi
                                                       organization of a system, embodied in its
automatically. Most of the existing solutions are
                                                       components, their relationships to each other and
missing needed flexibility and scalability.
                                                       the environment, and the principles governing its
    In the context of manufacturing systems, there
                                                       design and evolution architectural description is a
are many publications of literature that deals with
                                                       collection of products to document an architecture
defining and measuring the flexibility of these
                                                       [10].
systems. Buzacott states in [5] that the definitions
                                                          A Service-oriented Architecture (SoA) is
of flexibility, action flexibility, and state
                                                       defined from Barry and Krafzig specific software
flexibility apply well to the manufacturing
                                                       architecture based on services as fundamental
systems environment. Setchi and Lagos explain in
                                                       elements for integrating and developing
[6] that manufacturing systems of the next
                                                       applications [11, 12]. Key concepts of SoA are
generation must provide increased levels of
                                                       service components, services data and service bus
flexibility, reconfigurability and intelligence to
                                                       embedded in the application frontend with the
allow them to respond to the highly dynamic
                                                       service repository. Services are specific software
market demands.
                                                       components and communicating with each other
    For practical purposes it seems advisable to
                                                       by sending and receiving messages. When acting
concentrate on three objectives of flexibility as
                                                       as a service provider a service publishes its
defined by Chryssolouris in [7]:



11
Factory Automation 2012

interfaces that can be invoked by other services       •   Process Visibility gain visibility into your
that play the role of a service requestor.                 process by automating real-time data
   SoA provides an opportunity to achieve broad-           collection for visualization and delivering the
scale interoperability while offering modularity           level of insight required for intelligent
and flexibility to adapt to changing requirements.         decision making.
A SoA is characterized by the loosely coupling of      •   Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
the services involved. Using SoA in an accurate            regimen helps you shift the focus from
way Zaigham and Erl reporting the following                runtime efficiency to throughput efficiency.
benefits [13, 14]:                                         By contextualizing data from several
 • Seamless connectivity of applications                   dimensions such as equipment availability,
 • Location transparency and High scalability              performance, and product quality, and
 • Enhanced reuse of modules and applications              performing trending and correlation analysis,
 • Parallel and independent development                    you can gain deeper insight at all levels of
 • Flexible at maintenance and requirement                 the business, as well as critical process
     changes                                               parameters.
 • Reduced cost of development                         •   Process Reliability builds upon the OEE
                                                           regimen and focuses on manual processes
3.2 Flexible and modular solutions                         and scheduling with the greatest impact on
The Proficy software framework from GE                     consistency and repeatability. It also enables
Intelligent Platforms has helped many companies            demand-driven supply chain agility.
develop a solid understanding of potential             •   Partial Operational Excellence involves
Operational Excellence improvements that exist             understanding and controlling the impact that
within their operations today, and where                   different suppliers of raw materials have on
additional value can be found in the future [15,           process quality and yield, the main drivers
16, 17].                                                   for local Operational Excellence. Being able
                                                           to predict and react to changing materials and
                                                           process dynamics ensures first-pass quality
                                                           every time, and helps determine the ideal
                                                           conditions from which to generate maximum
                                                           yield.
                                                       •   Enterprise Operational Excellence is the
                                                           final step across the enterprise with seamless
                                                           integration from the plant floor to the ERP
                                                           system, including Warehouse Management,
                                                           Production Planning and Maintenance. It is
                                                           critical to drive supply chain excellence by
                                                           coordinating the real-time status of orders,
                                                           inventory changes, and overall process
     Fig.1: Cost-effective project development             performance.

Figure 1 shows the main components of cost-            A popular method for driving rapid operational
effective project development. Key issues are:         improvement is to measure overall equipment
 • Reduced implementation costs and time               effectiveness (OEE). The OEE measure attempts
 • Minimize downtime for deployment of new             to reveal these hidden costs [18] and when the
     or modified services                              measure is applied by autonomous small groups
 • Faster time to solution                             on the shop-floor together with quality control
                                                       tools it is an important complement to the
 • Flexible service deployment options
                                                       traditional top-down oriented performance
 • Minimized modification time after change of
                                                       measurement systems. These projects rely on
     technical requirements
                                                       obtaining information about availability of
                                                       equipment, throughput of the equipment and the
The Operational Excellence journey from GE
                                                       quality of what is actually produced.
Intelligent Platforms offers a continual process for
                                                          There are a variety of ways to perform these
capturing data, analyzing information, making
                                                       calculations but the most efficient and reliable
process changes, and validating the improvements
                                                       way of performing the calculations is to base them
to meet expectations. It includes five key steps:
                                                       on automatically collected data as opposed to

10
manually entered information, which is more              Manufacturing       Systems:       State-Of-The-Art
prone to operator error. Automated systems and           Review. In: Industrial Informatics, Proceedings of
plant historians provide an excellent foundation         the 2nd IEEE International Conference on
for automatically collected data and a secure            Industrial Informatics (INDIN '04). Berlin, 2004,
storage mechanism to ensure accuracy.                    pp. 529-535.
                                                         [7] Chryssolouris, George: Manufacturing
4 Conclusion                                             Systems: Theory and Practice. Springer-Verlag,
Modularity and Flexibility are fundamental need          2005.
for manufacturing companies seeking to react to a        [8] Johnson, Ralph; Foote, Brain: Designing
rapidly changing landscape that includes                 Reusable Classes. Journal of Object-Oriented
emerging competitive threats, shifting compliance        Programming, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1988, pp. 22-35.
and regulatory requirements, and evolving                [9] Yu, Dongjin; Ruan, Hongyong: General
technology. Achieving flexibility and better             framework of profession software supporting
alignment of business and IT objectives requires         rapid development. Computer Engineering,
executing IT projects with a high level of               Vol.35, No.20, 2009, pp. 47-49.
coordination, accuracy, and clarity.                     [10] ISO/IEC 42010:2007: Systems and software
     Service-oriented Architecture (SoA) is an           engineering - Recommended practice for
architectural paradigm for developing systems            architectural description of software-intensive
from autonomous yet interoperable components.            systems.     International      Organization      for
Manufacturing process driven development of              Standardization, 2007.
services-oriented solutions helps create solutions       [11] Barry, Douglas K.: Web Services and
that truly meets operational excellence                  Service-Oriented Architecture: The Savvy
requirements today and are readily adapted when          Manager's Guide. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,
those needs change in the future. It is important to     2003.
first establish a target architecture and direction so   [12] Krafzig, Dirk; Banke, Karl; Slama; Dirk:
that projects can be planned as steps towards that       Enterprise SOA: Service-Oriented Architecture
eventual goal.                                           Best Practices. Prentice Hall International, 2005
                                                         [13] Zaigham, Mahmood: Service oriented
                                                         architecture: Potential benefits and challenges. In:
References:                                              Computer Science and Technology, Proceedings
[1] Kühnle, Hermann; Klostermeyer, Axel;                 of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on
Lorentz, Kai: A Paradigm Shift to Distributed            Computers. Agios Nikolaos, 2007, pp. 496-500.
Systems in Plant Automation. In: Proceedings of          [14] Erl, Thomas: Service-Oriented Architecture:
the International NAISO Congress on Information          Concepts, Technology, and Design. Prentice Hall,
Science Innovations (ISI' 2001). Dubai, 2001, pp.        Upper Saddle River, 2005.
463-469.                                                 [15] Hilger, Marcel; Schulz, Thomas: Energie,
[2] Russell, Roberta S.; Taylor, Bernard W. III:         Dampf und Pressluft unter der Lupe - Gezielte
Operations Management: Creating Value Along              Verbrauscherfassung. IT & Production, Vol. 12,
the Supply Chain. Cambridge University Press,            No. 10, 2011, pp. 52-53.
2008.                                                    [16] Bloss, Richard: When your assembly system
[3] Sethi, Ajay K.; Sethi, Suresh P.: Flexibility in     controller can be more than just a controller.
Manufacturing: A Survey. The International               Assembly Automation, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2007, pp.
Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, Vol.          297-301.
2, No. 4, 1990, pp. 289-328.                             [17] Robinson, Sean: Optimierung der
[4] Gupta, Yash P.; Somers, Toni M.: 1992. The           Betriebsprozesse. Packaging journal, Vol. 10,
measurement of manufacturing flexibility.                No. 6, 2011, p. 46.
European Journal of Operational Research, Vol.           [18] Nakajima, Seiichi: Introduction to TPM:
60, No. 2, 1992, pp. 166-182.                            Total Productive Maintenance. Productivity
[5] Buzacott, John A.: The Fundamental                   Press, 1988.
Principles of Flexibility in Manufacturing
Systems. In: Proceedings of the First
International      Congress       on       Flexible
Manufacturing Systems. Amsterdam, 1982, pp.
23-30.
[6] Setchi, Rossi M.; Lagos, Nikolaos:
Reconfigurability        and       Reconfigurable

11

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Flexible and modular software framework as a solution for operational excellence in manufacturing

  • 1. SCHULZ, Thomas: Flexible and modular software framework as a solution for operational excellence in manufacturing. In: Proceedings of Factory Automation 2012, Veszprém : University of Pannonia, pp. 8-11, 2012 Flexible and modular software framework as a solution for operational excellence in manufacturing THOMAS SCHULZ GE Intelligent Platforms Europe S.A., Landwehrstr. 54, 64293 Darmstadt, GERMANY t.schulz@ge.com Abstract: Continuous improvements in key areas of manufacturing operations can help reduce manufacturing costs, protect profit margins, and increase yield while maintaining product quality. With a phased approach to Operational Excellence, it is able to apply a continuous improvement regimen, delivering value-added results. Open and layered Software Solutions deliver information that enables the optimization of manufacturing activities from order launch to finished goods and allows manufacturers to react effectively to changes in demand, to compete at a high level, and to enhance profitability. The ability to adapt to flexible requirements and frequent changes has emerged as a new paradigm for successful implementation of Operational Excellence Solutions. Hereby common information systems are mostly not able to fulfill the requirement of adaptability for manufacturing changes. The purpose of using open and layered frameworks is to establish incremental and iterative development of reusable software components and models based on an industry standard architecture for complex manufacturing systems. Keywords: Operational Excellence, Manufacturing Executions Systems, Software Framework 1 Introduction section. The finally conclusion in Section 4 Today’s manufacturers operate in an increasingly concludes this paper. demanding environment that includes global competition, increasing pressures for cost 2 Operational excellence reductions and new products, quality-driven Solutions for operational excellence in compliance, and improvements in on-time. Rapid manufacturing require a large amount of data. technological advancements provide operations Small changes in the manufacturing environment managers with tremendous opportunities for can produce many different changes to the data improvement. Pressure of intense competition input for the framework model. As a requires organizations to seek out new tools for manufacturing system progresses from a concept handling their current processes and also gaining to a detailed design to an installed and operating access to new markets. facility, the data model of the software framework The growing complexity of information must change. technology landscapes in manufacturing is a Typical small changes include equipment challenge for many companies. A large number of selection and location, control rules and operating standard software packages - mostly extended and procedures for equipment and material handling modified – individual software solutions, legacy systems, arriving material and customer order applications, and different infrastructure characteristics, and operating hours. Some components lead to high cost and limited ability examples of changes that have a broader impact to respond quickly to new business requirements. are new products that are being made, complete The paper is organized as follows. The next new production processes or even changes to the section describes operational excellence in plant layout. The speed of these will increase in manufacturing, the challenges that manufacturing the future and will have continuous impact on the operations and manufacturing software systems commercial success of companies in several are facing nowadays. Section 3 introduces a manufacturing areas [1]. software framework for modular and flexible applications bases on a service-oriented 2.1 Manufacturing operations architecture. The illustration of the flexible and The ability to adapt to frequent changes has modular solution path is given in the end of this emerged as a new paradigm for successful business operations. Hereby common information 8
  • 2. systems are mostly not able to fulfill the • Product flexibility enables a manufacturing requirement of adaptability for business or system to make a variety of part types with organizational changes. However, the ability to the same equipment. adapt to changes is crucial for business • Operation flexibility refers to the ability to organizations and the support of business produce a set of products using different processes by information systems plays a crucial machines, materials, operations, and part. sequence of operations. According to [2], the challenges that • Capacity flexibility allows a manufacturing manufacturing organizations are facing nowadays system to vary the production volumes of present are wide ranging and include: intense different products to accommodate changes competition, global markets, global financing, in demand, while remaining profitable. global strategy, enhanced product variety, mass customization, service businesses, quality 3 Software framework improvement, flexibility, advances in technology, A framework is the realization mode of the employee involvement, environment and ethical configurability of information system. It includes issues. an integrated collection of components that Several articles on manufacturing flexibility collaborate to produce a reusable architecture for like [3] and [4] describes several types of a family of related applications (see also [8] and flexibility such as machine, labor, material [9]. handling, routing, operation, expansion, volume, Implementing software frameworks used for mix, new product, market, and modification. In operational excellence in manufacturing is still a this paper, we define manufacturing flexibility as challenging task due to the heterogeneity of data the ability of manufacturing to adapt its structures and information systems. Traditional capabilities to produce quality products in a time techniques approach software design and and cost effective manner in response to changing implementation as if a system will remain static product characteristics, material supply, and and have a long and stable life. The problem demand, or to employ technological process stems in our case from dynamics. enhancements. The cornerstone of operational excellence journey is tightly integrated Framework of Proficy 2.1 Manufacturing software systems software solutions, which enable the critical Manufacturing shop floor information and control capabilities needed to meet improvement goals. In flow management is still a challenging task due to this section we introduce the core concepts the heterogeneity of data structures and needed to implement our approach of modular information systems. The objective of vertical and flexible application systems. integration from the enterprise application (ERP) to the production control level (DCS, PLC) is still 3.1 Service-oriented architecture unrivalled. The exchange of data between these Software architecture is the fundamental two levels is done either manually or semi organization of a system, embodied in its automatically. Most of the existing solutions are components, their relationships to each other and missing needed flexibility and scalability. the environment, and the principles governing its In the context of manufacturing systems, there design and evolution architectural description is a are many publications of literature that deals with collection of products to document an architecture defining and measuring the flexibility of these [10]. systems. Buzacott states in [5] that the definitions A Service-oriented Architecture (SoA) is of flexibility, action flexibility, and state defined from Barry and Krafzig specific software flexibility apply well to the manufacturing architecture based on services as fundamental systems environment. Setchi and Lagos explain in elements for integrating and developing [6] that manufacturing systems of the next applications [11, 12]. Key concepts of SoA are generation must provide increased levels of service components, services data and service bus flexibility, reconfigurability and intelligence to embedded in the application frontend with the allow them to respond to the highly dynamic service repository. Services are specific software market demands. components and communicating with each other For practical purposes it seems advisable to by sending and receiving messages. When acting concentrate on three objectives of flexibility as as a service provider a service publishes its defined by Chryssolouris in [7]: 11
  • 3. Factory Automation 2012 interfaces that can be invoked by other services • Process Visibility gain visibility into your that play the role of a service requestor. process by automating real-time data SoA provides an opportunity to achieve broad- collection for visualization and delivering the scale interoperability while offering modularity level of insight required for intelligent and flexibility to adapt to changing requirements. decision making. A SoA is characterized by the loosely coupling of • Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) the services involved. Using SoA in an accurate regimen helps you shift the focus from way Zaigham and Erl reporting the following runtime efficiency to throughput efficiency. benefits [13, 14]: By contextualizing data from several • Seamless connectivity of applications dimensions such as equipment availability, • Location transparency and High scalability performance, and product quality, and • Enhanced reuse of modules and applications performing trending and correlation analysis, • Parallel and independent development you can gain deeper insight at all levels of • Flexible at maintenance and requirement the business, as well as critical process changes parameters. • Reduced cost of development • Process Reliability builds upon the OEE regimen and focuses on manual processes 3.2 Flexible and modular solutions and scheduling with the greatest impact on The Proficy software framework from GE consistency and repeatability. It also enables Intelligent Platforms has helped many companies demand-driven supply chain agility. develop a solid understanding of potential • Partial Operational Excellence involves Operational Excellence improvements that exist understanding and controlling the impact that within their operations today, and where different suppliers of raw materials have on additional value can be found in the future [15, process quality and yield, the main drivers 16, 17]. for local Operational Excellence. Being able to predict and react to changing materials and process dynamics ensures first-pass quality every time, and helps determine the ideal conditions from which to generate maximum yield. • Enterprise Operational Excellence is the final step across the enterprise with seamless integration from the plant floor to the ERP system, including Warehouse Management, Production Planning and Maintenance. It is critical to drive supply chain excellence by coordinating the real-time status of orders, inventory changes, and overall process Fig.1: Cost-effective project development performance. Figure 1 shows the main components of cost- A popular method for driving rapid operational effective project development. Key issues are: improvement is to measure overall equipment • Reduced implementation costs and time effectiveness (OEE). The OEE measure attempts • Minimize downtime for deployment of new to reveal these hidden costs [18] and when the or modified services measure is applied by autonomous small groups • Faster time to solution on the shop-floor together with quality control tools it is an important complement to the • Flexible service deployment options traditional top-down oriented performance • Minimized modification time after change of measurement systems. These projects rely on technical requirements obtaining information about availability of equipment, throughput of the equipment and the The Operational Excellence journey from GE quality of what is actually produced. Intelligent Platforms offers a continual process for There are a variety of ways to perform these capturing data, analyzing information, making calculations but the most efficient and reliable process changes, and validating the improvements way of performing the calculations is to base them to meet expectations. It includes five key steps: on automatically collected data as opposed to 10
  • 4. manually entered information, which is more Manufacturing Systems: State-Of-The-Art prone to operator error. Automated systems and Review. In: Industrial Informatics, Proceedings of plant historians provide an excellent foundation the 2nd IEEE International Conference on for automatically collected data and a secure Industrial Informatics (INDIN '04). Berlin, 2004, storage mechanism to ensure accuracy. pp. 529-535. [7] Chryssolouris, George: Manufacturing 4 Conclusion Systems: Theory and Practice. Springer-Verlag, Modularity and Flexibility are fundamental need 2005. for manufacturing companies seeking to react to a [8] Johnson, Ralph; Foote, Brain: Designing rapidly changing landscape that includes Reusable Classes. Journal of Object-Oriented emerging competitive threats, shifting compliance Programming, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1988, pp. 22-35. and regulatory requirements, and evolving [9] Yu, Dongjin; Ruan, Hongyong: General technology. Achieving flexibility and better framework of profession software supporting alignment of business and IT objectives requires rapid development. Computer Engineering, executing IT projects with a high level of Vol.35, No.20, 2009, pp. 47-49. coordination, accuracy, and clarity. [10] ISO/IEC 42010:2007: Systems and software Service-oriented Architecture (SoA) is an engineering - Recommended practice for architectural paradigm for developing systems architectural description of software-intensive from autonomous yet interoperable components. systems. International Organization for Manufacturing process driven development of Standardization, 2007. services-oriented solutions helps create solutions [11] Barry, Douglas K.: Web Services and that truly meets operational excellence Service-Oriented Architecture: The Savvy requirements today and are readily adapted when Manager's Guide. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, those needs change in the future. It is important to 2003. first establish a target architecture and direction so [12] Krafzig, Dirk; Banke, Karl; Slama; Dirk: that projects can be planned as steps towards that Enterprise SOA: Service-Oriented Architecture eventual goal. Best Practices. Prentice Hall International, 2005 [13] Zaigham, Mahmood: Service oriented architecture: Potential benefits and challenges. In: References: Computer Science and Technology, Proceedings [1] Kühnle, Hermann; Klostermeyer, Axel; of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Lorentz, Kai: A Paradigm Shift to Distributed Computers. Agios Nikolaos, 2007, pp. 496-500. Systems in Plant Automation. In: Proceedings of [14] Erl, Thomas: Service-Oriented Architecture: the International NAISO Congress on Information Concepts, Technology, and Design. Prentice Hall, Science Innovations (ISI' 2001). Dubai, 2001, pp. Upper Saddle River, 2005. 463-469. [15] Hilger, Marcel; Schulz, Thomas: Energie, [2] Russell, Roberta S.; Taylor, Bernard W. III: Dampf und Pressluft unter der Lupe - Gezielte Operations Management: Creating Value Along Verbrauscherfassung. IT & Production, Vol. 12, the Supply Chain. Cambridge University Press, No. 10, 2011, pp. 52-53. 2008. [16] Bloss, Richard: When your assembly system [3] Sethi, Ajay K.; Sethi, Suresh P.: Flexibility in controller can be more than just a controller. Manufacturing: A Survey. The International Assembly Automation, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2007, pp. Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 297-301. 2, No. 4, 1990, pp. 289-328. [17] Robinson, Sean: Optimierung der [4] Gupta, Yash P.; Somers, Toni M.: 1992. The Betriebsprozesse. Packaging journal, Vol. 10, measurement of manufacturing flexibility. No. 6, 2011, p. 46. European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. [18] Nakajima, Seiichi: Introduction to TPM: 60, No. 2, 1992, pp. 166-182. Total Productive Maintenance. Productivity [5] Buzacott, John A.: The Fundamental Press, 1988. Principles of Flexibility in Manufacturing Systems. In: Proceedings of the First International Congress on Flexible Manufacturing Systems. Amsterdam, 1982, pp. 23-30. [6] Setchi, Rossi M.; Lagos, Nikolaos: Reconfigurability and Reconfigurable 11