GIS,Electron,Electromagnetic energy,radiation,Orbit,Types of Orbit
1. GIS and Remote Sensing Course
EME theory and Orbit
Prepared by: Thomas Ayalew
Submitted to: Dr. Ajay Babu
INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SCIENCES
FACULTY OF PUBLIC HEALTH
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCINCE AND TECHNOLOGY
3. Electromagnetic Energy(EME)
The definition which all scholar agreed on is:
Electromagnetic Energy (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or
their quanta,photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating
(radiating) through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
(Morin, 2013) It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible)
light,ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays. (Browne, 2013)
4. Historical development of Electromagnetic
• To successfully navigate the future one must understand the past.
• Latest discoveries trace back on the foundation of quantum
mechanics and physics of electromagnetic waves.
• Scientific revolution that was took place for the birth of EME
categorized under four eras or period.
• Four (4) Scientific revolution for the birth of Electromagnetic
Energy (EME) or Radiation.
I. Ages of reason and enlightenment
II.Nineteenth century physics
III.The quantum revolution
IV.The quantum paradox
I. Ages of reason and enlightenment:-Natural resonant frequencies discovery,
proof and get equations.
II.The 19th century physics:-Organization of scientists works, Mathematical
functn resonance dynamics, Introductn of kinetic energy and EM waves
III.The quantum revolution:-Modeling of the EM waves, explanations of
unexplained phenomena and the development of energy quanta theories.
IV.The quantum paradox:-beautifully symmetric quantum principles grounded
in reality and certainty, the completed quantum formula and a more inclusive or
complete. Eℎ t v
7. Electromagnetic Energy(EME) Theory
Wave theory date back to the 17th
light travels in a straight line (if no
influences) with energy levels changing
in a wave fashion.
• Light has two oscillating components;
the energy constantly changes
between electrical energy and
magnetic energy. We call it,
therefore, Electro- Magnetic energy. 7
8. EME Theory
• Electricity and Magnetism were thought to be separate
forces. However, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell
developed a unified theory of electromagnetism.
• The study of electromagnetism deals with how electrically
charged particles interact with each other and with magnetic
9. EME Theory
There are four main electromagnetic interactions:
1. The force of attraction or repulsion between electric charges is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between them. F~S2
2. Magnetic poles come in pairs that attract and repel each other, much as
electric charges do.
3. An electric current in a wire produces a magnetic field whose direction
depends on the direction of the current.
4. A moving electric field produces a magnetic field, and vice versa.
• Maxwell also developed a set of formulas, called Maxwell's
equations, to describe these phenomena. 9
10. EME Theory
Maxwell combined all the known laws of
electricity and magnetism to develop his
Gauss’ law gives the electric field (EF)
produced by electric charges ∇∙D = ρ
Faraday’s law gives the EF produced
by a changing MF ∇×E = −∂B/∂t
Ampère’s law gave the magnetic field
produced by an electric current ∇×H = J
A fourth law states that individual
magnetic charges cannot exist ∇∙B = 0
11. EME Theory
∇2B =µ0ε0∂2B/∂t2 (b)
∇2E =µ0ε0 ∂2E/∂t2 (a)
• Equations (a) and (b) establish the possibility of electro-
magnetic waves in free space. The speed of these waves is
given by v=1/µ0ε0 =3×108 m/s = speed of light, suggestive of
the electromagnetic nature of light.
• Maxwell said “We have now strong reason to believe,
whether my theory is a fact or not, that the luminiferous
and electromagnetic medium are one”.
12. Einstein’s theory of relativity owes its origin from Maxwell’s Equation.
• James Clerk Maxwell is the first man to
predict other frequencies radiation.
• This what we called Electromagnetic
spectrum. (it’s his Discovery)
• In 1861 he invented color photography.
• He described a existence of a vast
Electromagnetic spectrum years before
it could be detected.
• He died in 1879 at age 48 yrs. Old.
13. EME Theory
Key Applications that Depend on Maxwell’s Equations and
14. What is orbit?
• An orbit is the path that an
object takes in space when it
goes around a star, a planet, or a
• Many years ago, people thought
the sun orbits around it earth.
• Thanks to people like Copernicus
and Galileo Galilei, we knew it!
• Orbit is also a word for an eye socket.
The earth orbits around it Sun, but
they thought that all orbits had to be
• Thanks to Johannes Kepler he
found that the orbits are really
• Joseph Louis Lagrange advanced
ellipse shapes of orbits. 15
16. Satellite Orbits
• It a well-defined path of
satellites around the Earth.
• The 2 factors that keep the
satellites in any particular
Gravitational pull of the Earth
17. Satellite Orbits
There are 3 basic types of Satellite orbits in use:-
1) Geo-synchronous orbits √
2) Polar or near polar orbits √
3) Sun-synchronous orbits
Satellite orbits are matched to the capability and objective of the
sensor(s) they carry.
18. Geosynchronous Orbits
• Also known as Geostationary
• This orbits circle the Earth
every 23 hrs., 56 min, and
4.09 s ≈ 24 hrs.
• It is 35,790 km above the
Earth ≈ 36,000km
• Located in the equatorial
plane, with an inclination of
19. Geosynchronous Orbits
• Used to study large scale
phenomenon such as
hurricanes, or cyclones.
• Also used for communication
• They have poor resolution
because of distance.
• It is trouble to monitoring
activities near the poles. 19
20. Polar Orbit
• Its real name is near polar
• This orbits circle the Earth ≈
• It is ≈ 700-800km km above
• These orbits have near 90
21. Polar Orbit
• Make >1 revolution around
the earth in a 1 day.
• Have many uses in climatic
studies. e.g. measuring:-
O3 conc. in the stratosphere
To in the atmosphere
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Information Science and Earth Observation.
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3. Brooks, J. (2009,b). Hidden Variables The Elementary Quantum of Light. Proc. of SPIE, 7421, 13.
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8. Lucas, J. (2015, March 12). Live Science. (Live Science Contributor) Retrieved March 12, 2015, from
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University Web site: https://marine.rutgers.edu/cool/education/class/paul/orbits2.html
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