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IMPROVINGINSTRUCTIONALPRACTICES FOR K+12CURRICULUMESTELITAVALDEAVILLA- LLANITALasallian MasterTeacher08 June 2013
PART 1PART 1Introductory Noteson TeachingStrategiesK+12
Why learn from our craft?Why learn from our craft?As any good teacher knows, all studentsdo not learn in the same way.It is common for a class of students to beat a variety of levels in any particularsubject.Teachers need to usedifferent teaching methods in order toreach all students effectively.
RationaleRationaleA variety of teaching strategies, aknowledge of student levels, and animplementation of which strategies arebest for particular students can helpteachers to knowwhich teaching methods will be mostwhich teaching methods will be mosteffective for their classeffective for their class.
Assessment of Strategies - StepsAssessment of Strategies - Stepsassess the students (formal or informal)Review of previous instructionalexperience that the students havereceived as well as their academic levelDesign your own STRATEGIESCustomize it to fit youradvantage!
Areas of ConcernAreas of ConcernWhat makes an effective teachingstrategy?How do we teach our students?How do they learn?Why is there a need to use teachingtechniques?
Techniques, Strategies, TacticTechniques, Strategies, TacticWhat is the difference?How are they connected?
Tactic Vs. StrategyTactic Vs. StrategyStrategy TacticRefers to a plan of actiondesigned to achieve aparticular goal. The word isof military origin, derivingfrom the Greekwordστρατηγός (stratēgos),which roughly translates as"general".Tactic(s) may referto a plan,procedure, orexpedient forpromoting adesired end orresult
TechniqueTechniqueA systematic procedure, formula, orroutine by which a task is accomplished.
What Strategies areWhat Strategies areappropriate?appropriate?"Bear in mind that the wonderful things youlearn in your schools are the work of manygenerations, produced by enthusiastic effort andinfinite labor in every country of the world. Allthis is put into your hands as your inheritance inorder that you may receive it, honor it, add to it,and one day faithfully hand it to your children.Thus do we mortals achieve immortality in thepermanent things which we create in common."- Albert Einstein
What lessons should we teach andWhat lessons should we teach andlearn?learn?
Coherence and Knowledge in Basic EducationCoherence and Knowledge in Basic Education“Acquisition of skills is overemphasized ineducation to the detriment of accumulatingknowledge. A brand new computer with a fastprocessor is certainly nice, but without data towork with, the computer is still not useful. Howan individual performs in society not onlydepends on what this person knows what to do,but as important, on what this person knows.” http://philbasiceducation.blogspot.com/2013/05/coherence-and-knowledge-in-basic.html#ixzz2VEjK2JDG
Working MemoryWorking MemoryLearning requires "working memory", whichis not as large as ones total memory."Working memory" is that part of the brainthat helps on tasks currently at hand. Itscapacity is quite limited that withincoherence, it cannot properly function. Ina spiral curriculum, it is highly likely thatstudents will get stuck at the lower levels ofeach domain and each year will simply be arepeat of previous lessons. http://philbasiceducation.blogspot.com/2013/05/coherence-and-knowledge-in-basic.html#ixzz2VEkTTxDe
Spiral CurriculumSpiral CurriculumA spiral curriculum easily lends to afragmented approach to learning. Forcoherence, it is important that a learner isgiven the opportunity to get immersed inthe subject. This is only possible if studentsare provided long enough time to familiarizeand focus. Small doses and switchingfrequently between unrelated topics put somuch burden on ones brain especially onchildren. http://philbasiceducation.blogspot.com/2013/05/coherence-and-knowledge-in-basic.html#ixzz2VEkqglOM
Conceptual SchemePrincipleGeneralizationConceptFactHierarchy of Cognition
The best way to get nothing…The best way to get nothing…Overemphasizing skills and neglectingknowledge truly denies how a child learns.Cognitive skills are not acquired withoutcontext. Even with entertainment, one doesnot cycle through different movies. Instead,one watches a movie from beginning to end.With numerous cable channels, the best wayto get nothing at all is to keep surfingthrough channels. Yet, this wasteful exerciseis likewise being applied to basic education.: http://philbasiceducation.blogspot.com/2013/05/coherence-and-knowledge-in-basic.html#ixzz2VEliIGtS
Where we are in Place & TimeWhere we are in Place & TimeEmotionalClimate
Noting Details from ExperienceNoting Details from ExperiencePhysicalEnvironment
Noting Details for MasteryNoting Details for MasteryTeachingfor
Learning from Related LiteratureLearning from Related LiteratureLearningDesign
Design to ProductDesign to ProductTeachingforApplication
Assessment for Whom?Assessment for Whom?Rubric?Summative Test?Performance Task?3Is?ATM?Assessment
Level of ProficiencyLevel of ProficiencyUnder DepEd Order No. 31, five levelsof proficiency were identified, namely:Beginning, Developing, ApproachingProficiency, Proficient, and Advanced.The level of proficiency will be based onthe numerical grades earned by thestudents in a particular quarter and at theend of the school year.
K+12 and ModularInstructionModules as instructional materials respond well to theprinciples of individual differences, allowing each student toproceed at his/her own pace.While modules have been widely used as a desirablepedagogical practice, its actual utilization in classroominstruction leaves much to be desired.
What is a module?Module is a unit of work in a course ofinstruction that is virtually self-containedand a method of teaching that is based on thebuilding up skills and knowledgein discrete units.
Dr. Torralba as reiterated by Acero, et. al (2000)Dr. Torralba as reiterated by Acero, et. al (2000)adopted two definitions of modulesadopted two definitions of modulesDarrel Murray – First DefinitionA module is a self-contained andindependent unit of instruction with aprimary focus on a few well-definedobjectives. The substance of a moduleconsists of materials and instructionsneeded to accomplish these objectives.”
Good in 1973 described it as a teachingprocess suited to each student who isgiven a chance to advance at his/her ownrate, bypassing unnecessary instructionand satisfying his/her particular needsand learn in a considerably shorter time.
Second Definition: A module is a set oflearning opportunities systematically organizedaround a well defined topic which contains theelements of instruction- specific objectives,teaching-learning activities, and evaluation usingcriterion-referenced measure.
Title Target Population Overview Objectives Instructions to the learners Entry behavior and prerequisite skills Pre-test Pre-test feedback and evaluation Post test feedback and evaluation Teacher’s manual or guide Learning Activities Post test.
This refers to an inductive method of guidingstudents to discuss and organize ideas andprocesses themselves. It helps them use ideasalready acquired as a means of discoveringideas.It is the process by which the students aredirected subtly to go through the logicalprocess of observation, comparison, andabstraction, generalization, and application. Self-discovery sets up learning situations wherebythe learners are encouraged to explore aprocess or discover rules.
1. Guided Discovery. The teacherdraws out from his/her studentscertain bits of information throughproperly organized questions andexplanations leading them to theeventual discovery of particularconcepts or principles.
Pure Discovery. The students areexpected to arrive at certain conceptsand principles completely by themselves.
Guidelines in the Use of the DiscoveryApproach1. There should be a well-planned structuredinstructional strategy.2. Teacher must not answer questions, althoughs/he can give clues and hints.3. The teacher must not expect the students tofind out for themselves all concepts, ideas, andgeneralizations of the course.
It is about choosing and defining the content of acertain discipline to be taught through the use ofbig or pervasive ideas as against the traditionalpractice of determining content by isolatedtopics.
What did you discover from this photo?What did you discover from this photo?
Why are they reacting this way?Why are they reacting this way?
emphasis is not the content but in thebig ideas that pervade the subjectit is using the content as a means ofleading the students to discover the lawsand principles or generalization thatgovern a particular subject or discipline(Soriano, as reiterated by Acero, et.al)
stresses cognitive learningrequires categorization ofcontent from simple to complexlevelinvolves more data collectionusually through research
In this approach, the students are activelyengaged in the activities so thecompetencies needed in the subject couldeventually be acquired by them( ex. Cooking, driving, entrepreneurship..)
Three major points toconsider in theprocess approach:1. How to learn and not what to learn.2. Functional and not theoretical. (Learning aForeign Language)3. Human intellectual development.
It is the search for truth, information orknowledge. It pertains to research andinvestigation and to seeking for information byasking questions (Kilkman, 1970)Ex.: On Nancy Binay…Question: If she ran as Nancy Angeles, wouldshe have won on her own merit?
The generalization formed by the students aresubjected to a closer scrutiny during the inquirysession to lead the students toward in depthunderstanding of the generalization. It becomes inductive when through a set ofquestions presented, the students are able tocome up with certain ideas of their own whichare open for further investigation.
Other Teaching MethodologiesA. Whole Group Instruction is the mosttraditional form of classroom organization(Ornstein, 1982).Behavior Modeling – Acting out aparticular behavior the right way.Case Study – A problematic situationwritten or described in narrative form rangingfrom a paragraph to several paragraphs.
Cross-Impact Analysis - With the occurrenceof one or more separate situations, the learnersestimate possible linkages or casual relationshipbetween or among these events and come upwith action plan to deal with likely events.
Delphi Procedure - A method forobtaining the consensus of opinion of agroup of experts throughquestionnaires with controlled opinionfeedback.Demonstration - Showing the learnerhow to perform a task/activity or how tooperate equipment.
Devil’s AdvocateA method of dealing with a complexproblem or conflicting situation in thecontext of opposition. Conflicting viewsmay stem from different goals,perspectives, and role requirement. The“devil” serves as a critic-attacking ideapresented and defended by learners.
ExercisesDrill, board work, writing exercises thatrequire learners’ application of theacquired knowledge and skills.
Micro simulationsShort informal practice sessionswhereby learners perform a newtask/activity under artificial conditionsto help them develop a matrix ofsolutions and effects to help thelearners generate new ideas to dealwith future problems before theyoccur.
Role PlayA dramaticenactmentbetween two ormore peopleintended torepresent asituation.Simulationsand GamesA lengthy role playinvolving severalparticipants intendedto represent a work,a problem situation,or a real lifesituation.
Scenario AnalysisBuilding hypothetical sequence ofevents; answers the questions, “Ifthen, etc.” to determine the futureeffects pf a problem, issue, or trend.
Team World-Webbing/MindmappingStudents write simultaneously on apaper drawing to bridge the mainconcepts with their components,supporting elements in order to showmultiple relations among ideas, or todifferentiate concepts presented.
Five Senses Word Wheel inFive Senses Word Wheel inScienceScience
Using Word WheelsUsing Word Wheelshttp://www.enchantedlearning.com/wordwh/These two-page print-outs make wordwheels; each one consists of a base pagetogether with a wheel that spins around(they are connected by a metal brad).When you spin the wheel, words areformed or displayed. Heavy paper (likecardstock) makes better wheels.
Think-Pair-ShareEach student finds a pair to work on thetopic provided by the teacher. Theygenerate a concept, a conclusion throughinductive-deductive reasoning, and anapplication of the concept developed. Inthe end, the pair shares their thoughtswith the entire class.
Trips, Career Field Trips,Outbound Education andOn the Job TrainingVisits to museums, historical spots, Offices, LGU,Congress etc.
B. Small-Group InstructionB. Small-Group InstructionSmall groups provide anopportunity for students tobecome more actively engagedin learning and for teachers tomonitor students’ progressbetter. Between 5 to 8 studentsensure successful small-groupactivity.
Ability GroupingAbility GroupingGrouping learners according totheir ability and mentalpreparedness reduce theproblems of heterogeneity in theclassroom.
Other Instructional MethodsOther Instructional MethodsLocal History ProjectOpen ClassroomInnovative ProjectVideo-making ProjectOthers…
Local ExampleLocal ExampleLocal History ProjectAdvocacy CampaignMulti-cultural LinkagesAgora ForaDiplomats’ DayAhimsa ConcertFashion Fusion Festival
PART 3PART 3Contemporary Teaching StrategiesATM Based
What is Mastery Learning?Based on Benjamin Bloom’s Mastery of Learning,mastery learning is a teacher paced groupinstruction, one-to-one tutoring or self pacedlearning with programmed materials.presumes all children can learn if they areprovided with the appropriate learningconditions. a method where students are not advanced to asubsequent learning objective until theydemonstrate proficiency with the current one.
Role of the Teacher:directs group-based instructional techniques.Regularly correcting mistakes of studentsalong learning paths.Evaluates students using diagnostic orformative test.
Desired OutcomeStudents must show evidence ofunderstanding of material before moving tothe next lessonEvidence of high achievement
Baseline…Baseline…Life as it is lived is interconnected….
Interdisciplinary teaching is a method, or set ofmethods, used to teach a unit across differentcurricular disciplines.The basic building block of interdisciplinary teachingis known as a theme, thematic unit, or unit.Interdisciplinary teaching is all about simultaneousapplication of knowledge, ideas, and/or values of adomain in multiple academic domains.DefinitionDefinition
IDTIDTImpart knowledge using integration ofcontent and skills from several disciplinesto teach one particular discipline.Interdisciplinary methods work to createconnections between traditionallydiscrete disciplines such as mathematics,the sciences, social studies or history, andEnglish language arts.
Curriculum MatrixVertical and Horizontal MeetingsTheme Development/ Common StringsearchPeriodic ConsultationShared Assessment Input/OutputFeedback meetingMethods of IntegrationMethods of Integration
Answers educational problems likefragmentation and isolated skillinstructionTrain students on thinking and reasoningHelp us handle knowledge transferDesired OutcomeDesired Outcome
Team teaching involves a group ofinstructors working purposefully,regularly, and cooperatively to help agroup of students learn.
Different Formats ofTeam TeachingTeams comprise staff members who mayrepresent different areas of subjectexpertise but who share the same groupof students and a common planning periodto prepare for the teaching.
two or more teachers teach the samegroup at the same time
a team shares a common group ofstudents, shares planning for instructionbut team members teach different sub-groups within the whole group
planning is shared, but teachers eachteach their own specialism or their ownskills area to the whole group
Encourages innovations and experimentsImproved quality of teachingSpread responsibilities, encouragescreativity, deepens friendship, buildscommunity among teachers.Team teaching can lead to better studentperformanceAdvantagesAdvantages
Some teachers are rigid personality typesor may be wedded to a single method.Some dislike the other teachers on theteam.Team teaching makes more demands ontime and energy.DisadvantagesDisadvantages
Method of presenting new subject matterto students in a graded sequence ofcontrolled steps.Students work through the programmedmaterial by themselves at their own speedand after each step, test theircomprehension by answering anexamination question or filling in a diagram.
They are then immediately shown thecorrect answer or given additionalinformation.Computers and other types of teachingmachines are often used to present thematerial.
The teaching machine is composed ofmainly a program, which is a system ofcombined teaching and test items that carriesthe student gradually through the material tobe learned.The "machine" is composed by a fill-in-the-blank method on either a workbook or in acomputer. If the subject is correct, he/shegets reinforcement and moves on to the nextquestion.
If the answer is incorrect, the subjectstudies the correct answer to increasethe chance of getting reinforced nexttime.
Teachers RoleMonitor student progress on programmedmaterialsAssess the effectiveness of all programsProvide individualized tutoringMotivate students to participate inprogrammed activities
BenefitsImmediate knowledge of resultsIndividualized learningExpert instruction
Constructivism is a theory of knowledgethat argues that humans generate knowledgeand meaning from an interaction betweentheir experiences and their ideas.
Constructivist teaching is based on thebelief that learning occurs as learners areactively involved in a process of meaningand knowledge construction rather thanpassively receiving information.
Learner always builds upon knowledgethat a student already knows. This priorknowledge is called schemaWhat is the emphasis ofWhat is the emphasis ofconstructivist approach?constructivist approach?
Teacher leads through questions andactivities to discover.Discuss, appreciate and verbalize the newknowledge.Prompts and facilitate discussionRole of the teacherRole of the teacher
According to Audrey Gray, thecharacteristics of a constructivistclassroom are as follows:the learners are actively involvedthe environment is democraticthe activities are interactive and student-centeredthe teacher facilitates a process of learning inwhich students are encouraged to beresponsible and autonomous
Examples of constructivist activitiesExperimentationResearch projectsField tripsFilmsClass discussions
Students learn how to learn by giving themthe initiative for their own learningexperiences.Desired outcomeDesired outcome
Distance education or distance learning, is afield of education that focuses on teachingmethods and technology with the aim ofdelivering teaching, often on an individualbasis, to students who are not physicallypresent in a traditional educational settingsuch as a classroom.
Technologies used in deliveryThe types of available technologies used indistance education are divided into twogroups: Synchronous Asynchronous
Synchronous technology is a mode ofdelivery where all participants are "present" atthe same time. It resembles traditionalclassroom teaching methods despite theparticipants being located remotely. Itrequires a timetable to be organized.
The asynchronous mode of delivery iswhere participants access course materials ontheir own schedule and so is more flexible.Students are not required to be together atthe same time.
Benefits:Expanding accessAlleviate capacity constraintsMaking money from emerging marketsCatalyst for institutional transformation