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Reading_Lesson 2 text as connected discourse

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Reading_Lesson 2 text as connected discourse

  1. 1. Discourse - an extended expression of thoughts or ideas - utterance, talk, speech, discussion, and conversation * The ideas in discourse are not connected or do not have a particular structure.
  2. 2. Text - a large unit of written language - a group of ideas put together to make a point or one central idea - has a structure which requires the ideas in the discourse to be relevant to each other - an actually connected discourse
  3. 3. Properties of a Well-written Text 1. Organization - refers to the arrangement of ideas in a text * Creating an outline of ideas before you start writing can help your work become organized.
  4. 4. Outline - provides a format in which ideas can be arranged in a hierarchy- that is, it distinguishes the general ideas from the specific or subordinating ideas
  5. 5. 2. Coherence and Cohesion - refer to the connection of ideas and connection between sentences and between paragraphs * In order for you to assure coherence and cohesion, you need to use transitional or cohesive devices.
  6. 6. 3. Appropriate Language Use - refers to the acceptable style of language for a particular form of text
  7. 7. 4. Proper Mechanics - refers to the conventions of writing which includes capitalization, punctuation, spelling, numerals, abbreviations, acronyms and contractions
  8. 8. Morphology - the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language - analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as root words, prefixes, and suffixes
  9. 9. Morpheme Two Types of Morpheme: 1. Free Morpheme 2. Bound Morpheme - the smallest grammatical unit in a language
  10. 10. 1. Free Morpheme - can function independently as a word Examples: house, cat, blood
  11. 11. 2. Bound Morpheme - a word element attached to a root word (the main part of a word) to give it another meaning - cannot function independently as a word Examples: affixes (prefixes and suffixes)
  12. 12. Affix - a morpheme that is attached to a root word to form a new word 1. Prefix 2. Suffix
  13. 13. Prefix - a morpheme that comes before a root word Examples: auto- (automobile) in- (incorrect) over- (overcharge)
  14. 14. Suffix - a morpheme that comes after a root word Examples: -ful (forgetful) -ish (childish) -ive (active)
  15. 15. Two Varieties of Suffixes - modify the grammatical class of words by signaling a change in number, tense, degrees of comparison, and so on, but they do not shift the base form into another word class 1. Inflectional Suffixes
  16. 16. Inflectional Morphemes Added to Examples -s plural Nouns She got two guitars. -'s possessive Nouns Zeynep's hair is too long. -er comparative Adjectives Zeynep hair is longer than Derya. -est superlative Adjectives Zeynep has the longest hair. -s 3rd person singular present tense Verbs Zeynep plays the guitar. -ed past tense Verbs She played the guitar at the party. -ing progressive Verbs She is playing the guitar at the party. -en past participle Verbs She has taken the guitar at the party.
  17. 17. - modify either the part of speech or the actual meaning of a word 2. Derivational Suffixes Derivational Morpheme Meaning Examples -al relating to formal, postal, practical -less without homeless, hopeless -ous full of famous, cautious -hood state, condition, quality brotherhood, neighborhood
  18. 18. Compound Words - combination of two different words Examples: back + ward = backward (towards the reverse direction) book + shelf = bookshelf (storage of books) full + moon = full moon (a moon appearing as a bright circle) six + pack = six-pack (often in reference to a pack of drinks)
  19. 19. Context Clues - are words, phrases, and sentences that surround an unfamiliar word and help you recognize the meaning of an unknown word
  20. 20. Example: The narrator in the poem was euphoric at his son's victory, for he cried out triumphantly when the boy came home. - victorious; triumphant; very happy and excited 1. Synonyms - used when the text has words or phrases that ae similar in meaning to the unknown word euphoric
  21. 21. Other Examples: a. This situation is a conundrum - a puzzle. conundrum - a confusing or a difficult situation
  22. 22. b. Humpty Dumpty took great pleasure in obfuscating the poem's meaning to Alice. His explanations about the poem were confusing and complicated. obfuscating - making more difficult to understand; confusing
  23. 23. c. We are planning a picnic for today. It is sunny and warm outside. It will be an idyllic day - just perfect for a picnic. idyllic - perfect; very peaceful, happy, and enjoyable
  24. 24. Example: Although Mary was willing to play in the snow, Jack was reluctant because he was so cold. - not willing to do something 2. Antonyms - words that reveal the opposite meaning in relation to the unknown word reluctant
  25. 25. a. Marty is gregarious, not like his brother who is quiet and shy. gregarious - sociable; outgoing; extrovert
  26. 26. b. The lanky dog was not fat, even though he ate a lot. lanky - skinny
  27. 27. c. The rich woman gave a paltry sum to the charity even though she was able to give much more. paltry -very small or too small in amount
  28. 28. Example: Projectiles include those items that are shot forward such as a cannon shell, bullet, or rocket. - things (such as bullet or rocket) that are shot from weapon 3. Examples - are specific details in a text that are used to clarify the meaning of a word projectiles
  29. 29. a. Famous conquistadors include Cortes, who conquered Aztec Mexico and Pizarro, who conquered Inca Peru. conquistadors - conquerors; ones that take control of (a country or city) through the use of force
  30. 30. b. A sleuth, such as Sherlock Holmes, can be very helpful in solving crimes. sleuth - detective - someone who looks for information to solve crimes
  31. 31. c. Precipitation, such as rain and snow, falls from the sky. precipitation - water that falls to the ground (such as rain and snow)
  32. 32. Example: The prisoner was in a state of wrath—a feeling of intense anger. - extreme anger 4. Definition - is usually signaled by a form of the verb to be (am, is, are, was, were) or by commas or dashes wrath
  33. 33. a. To shun someone is to have nothing to do with that person. shun - to avoid deliberately
  34. 34. b. He seemed to be ill, but it was merely a ruse, that is, a clever trick to deceive us. ruse - a trick or act that is used to fool someone - a wily subterfuge - deception
  35. 35. c. Sedentary individuals, people who are not very active, often have diminished health. sedentary - not doing or involving much physical activity
  36. 36. Example: An evanescent ring surrounded the moon as it rose. It was there for a moment, and then it disappeared. - lasting a very short time; brief; momentary 5. Explanation - words or phrases that explain the unfamiliar word's meaning evanescent
  37. 37. a. Elis is a blithe young girl. She always greets everyone with a smile. blithe - cheerful; happy, lighthearted
  38. 38. b. Katie appeared infallible in math class because she had never gotten a problem wrong. infallible - unerring; - unfailing - not capable of being wrong
  39. 39. c. The tornado annihilated the whole town to the point that nothing was left standing. annihilated - destroyed; eradicated; exterminated; abolished
  40. 40. Simile - is identified by the use of “like,” “as,” “similar to,” and the like. They compare dissimilar objects that share certain charactristics Examples: 1. When he walked into the room, the entire audience looked up, like flowers turning towards the sun. 2. His headache was as painful as a root canal without the benefit of laughing gas.
  41. 41. Metaphor - directly refers to the object being described as being or previously being the object it is compared or connected to Examples: 1. The boom of his voice, all thunder and lightning, echoed through the entire hall. 2. The dog was a jack-in-the-box, trying to jump up on the visitors.
  42. 42. Essential Learning A text is a connected discourse, which means that all ideas in the text must be related in the sense that they would express only one main idea, or that the text must have unity by combining all ideas to emphasize central idea.

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