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Freeman and Urbaczewski (2002??): maps were created once without revision and without being handed back; expert map was made by one faculty member who had taught class BouJaoude and Attieh (2003):60 Grade 10 Chemistry student had pretests and postests – high achievers did not do better
CONCEPTMAPPINGMr. Surendra SharmaAssist. ProfessorSwift Institute of Nursing
A BRIEF HISTORY OF CONCEPTMAPPING• Concept mapping is a technique for visualizing therelationships among different concepts.• A concept map is a diagram showing the relationshipsamong concepts. Concepts are connected with labeledarrows. The relationship between concepts is articulatedin linking phrases, e.g., "gives rise to", "results in", "isrequired by," or "contributes to“.• It has subsequently been used as a tool to increasemeaningful learning in the sciences and other subjects aswell as to represent the expert knowledge of individualsand teams in education.
Concept maps have their origin in the learning movement calledconstructivism. In particular, constructivists hold that learners activelyconstruct knowledge. Novaks work is based on the cognitive theories, whostressed the importance of prior knowledge in being able to learn newconcepts. "The most important single factor influencing learning is what thelearner already knows. Ascertain this and teach accordingly."A BRIEF HISTORY OF CONCEPT MAPPINGKey References:• Ausubel, D., EducationalPsychology: A Cognitive View,Holt, Rinehart & Winston, (NewYork), 1968.• Novak, J.D. & Gowin, D.B.,Learning How to Learn,Cambridge University Press,(Cambridge), 1984.
NOVAK’S CONCEPT MAPPINGTECHNIQUE The concept mapping technique was developed by JosephD. Novak at Cornell University. Novak concluded that "Meaningful learning involves theassimilation of new concepts and propositions into existingcognitive structures". Novak’s work was based on the theories of Ausubel. Novak and Gowan (1984) have developed a theory ofinstruction that is based on Ausubels meaningful learningprinciples that incorporates "concept maps" to representmeaningful relationships between concepts andpropositions.Corbett, 2004
A cognitive map is a “kind of visual road mapshowing some of the pathways we may take toconnect meanings of concepts.” According to Novak and Gowan, concept mapsshould be hierarchical. The more general, more inclusive conceptsshould be at the top of the map, and the morespecific, less inclusive concepts at the bottomof the map.Corbett, 2004
WHAT IS CONCEPT MAPPING? Concept mapping is a technique for representingknowledge in graphs. Knowledge graphs are networks of concepts. Networks consist of nodes and links. Nodes represent concepts and links represent therelations between concepts.Corbett, 2004
Concepts and links are labeled. Links can be non-, uni- or bi-directional. Concepts and links may be categorized. They can be simply associative, Specified, or divided in categories such as causal or temporal relations.Corbett, 2004
DEFINITION A concept map is a graphical representation of apersons (students) knowledge of a domain. (Alpert& Grueneberg, 2001). The arrangement of major concepts from a text orlecture into a visual arrangement. Lines are drawnbetween associated concepts, and relationshipsbetween the connected concepts are named. Theseconcept maps reveal the structural pattern in thematerial and provide the big picture. ( Diane Ehrlich2006 )
PURPOSES OF CONCEPT MAPPINGPlotnick (1997) lists five purposes of conceptmapping: to generate ideas (brain storming, etc.) to design a complex structure (long texts,hypermedia, large web sites, etc.) to communicate complex ideas to aid learning by explicitly integrating newand old knowledge to assess understanding or diagnosemisunderstanding
CONCEPT MAPPING IN EDUCATIONRationales for concept mapping in education are based onseveral connected ideas:• General writing-to-learn arguments like writing favorsmaking connections, or writing in a different genre favorsmeta-cognitive activities.• Concept maps can prepare writing, assist in exploration andreading and be used as planning tools. More precisely:concept maps can be used as a creativity / brainstormingtool, as note taking tool, as planning tool for writing (inparticular hypertexts) or project (e.g. conjecture map), astool to express and communicate complex ideas.• Concept maps could an assessment tool for the teacherand/or could be used as teaching materials.
TYPES OF CONCEPT MAPSFour major categories of concept maps"Spider": Organized by placing the central theme orunifying factor in the center of the map. Outwardlyradiating sub-themes surround the center of the map."Flowchart": Organizes information in a linear format."Hierarchical": Presents information in a descending orderof importance. The most important information is placed onthe top. Distinguishing factors determine the placement of theinformation."Systems": Organizes information in a format which is similarto a flowchart with the addition of INPUTS and OUTPUTS.
MEANINGFUL LEARNINGCONTRASTED WITH ROTE LEARNING Rote LearningArbitrary, verbatim, non-substantiveincorporation of new knowledge into cognitivestructure.No effort to integrate new knowledge with existingconcepts in cognitive structure.Learning not related to experience with events orobjects.No affective commitment to relate new knowledgeto prior learning.
Meaningful LearningNon-arbitrary, non-verbatim, substantiveincorporation of new knowledge into cognitivestructure.Deliberate effort to link new knowledge with higherorder concepts in cognitive structureLearning related to experiences with events orobjects.Affective commitment to relate new knowledge toprior learning.
CONCEPT MAPPING AS A STUDENTLEARNING TOOL To learn course material Students can use concept maps to take class notes. Students can use concept maps to organize class notes or coursematerial. To integrate course content Students can use concept maps to connect material learnedthroughout the semester. To integrate material across different courses Concept mapping can foster a students understanding of howdifferent courses relate if they map the prominent concepts fromdifferent courses that they have taken (e.g. compose one map ofterms from a statistics class and a research design class).
To assess their own learning. Concept maps can be used toassess changes and growth in the students conceptualunderstanding as a result of instruction received in thecourse. Learning can be evaluated before a course begins (to evaluatestudents prior knowledge), during the semester (to evaluatechanges in the students knowledge), and/or at the end of thesemester (to evaluate the students knowledge after all coursematerial has been covered). Concept maps can be used to evaluate changes in learning over timeand to evaluate end of course knowledge. A concept map can provide feedback to the student so thats/he can check her/his understanding of the material to seeif any connections are missing.
HOW TO CREATE A CONCEPT MAP1. Identify the important terms or concepts that you wantto include on your map2. Arrange concepts in a pattern that best represents theinformation3. Use circles or ovals to enclose an important term orconcept within the topic4. Use straight lines with arrows (single or double-headed) to link terms that are related5. Use a word or phrase of words as labels along the linesto designate the relationship between two connectedterms
1. IDENTIFY THE IMPORTANT TERMS ORCONCEPTS THAT YOU WANT TO INCLUDE ONYOUR MAP There are three strategies to identify importantconcepts to include concepts on a concept map:An instructor generated list and students are notpermitted to add their own conceptsAn instructor generated list but the students are allowedto add their own concepts to the listAn entirely student-generated list of concepts on aparticular subject For novice concept mappers, it is probably best tohave the terms provided.
2. ARRANGE CONCEPTS IN A PATTERN THAT BESTREPRESENTS THE INFORMATION One can choose to use a hierarchical or non-hierarchical structure. The use of hierarchical or non-hierarchical mapsmay have different benefits in terms of pedagogyand assessment. Novice mappers may want to create their conceptmaps using post-it notes so that they can easilychange the location of any concept before a finalversion is constructed.
3. USE CIRCLES OR OVALS TO ENCLOSE ANIMPORTANT TERM OR CONCEPT WITHIN THETOPIC Each circle or oval should enclose only oneterm or concept. However, terms can be morethan one word.
4. USE STRAIGHT LINES WITH ARROWS (SINGLEOR DOUBLE-HEADED) TO LINK TERMS THAT ARERELATED Each line should link only two concepts. However, there is no limit to the number oflinks stemming from any one term. Pay close attention to the direction of thearrowheads on the linking lines when labelingthem. Each concept is defined by its relation toother concepts within the topic. Relationsinclude: superset, subset, attribute, part-whole.
5. USE A WORD OR PHRASE OF WORDS AS LABELSALONG THE LINES TO DESIGNATE THE RELATIONSHIPBETWEEN TWO CONNECTED TERMS Each line should have a label that describesthe relationship between the two terms itconnects. Example:ImportanttermImportanttermImportanttermImportanttermrelationship linkrelationship linkmutualrelationship linkmutualrelationshiplinkfeedbackloop link
HOW TO MAKE CONCEPT MAPPING AFRUITFUL EXERCISE Students need to producing maps; the more they do it, the betterthey’ll understand the process. Begin with a simple topic, using a small number of concepts. Work through example(s) with the group, modifying the mapwhere necessary – using post-it notes can help to developconfidence and facilitates changes. Emphasize importance of thinking about all possible links. Emphasize importance of writing down the nature of the links. Emphasize that there is no single “correct” answer; often morethan one appropriate link. Emphasize importance of using arrows and their direction indescribing the proposition.
STEPS IN CONCEPT MAP CARE PLANNING The nursing process is foundational to developing andusing the concept map care plan or any other type ofnursing care plan. The nursing process involvesassessing, diagnosing, planning, implementing, andevaluating nursing care. These steps of the nursing process are related to thedevelopment of concept map care plans and the use ofcare plans during patient care in clinical settings.Cont….
STEPS IN CONCEPT MAP CARE PLANNING Step 1: Develop a Basic Skeleton Diagram Step 2: Analyze and Categorize Data Step 3: Analyze Nursing Diagnoses Relationships Step4: Identifying Goals, Outcomes, andInterventions Step 5: Evaluate Patient’s Responses
SOME RESEARCH ON CONCEPTMAPS Freeman and Urbaczewski (2002??): 62undergraduate telecommunication students created 3maps during Spring 2001 semester; maps increasedin size/complexity, and similarity to “expert map” BouJaoude and Attieh (2003):60 Grade 10 Chemistrystudent created maps for homework; females and lowachievers scored higher on their post-tests
REFERENCES Ausubel, David P. (1968). Educational Psychology, A Cognitive View. New York: Holt,Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Ausubel, David P. (1967). Learning Theory and classroomPractice. Ontario: The Ontario Institute For Studies In Education. Ausubel, David P. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York: Grune& Stratton.Angelo, T. A. and Cross, K. P. Classroom Assessment Techniques, A Handbook forCollege Teachers (2nd ed., p. 197). Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1993. Jonassen, D.H., Beissneer K., and Yacci, M.A. (1993) Structural Knowledge: Techniques forConveying, Assessing, and Acquiring Structural Knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates. Novak, J.D. (1991) "Clarify with Concept Maps: A tool for students and teachers alike," TheScience Teacher, 58 (7), pp. 45-49. http://cmap.coginst.uwf.edu/info/ http://users.edte.utwente.nl/lanzing/cm_home.htm http://www-personal.umich.edu/%7ejmargeru/conceptmap/types.htm Use of concept maps in teaching:http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~johnson/misconceptions/concept_map/cmapguid.html