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Reproductive system physiology revision notes

reproductive system physiology revision notes

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Reproductive system physiology revision notes

  1. 1. SEX DETERMINATION • DEVELOPMENT OF GENOTYPE • @ FERILISATION SEX DIFFERENTIATION • DEVELOPMENT OF PHENOTYPE • DEVELOPMENT OF GONADS INTERNAL & EXTERNAL GENITALIA
  2. 2.  PRODUCED BY SETOLI CELLS  HELP IN REGRESSION OF MULLERIAN DUCT  DESCENT OF TESTIS
  3. 3. GONADS CORTEX MEDULL A OVARY TESTIS
  4. 4. • FEMALE • EMBRYONIC OVARY DOES NOT PRODUCE ANY HORMONE • REGRESSION OF WOLFFIAN DUCT (IN ABSENCE OF TESTOSTERONE & MIS) • MALE • MIS  REGRESSION OF MULLERIAN DUCT •  DEVELOPMENT OF EPIDIDIYMIS VAS DEFERENS & EJACULATORY DUCTS
  5. 5.  EMBRYONIC OVARIES DONOT SECRETE ANY HORMONE
  6. 6.  IN MALE 9-14 YRS  IN FEMALE 8-13 YRS  D/T PULSATILE GnRH RELEASE & INCREASE LH  TILL PUBERTY IT IS KEPT UNDER INHIBITION BY GABA nergic NEURON
  7. 7. EXCITATORY NEUROMODULATOR  KISSPEPTIN  GLUTAMATE  NOR EPINEPHRINE INHIBITORY NEUROMODULATOR  GABA  OPIODS  GONADAL STEROIDS  NPY  MELATONIN
  8. 8.  LEPTIN HAS PERMISSIVE FACTOR
  9. 9. GnRH LH FSH LEYDIG CELLS SERTOLI CELLS GnRH LH FSH THECA CELLS GRANULOSA CELLS ESTROGEN
  10. 10. FSH RECEPTOR •GRANULOSA CELL •SERTOLI CELL LH RECEPTOR •GRANULOSA CELL •THECA INTERNA •LEYDIG CELLS IN MALE
  11. 11. • CORTISOL • PROGESTERONE C21STEROID • TESTOSTERONEC19 STEROID • ESTROGENC18 STEROID
  12. 12.  3 ISOFORMS •NORMAL ADULT WOMANESTRADIOL •IN PREGNANCYESTRIOL •POST MENOPAUSALESTRADIONE
  13. 13. ANDROS TENIDIONE ESTRADIOL AROMATAS E ALSO PRESENT IN FAT LIVER MUSCLE BRAIN
  14. 14.  18 CARBON STEROIDS  SECRETED MAINLY BY OVARY(GRANULOSA CELLS) CORPUS LUTEUM & PALCENTA
  15. 15. Actions of Estrogens • Sex organs: • Responsible for pubertal changes • Growth of uterus, fallopian tubes and vagina • Mensturation in anovulatory cycles • Enhances sperm penetration • Deficiency leads to atrophic changes in female reproductive tract • ESTROGEN SENSITISES UTERUS TO OXYTOCIN • BY INCREASING NUMBER OF GAP JUNCTION • Secondary Sex Characters: • Breasts: proliferation of ducts and stroma, accumulation of fat • Feminine body contours and behaviours IRRESPECTIVE OF SEX GROWTH OF AXILALRY & PUBIC HAIR IS BY DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE
  16. 16. Actions of Estrogens: Metabolic Effects • Anabolic, weaker than testosterone • Responsible for pubertal growth spurt in both boys and girls • Bone Mass: • Retards bone resorption • Promotes fusion of epiphyses • POSITIVE CALCIUM BALANCE BY INDUCING 1α HYDROXYLASE SM 9 • Water and salt retention: edema treatable by diuretics; Blood pressure may rise on prolonged use • Glucose tolerance(high doses as in combined OCPs): impaired, normal blood sugar not affected, diabetes precipitated, control lost • Lipid Profile: decreased plasma LDL cholestrol, increase HDL and TG levels; raised HDL:LDL ratio • NEURONS • PROLIFERATION OF DENDRITES IN NEURON IRRESPECTIVE OF SEX  BONE EPIPHYSIS CLOSURE IN BOTH SEXES IS BY ESTROGEN
  17. 17. Actions of Estrogens: Metabolic Effects • Blood Coagulability: increased due to induction of synthesis of clotting factors (factors II, VII, IX and X); Fibrinolytic activity increases (lowering of plasminogen-activator inhibitor-I, PAI-I) • Vascular Endothelium: Nitric oxide synthase and Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) production  promotes vasodilatation, • Gallbladder: increases lithogenicity (increased cholesterol secretion and decresed bile salt secretion) • Hormone Binding Globulins: increases plasma Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), Thyroxine Binding Globulin (TBG), Cortisol Binding Globulin (CBG)
  18. 18.  C21 STEROID  SECRETED BY CORPUS LUTEUM PLACENTA & IN SMALL AMOUNTS FROM FOLLICLE
  19. 19.  Uterus:  Secretory changes in the estrogen primed endometrium: hyperemia, tortuosity of glands, increased secretion.  Continued action (as during pregnancy): decidual changes and sensitivity of myometrium to oxytocin decreased  Cervix:  Secretion made viscid, scanty and cellular secretion: hostile to sperm penetration  Vagina:  Pregnancy like changes
  20. 20.  Breast:  Leutal phase exposure: cyclic epithelial proliferation and turnover of acini in mammary glands ALVEOLAR & LOBULE PROLIFERATION  Continuous exposure: halts mitotic activity and stabilizes mammary cells; prepares breast for lactation  DECREASES THE SENSITIVITY OF UTERUS TO OXICITOCIN  CNS:  High concentration has sedative effect  Body Temperature:  Slight rise in body temperature (0.5oC)
  21. 21.  Respiration:  Stimulates respiration at higher dosesPCO2 LEVEL DECREASES  Metabolism:  Prolong use of Oral contraceptives impairs glucose tolerance  Raises LDL and lower HDL, cholesterol levels (androgenic activity; not seen with natural progesterone)  Pituitary:  Weak inhibitor of Gonadotrophin secretion  Supresses preovulatory LH surge and prevents ovulation if given during follicular phase
  22. 22. ESTROGEN  THICKENING STRATIFIED & CORNIFICATION OF VAGINAL EPITHELIUM PROGESTERONE  PERGNANCY LIKE CHANGES IN THE VAGINAL MUCOSA  LEUKOCYTE INFILTRATION OF CORNIFIED EPITHELIUM
  23. 23. ORGAN ACTION OF PROGESTERONE UTERU S • ANTIESTROGENIC • DECREASES EXCITABILITY • DECREASES OXYTOCIN SENSITIVITY BREAS T GROWTH OF LOBULES & ALVEOLI CNS INHIBIT LH SECRETION KIDNE Y • NATRIURESIS • BLOCKS ALDOSTERONE OTHER S • STIMULATE RESIRATION • THERMOGENIC ORGAN ACTION OF ESTROGEN UTERU S • MUSCLE GROWTH • MORE CONTRACTILE PROTEINS • ACTIVE & EXCITABLE • INCREASE SENSITIVITY TO OXYTOCIN BREAS T PROMOTES DUCTAL GROWTH BONE CLOSURE OF EPIPHYSIS METAB OLISM LOWERS CHOLESTROL KIDNE Y SALT & WATER RETENTION CNS PROLIFERATION OF DENDRITES
  24. 24.  INHIBIN  ACTIVIN  RELAXIN
  25. 25.  Proteins  INHIBIN PRODUCED BY GRANULOSA CELLS & CORPUS LUTEUM IN OVARY  BY SEROLI CELLS IN MALE  INHIBIN  2 FORMS  INHIBIN A  INHIBIN B  INIHBIN B INHIBITS FSH RELESE
  26. 26.  Polypeptide  Increase FSH  Formation of wbc in embryo  Formation of mesoderm in embryo FOLLISTATIN  INACTIVATOR OF ACTIVIN FOLLISTATIN  DECREASES FSH LEVEL
  27. 27.  Polypeptide hormone  Relaxes pubic symphysis & softens cervix  Sources  Corpus luteum  Uterus  placenta  Mammary glands in women  Prostate in man  found in semen  In men it help in sperm motility & sperm pentration of ovum
  28. 28.  OVARIAN CYCLE  ENDOMETRIAL CYCLE
  29. 29. ABOUT 10 FOLLICLES DEVELOP BY END OF 1 WEEK BUT ONLY 1 FOLLICLE MATURE TO FORM GRAFIAN FOLLICLE D/T CORPUS LUTEUM OVULATION
  30. 30.  20 -24 WEEKS IUL  7 MILLION PRIMARY OOCYTE  @BIRTH  2-4 MILLION  @ PUBERTY 3-4 LAKHS
  31. 31.  MAXIMUM MATURATION BY 21 DAYS  MAXIMUM SIZE BY 24 DAYS  CORPUS LUTEUM REGRESSES AFTER 24 DAYS (10 DAYS AFTER OVULATION)  Corpus luteum is maintained by progesterone in eraly pregnancy & late by beta HCG
  32. 32.  LH RISES ABOUT ABOUT 24-36 HOURS BEFORE OVULATION  LH PEAK OCCURS ABOUT 8-12 HRS PRIOR TO OVULATION  ESTRADIOL IS RESPONSIBLE FOR LH SURGE  ESTROGEN LEVEL RISE MORETHAN 300 % FOR 36 HRS  POSITIVE FEEDBACK  OTHERWISE NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ON LH
  33. 33.  PROGESTERONE RAISES AFTER OVULATION (FROM CORPUS LUTEUM)  ESTROGEN ALSO RISES IN LUTEAL PHASE (FROM CORPUS LUTEUM)
  34. 34.  PROGESTRONE   RISE IN BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE (0.5%)  D/T THERMOGENIC ACTION  SECRETORY CHANGES IN ENDOMETRIUM D/T THERMOGENIC ACTION OF PROGESTERONE
  35. 35.  BLOOD TESTIS BARRIER  NURSING CELLS  NUTRITION  SPERMIOGENESIS  PHAGOCYTOSIS OF DEAD CELLS  PRODUSE  MIS  ABP  CONCENTRATES TESTOSTERONE  ESTROGEN (D/T AROMATASE )  INHIBIN  HY ANTIGEN ESTROGEN HELPS IN EPIPHYSEAL CLOSURE & SPERMATOGENESIS
  36. 36.  C19
  37. 37. TESTOSTERON E DIHYDROTESTOSTERON E 5 α REDUCTASE TYPE 1 5 α REDUCTASE SKIN & SCALP TYPE 25 α REDUCTASE GENITAL
  38. 38. TESTOSTERONE  SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION  WOLFFIAN STIMULATION  INTERNAL GENITAL GROWTH  INCREASE MUSCLE MASS  MALE SEX DRIVE & LIBIDO  Na & WATER RETENTION ACTIONS OF DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE  EXTERNAL GENITAL GROWTH  SEXUAL MATURATION @ PUBERTY  TREMENDOUSLY RAISED IN PUBERTY
  39. 39. • EACH SPERMATOGONIUM  512 SPERMS
  40. 40. Setoli cells have FSH receptors
  41. 41. Spermiogenesis
  42. 42. Length of spermatozoa is 65 um
  43. 43. • ESTROGEN CONTENT OF THE FLUID IN RETE TESTIS IS HIGH & WALLS OF RETE TESTIS CONTAINS NUMEROUS ESTROGEN RECEPTORS  CONCENTRATION OF SPERMATOZOA
  44. 44. • EPIDIDYMIS  PRIMARY STORE HOUSE OF SPERMATOZOA • ATTAINS MOTILITY • D/T ACTIVATION OF CATSPER PROTEIN • CA2+ CHANNEL • VAS DEFERENS  SECONDARY STORE HOUSE OF SPERM
  45. 45. CATSPER PROTEIN IN EPIDIDYMIS
  46. 46. Semen • pH 7.35 – 7.5 • 100 million /ml with <20 of abnormal form • Moves @ 3mm/min • Once ejaculated • 1-2 days in female genital tract
  47. 47. FRUCTOSE  SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR SPERM PHOSPHORYL CHOLINE IN FLORENCE TEST IN RAPE CASE VITAMIN C ACT AS ANTIOXIDANT SPERMINE DETECTED BY BARBERIO TEST
  48. 48. SEMINAL VESICLE  60 % AFP – 60 • Ascorbic acid • Fructose(source of energy) • Prostaglandins (stimulate movements of female genital tract  help in movement of sperms) Prostate • Spermine  detected by barberios test • Citrate • Acid phosphatase • PSA (protease) • Dissolves gel like consistency of seminal secretion Prostatic fluid makes medium alkaline  neutralises acidic pH of vagina
  49. 49. Barberio test • Barberio’s test • A saturated aqueous or alcoholic solution of picric acidQ when added to spermatic fluid produces yellow needle shaped crystals of spermine picrate • In Barberio’s test presence of spermine from prostate in semen is detected. • More Specific test for seminal fluid
  50. 50. • FIBRINOLYSIN IN SEMEN HELP IN LIQUEFACTION OF SEMEN AFTER 30 MINUTES
  51. 51. RELEASE OF SEMEN • CONTRACTION OF SMOOTH MUSCLES OF VAS DEFERENS
  52. 52. SPERM CAPCITATION IN FEMALE GENITAL TRACT • CAPACITATION WILL INCREASE SPERM MOTILITY & PREPARATION FOR ACROSOSMAL REACTION
  53. 53. ACROSOMAL REACTION
  54. 54. • SPERMATOGENESIS IS MOSTLY CONTROLLED BY FSH (NOT LH)
  55. 55. ENDOCRINE FUNCTION OF PLACENTA
  56. 56.  HCS  HCG BOTH PRODUCED BY SYNCITIOTROPHOBLA ST
  57. 57.  PRODUCED BY SYNCITIOTROPHOBLAST  α SUBUNIT OF hCG resembles that of LH FSH & TSH  PRODUCED IN CHORIOCARCINOMA  AS EARLY AS 6 DAYS DETECTABLE IN BLOOD BY RADIOIMMUNOASSAY  IN URINE DETECTABLE AFTR 14 DAYS  ACTS VIA LH RECEPTOR  LEUTINIZING & LUTEOTROPIC ACYION
  58. 58.  PRODUCED BY SYNCITIOTROPHOBLAST  ACTIONS SIMILAR TO GH  MATERNAL GH OF PREGNANCY  PROMOTES LIPOLYSIS IN MOTHER  DIVERTS GLUCOSE TO MOTHER  LOW LEVELS OF hCS placental insufficiency
  59. 59.  ESTROGEN  PROLIFERATION OF DUCTS  PROGESTRONE  LOBULOALVEOLAR DEVELOPMENT  PROLACTIN PRODUCES MILK(LACTOGENESIS)  OXYTOCIN  MILK EJECTION (GALACTOKINESIS)  GH ALSO HAVE EFFECT
  60. 60.  INHIBITS GnRH SECRETION
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reproductive system physiology revision notes

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