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Design for Emotion and Flow

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Over the last few years, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of flow has become a popular topic within design circles. Many designers and information architects now view the psychological state of flow as a desirable goal for the end users of the products and interfaces they create. User experience professionals now have a clear target around which to center their design efforts.

Although the characteristics of the flow experience are well defined in psychological circles, there are a number of questions that have not been addressed with regard to this psychological state.

• How do users’ emotional states affect the creation of flow?
• What are the differences between novice and experienced users when it come
to creating flow?
• How do differences in the goals (i.e. experiential vs. goal directed) of users affect the creation of flow?

This presentation will explore the role of emotions in determining the creation of flow. This includes the role that emotional states play in affecting how we focus attention, learn, process and use information.

The creation of flow is ultimately determined by a combination of our individual skill levels, the challenge provided by the task at hand, and the level of motivation we have to complete that task.

Understanding how to enhance users’ experiences by creating flow states allows us to tailor the design of products, websites and software to different user groups with different levels of skill. This is important because products that can elicit flow tend to create higher levels of loyalty amongst users.

Viewers will learn about the underlying causes, characteristics and consequences of flow. They will also learn how flow is related to emotional design, and how to take user goals into consideration when designing for flow.

Publié dans : Design
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Design for Emotion and Flow

  1. 1. by Trevor van Gorp Trevor van Gorp, BFA, M.E.Des, IAI, ACE Principal, affective design inc. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada TEL: 780.240.4889 BLOG: http://www.affectivedesign.com WEB: http://affectivedesign.com Design for Emotion and Flow:
  2. 2. Information Overload © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  3. 3. Competing for Your Attention © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  4. 4. Poverty of Attention <ul><li>“ What information consumes is rather obvious; it consumes the attention of its recipients … a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention” </li></ul><ul><li>(Simon 1971) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Emotion, Attention and Arousal “ You may not be able to bring your unconscious mind’s activity into awareness as thoughts, but this activity will always be reflected in the body…“ Eckhart Tolle
  6. 6. Dimensions of Emotion Emotional States (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Russell 1980) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  7. 7. Emotional States (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Russell 1980) Dimensions of Emotion © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  8. 8. Dimensions of Emotion Emotional States (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Russell 1980) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  9. 9. Attention and Arousal <ul><li>• Arousal/stimulation level </li></ul><ul><li>- Determines strength and clarity of attention </li></ul>• Attention - Selects relevant information • Focus of attention - Is what enters consciousness (Csikszentmihalyi 1990)
  10. 10. Affecting Arousal Levels <ul><li>Stimulating </li></ul><ul><li>Loud, sudden noises </li></ul><ul><li>Bright, high value colors </li></ul><ul><li>High contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Calming </li></ul><ul><li>Gentle, repetitive noises </li></ul><ul><li>Subdued, low value colors </li></ul><ul><li>Low contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of movement </li></ul>(van Gorp, 2006) (Fehrman & Fehrman 2000)
  11. 11. Contrast and Hue © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  12. 12. Contrast and Hue © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  13. 13. Contrast and Hue © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  14. 14. Contrast and Hue © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  15. 15. Interpersonal Distance © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  16. 16. Interpersonal Distance © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  17. 17. Arousal, Attention and Flow “ Don’t wish for fewer problems, wish for more skills. Don’t wish for less challenges, wish for more wisdom…“ Earl Shoaf
  18. 18. Arousal and Performance
  19. 19. Arousal and Performance
  20. 20. Arousal and Performance
  21. 21. Arousal and Performance
  22. 22. Attention and Flow <ul><li>Flow </li></ul>(Csikszentmihalyi 1990) <ul><ul><li>Few interruptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge matches skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task has clear goals and immediate feedback </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Attention and Flow Anxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1990) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  24. 24. Attention and Flow Level of Physiological Arousal Anxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1990) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  25. 25. Attention and Flow Level of Physiological Arousal Anxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1990) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  26. 26. Attention and Flow Level of Physiological Arousal Anxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1990) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  27. 27. Attention and Flow Level of Physiological Arousal Anxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1990) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  28. 28. Attention and Flow Level of Physiological Arousal Anxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1990) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  29. 29. Attention and Flow Flow and Emotion (Csikszentmihalyi 2008) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  30. 30. Attention and Flow Flow and Emotion (Csikszentmihalyi 2008) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  31. 31. Attention and Flow Flow and Emotion (Csikszentmihalyi 2008) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  32. 32. Elements of Flow <ul><li>1. Causes of Flow </li></ul><ul><li>2. Characteristics of Flow </li></ul><ul><li>3. Consequences of Flow </li></ul>(Novak, Hoffman and Yung 1999)
  33. 33. 1. Causes of Flow <ul><li>A clear goal </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback on the success of attempts to reach that goal </li></ul><ul><li>A challenge you’re confident you have the skills to handle </li></ul>(Csikszentmihalyi 1990)
  34. 34. 2. Characteristics of Flow <ul><li>Total concentration and focused attention </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of control over interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to new things </li></ul><ul><li>Increased exploratory behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Increased learning </li></ul><ul><li>Positive feelings </li></ul>
  35. 35. 3. Consequences of Flow <ul><li>Loss of consciousness of self </li></ul><ul><li>Distortions in the perception of time </li></ul><ul><li>Activity is perceived as intrinsically rewarding </li></ul>
  36. 36. Designing for Flow “ Balance is the aim of all living creatures. It is our home…“ Rolf Gates
  37. 37. What is this? © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  38. 38. © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  39. 39. © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  40. 40. © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  41. 41. Emotion and Personality (Desmet 2002) © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  42. 42. Emotion and Personality © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  43. 43. A Question of Confidence? © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  44. 44. A Question of Confidence? © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  45. 45. A Question of Confidence? © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  46. 46. Products as Personalities © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  47. 47. Designing for Flow <ul><li>A clear goal… </li></ul>
  48. 48. What does this company do?
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Designing for Flow <ul><li>A clear goal… </li></ul><ul><li>With immediate feedback on the success of attempts to reach that goal… </li></ul>
  52. 52.
  53. 53. Designing for Flow <ul><li>A clear goal… </li></ul><ul><li>With immediate feedback on the success of attempts to reach that goal… </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing the perception of challenge against users’ skill level </li></ul>
  54. 54. Perception of Challenge <ul><li>Novice users </li></ul><ul><li>- More experientially oriented </li></ul><ul><li>- Less challenging </li></ul><ul><li>- More exploratory </li></ul><ul><li>- Entertainment-oriented </li></ul>(Novak, Hoffman and Yung 1999) (King 2003)
  55. 55. Experiential © Trevor van Gorp, affective design inc. 2010 April 11, 2010
  56. 56. Perception of Challenge <ul><li>Experienced Users </li></ul><ul><li>- More challenging & goal directed </li></ul><ul><li>- Less exploratory </li></ul><ul><li>- Connected with tasks </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. research, work and shopping) </li></ul>(Novak, Hoffman and Yung 1999)(King 2003)
  57. 57. Goal Directed
  58. 58. Goal Directed vs. Experiential <ul><li>Match perceived challenge to users </li></ul><ul><li>skill level through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User friendly interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for increased complexity </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Content and Flow Welcome to DATS I-Book Login; an online booking tool that allows our clients to book, cancel and view their trips on the web. In order To use DATS I-Book, you will need a Client ID and password. If you need this information, please contact our Customer Care Centre at 780-496-4567, Option 3 or e-mail us at dats@edmonton.ca DATS I-Book was designed to better serve our clients: this online booking tool allows registered clients to better access and control their transportation plans. Some of the features available to DATS I-Book users include: The option of viewing and canceling trips 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The choice to independently book trips online during the same hours our Customer Care Centre is available to clients: 7:30 A.M. – 5:00 P.M. Monday to Friday and 7:30 – 12:00 P.M. Saturday to Sunday. The ability to check one’s profile in order to keep information up-to-date. If you would like to change any information in your profile, please contact our Customer Care Centre at 780-496-4567, Option 3 or e-mail us at dats@edmonton.ca. Please use the Help function if you need any assistance in using DATS I-Book.order To use DATS I-Book, you will need a Client ID and password.
  60. 60. Content and Flow <ul><li>Start </li></ul><ul><li>Log in with your Client ID and password. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain a Client ID By: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Calling the Customer Care Centre at 780-496-4567 (Choose option 3) or… </li></ul><ul><li>2. E-mail us at: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Use DATS I-Book To: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> View, book and change trips 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book trips online through the Customer Care Centre </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hours: 7:30 A.M. to 5:00 PM - Monday to Friday </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7:30 AM to 12:00 PM - Saturday and Sunday. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> View and update your profile to keep information up-to-date. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To Update Your Profile: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Please contact our Customer Care Centre at 780-496-4567, (Choose option 3) </li></ul><ul><li>2. E-mail us at: [email_address] </li></ul>
  61. 61. Conclusions - Fostering Flow <ul><li>Clear navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users know where they are and where they’ve been </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include signposts such as breadcrumbs, effective page titles and visited link indicators. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Conclusions - Fostering Flow <ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All navigation should provide quick and immediate feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide indicators like progress bars to hold the users’ attention </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Conclusions - Fostering Flow <ul><li>Balance the perception of challenge with the user’s skill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance complexity of the visual design with the number of tasks and features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider usage motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailor product to likely usage scenario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal directed - less arousing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential - more arousing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  64. 64. www.affectivedesign.com [email_address] @affectivedesign Get in touch!
  65. 65. Thanks for Coming!
  66. 66. References <ul><li>Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1990). Flow - the Psychology of Optimal Experience . New York: Harper Perennial. </li></ul><ul><li>Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1990). Flow – the Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper Perennial. </li></ul><ul><li>Desmet, Pieter, R. (2002). Designing Emotions . Pieter Desmet. Delft. </li></ul><ul><li>Russell, J.A. (1980). “A circumplex model of affect”. In Journal of Personality and Social </li></ul><ul><li>Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2008). Creativity, Fulfillment and Flow, TED talk. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Fehrman, Kenneth R. and Cherie Fehrman. (2000). Color - The Secret Influence . New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>King, Andrew B. “Chapter 2 – Flow in Web Design.” 2003. http://www.websiteoptimization.com/speed/2/ accessed on January 21/2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoffman, D.L, Novak, T (1996), “Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: conceptual foundations’”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 60 pp. 50-68. </li></ul>
  67. 67. References <ul><li>Novak, T.P, Hoffman, D.L (1997), “Measuring the flow experience among Web users,” Interval Research Corporation. </li></ul><ul><li>Novak, T, Hoffman, D, Young, Y (1998), “Measuring the flow construct in online environments: a structural modeling approach”, Owen Graduate School of Management, Vanderbilt University, working paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Novak, T. P., Hoffman, D. L., and Yung, Y. 2000. Measuring the Customer Experience in Online Environments: A Structural Modeling Approach. Marketing Science 19, 1 (Jan. 2000), 22-42 </li></ul><ul><li>Rettie, R., (2001), An Exploration of Flow during Internet Use, Internet Research, 11(2), 103 – 113. </li></ul><ul><li>Simon, H. A. (1971), “Designing Organizations for an Information-Rich World”, in Martin Greenberger, Computers, Communication, and the Public Interest, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press, ISBN 0-8018-1135-X. pp. 40-41. </li></ul><ul><li>van Gorp, Trevor, J. (2006). Emotion, Arousal, Attention and Flow: Chaining Emotional States to Improve Human-Computer Interaction. University of Calgary, Faculty of Environmental Design, Master’s Degree Project. </li></ul>

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