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Urbanization and ger area

  1. 1. Urbanization and Ger area PUREV-ERDENE. Ershuu Architecture department Civil Engineering School Mongolian University of Science and Technology
  2. 2. Historical background <ul><li>1639-1778 , - Pre urbanization period - nomadic settlement. The city location changed 28 times from the ancient capital HAR-HORUM to NIISLEL HUREE that evolved into a religious, political and international trade development center of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>1778 until now which the sedentary civilization period begun with, or the period of struggling for the development and national symbol. </li></ul><ul><li>During these periods, the city managed to maintain the current status of the socio-economic and political center. </li></ul>Ulaanbaatar urban development divided two periods:
  3. 3. Dambadarjaa monastry 1765
  4. 4. Historical background Pic1. Niislel huree (present Ulaanbaatar) in 1912 Maimaachin Emperor Palace Mongolian felt house called “Ger” Gandan Monastry Zuun huree
  5. 5. <ul><li>During 30’s almost 900 temples destroyed </li></ul>
  6. 6. Urbanization of UB city. Pic2. The first general plan of the UB city development based on rational urbanization process.1953
  7. 7. Urban development steps in UB city <ul><li>In 1960-1965, the city location and construction layouts initiated. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1965-1975, the city general plan formulated with economic efficiency estimations based on land maps, and comprehensive engineering and geological surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1975-1985, the capital city urbanization works were carried out based on the national policy, methodological directions and norm-standards, well adjusted to the national territorial, natural, climatic specifics. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1985-1990, numerous national experts on projecting and urbanization had been trained, thus enabling the national manpower to carry out independently all projecting works well fitting to the Mongolian local conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1990, in conjunction with the socio-political changes and transitions to the free market economy, a new radical trend emerged in the UB urbanization plan, and currently in force legal acts serving basic norms and standards. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nomads lifestyle
  9. 9. Traditional Mongolian Dwelling Ideally suited to Mongolia's nomadic way of life and harsh weather, the Ger has been the most popular dwelling for hundreds of years. A round wooden-framed felt tent covered in durable white canvas seems to be the most simple description of this portable home. The modern shape of the Mongolian Ger has been formed as the result of the long development through huts, marquees and wheeled abodes. During ancient times, people made shelters from dry branches and animal skins. This could have been the first version of current Mongolian Ger. The history of the Ger goes back to 2500-3000 years BC. In medieval era large Gers that belong to kings and nomadic chieftains were built on special wheeled floors and were dragged by a number of oxen (22 at usual).
  10. 10. Interior of the Ger, and structure The Mongolian Ger has two key component: the wooden frame work and the felt cover. The wooden wall shell is called 'khana', the upper wooden poles (measuring 1.5-3 meters) are 'uni', the central supporting two columns are known as 'bagana' and the uppermost smoke hole is 'toono'. A Ger has 4-12 khanas, depending on its size. The number of uni or upper poles ranges between 45 and 120 depending on the number of khanas. Any ger has a toono ,the smoke hole and baganas, 2 columns supporting the toono. There are several felt layers, covering the wooden framework and outer white canvas which is designed to make the Ger look prettier and protect the felt covers from rain and snow. Mongolian nomads, who move several times each year, pack their Gers onto the back of camels or camel and ox carts. The weight of a ger is approximately 250kg-s.It only takes half an hour to collapse an average ger and a bit longer to re-build it.
  11. 11. Re-settlement
  12. 12. Population growth in UB urban area <ul><li>893.4 36.4 </li></ul><ul><li>928.5 37.53 </li></ul><ul><li>965.3 38.6 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Urban sprawl
  14. 14. Migration effects Graph 1. Number of migrating people in UB. 1989-2003 The new Mongolian constitution of 1992 guaranteed the people the right of free choice of their place of residence being the legal basis for the ongoing internal migration process in the country. Fig3. Number (1000) of net-migration to UB by region, 1989-2003
  15. 15. Increase of unplanned sprawl in urban area Pic4. Land use ratio in planned and unplanned areas Pic5. General view of Ger districts
  16. 16. Environmental pollution of Ger area Graph3. Change of ambient concentrations of air pollutants of UB city. Graph2.Relation of SO pollution and coal burning stove Urban Ger settlement brings: - Soil and - Surface, under ground water pollution - Reducing quality of life
  17. 17. Winter air pollution
  18. 18. Model Area Planning 17 th horoo, Suhbaatar district 12,13,14,15,17 th horoo, Songino-Hairhan district The Study on City Master Plan and Urban Development Program of Ulaanbaatar City (UBMPS)
  19. 19. Research of problem finding
  20. 20. The comments discussed during meetings <ul><li>Lack of kindergartens, schools and other social services facilities, which creates major problems for residents </li></ul><ul><li>- In case of construction of apartment houses, residents could give land for construction and get apartments in return </li></ul><ul><li>- It is needed to plan a safe road </li></ul><ul><li>- Options on how different size of land, which varies between 0,3-0,7 hectares, owned by various people will be reflected in the project planning </li></ul><ul><li>- Effectiveness of land re-planning projects </li></ul>Public participation
  21. 21. <ul><li>- Whether different treatment shall be used for people who grow in their yards trees and other plants </li></ul><ul><li>- After planning stage, when implementation phase will start and finish </li></ul><ul><li>- The role and participation of the capital city municipality and the Ministry of Construction and Urban Development </li></ul><ul><li>- Solutions proposed for families which reside on someone else’s yard and do not own the land </li></ul><ul><li>- Type of apartment buildings to be built </li></ul><ul><li>- Parties which will participate in the implementation process. </li></ul>The comments discussed during meetings
  22. 22. “ Neighborhood Residential Unit” Planning This is a basic urban planning unit to plot community facilities such as kindergarten, elementary school and parks in residential area. Basically, service coverage of 1 school is a basic unit, which consists of 7,000 – 10,000 population. Children’s park Commercial center Community center Neighborhood park Pedestrian road Kindergarten Trunk road District road App. 1km School “ Neighborhood Residential Unit” Planning
  23. 23. Dambadarjaa-planning scheme Planning area - 109,3га Temple area – 5,54 га Population – 7000 Households – 1500 Plots – 933 Streets – 55 Planned Population 11000-12000 School for 1250 children Kindergarten for 530 children Community center – 1 Green area – 3,6 га   Present Plan Area (m2) % Area (m2) % Road 0 0,00% 207 400 19,01% Pedestrian 0 0,00% 82 000 7,52% Park 0 0,00% 88 200 8,08% River, water 2 000 0,50% 2 300 0,21% School and kindergarten 0 0,00% 47 100 4,31% Public facilities 5 000 0,50% 12 600 1,15% Residential area 99810 99,08% 262 200 24,04% Apartment area (reserved land) 0 0,00% 86000 8% Total 109 300 100,00% 1 093 000 100,00%
  24. 24. Dambadarjaa-planning scheme School Green in marsh land Commercial street Kindergarten Fire station 1km (Service radius) Electricity & Heating plant Community center Bogd Zonhov mountain Dambadrajaa temple Clinic
  25. 25. Unur – plaaning scheme Planning area – 93 га Population – 9000 Planned POP 13500, 145 Person/ha School for 1052 children Kindergarten for 440 children Community center – 1 Green area – 8,4 га School Commercial area Kindergarten Community center , Clinic 1km (Service radius) Green belt Bus station Unur   Present Plan Area (m2) % Area (m2) % Road 2 490 8,00% 182 600 19,59% Pedestrian 0 0,00% 109 000 11,60% Park 0 0,00% 92 500 9,90% River, water 2 000 0,50% 5 000 0,53% School and kindergarten 0 0,00% 27 600 2,96% Public facilities 5 000 0,50% 26 650 2,80% Sub-total 9 490 1,00% 443 350 47,57% Residential area 893 396 99,00% 400 064 42,93% Apartment area (reserved land) 0 0,00% 88 530 9,50% Total 902 886 100,00% 931 900 100,00%
  26. 26. Apartment Common house Townhouse Detached house
  27. 27. Dambadarjaa district planning
  28. 28. Dambadarjaa district planning Waste water treatment plant
  29. 29. Unur district planning
  30. 30. “ Land pooling ” system “Land readjustment” system before after road Reserved land(for public purpose , to sell) Detached house apartment school Green area townhouse
  31. 31. “ Land pooling ” system “Land readjustment” system
  32. 32. “ land pooling ” system Land reserve
  33. 33. <ul><li>Thank you for the attention. </li></ul>