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BY

Mr Tauqeer ahmad khan
Associate professor
Learning Objectives
The
students
shall be
able to
understand
the
following

Define a lathe
Explain the construction of lat...
Contents
Introduction to centre lathe

Construction of centre lathe
types of lathe machine
Operations of lathe
MOTIVATION
Introduction
i). History
ii). Work principle
iii). Size of lathe
LATHE MACHINE
Presented by Tauqeer ahmad khan
History
i) History
The origin of turning
dates to around
1300BC when the
Egyptians first
developed a twoperson lathe. One
person w...
Working principle
Tailstock center
(Dead Centre)

Headstock center
(Live Centre)

Working Principle
Workpiece
Tool post

Workpiece
N (rev/mi...
Size of lathe
Depends upon following points

Main points

Swing
(maximum diameter of job that can swing on it without touc...
Size of lathe
Types
Types of lathe

CNC lathe

Manually operated

Special purpose

production
Turret lathe
Capstan lathe

Bench lathe
Tracer l...
Centre lathe
•
•
•
•

Most frequently used lathe
Heavy duty
power drive for most tool movements
Size range 12”x24” to 24”x...
Bench Lathe
 A bench top model usually of low

power
 used to make precision machine
small work pieces
Tool room lathe
•
•
•
•

Look like engine lathe
Greater accuracy
More versatility
Wider range of speeds and feeds
Turret
Capable of performing multiple
cutting operations on the
same workpiece
 Turning
 Boring
 Drilling
 Thread cutt...
Capstan lathe
• It is production lathe
• Used for light duty work pieces
• Small in size as compared to
turret lathe
• It ...
Tracer/copy lathe
Tracer piece
• Hydraulic attachment used to copy the shape of a part from a master.
• lathe that has the...
Automatic lathe
An automatic lathe is a lathe
(usually a metalworking lathe)
whose actions are controlled
automatically. A...
CNC lathe
• Computer controlled
• Wide variety of process
capability
• multiple axis
• Indexing and contouring
head
• On- ...
Construction of lathe
Lathe Basics
Spindle
Nose

Tailstock
Spindle
Clamp

Tool Post
Compound
Rest

HEADSTOCK

TAILSTOCK

Saddle

Feed
Reverse
Le...
Lathe Operations
Lathe Operations
Turning: produce straight, conical, curved, or grooved work
pieces

Facing: to produce a flat surface at ...
Lathe Operations

27
Turning ..
Cylindrical job

Cutting
speed

Workpiece
Depth of cut (d)
Machined
surface

N

Chuck

Feed
Tool

Chip
Depth of...
Facing
Chuck

Flat Surface/Reduce length

Workpiece
d
Machined
Face

Cutting
speed

Depth of
cut
Tool

Feed
Facing operation
Eccentric Turning
4-jaw
chuck

Axis of job

Axis
Cutting
speed

Eccentric peg
(to be turned)
Knurling
Knurled surface
Cutting
speed
Feed
Knurling tool
Tool post

Movement
for depth
Grooving ..
Shape produced
by form tool

Form tool

Feed or
depth of cut

Groove

Grooving
tool
Parting ..

Parting tool

Feed
Chamfering

Chamfer

Feed
Chamfering tool
Taper Turning
 Taper:

D1 D2
2L

tan

90°

D1

B
A

D2

C
L
Drilling
Drill – cutting tool – held in TS – feed from TS

Quill
clamp moving
Drill
quill
Tail stock
Feed
Tail stock clamp
Contour Turning
Instead of feeding the
tool parallel to the axis of
rotation, tool follows a
contour that is not
necessari...
Threading
Pointed form tool is
fed linearly across
surface of rotating
workpart parallel to
axis of rotation at a
large fe...
Summary.
Introduction to centre lathe
Construction of centre lathe

types of lathe machines
Operations of lathe
Feed back/Evaluation
1.

Lathe is used to turn

i)

Square shape ii) cylindrical shape iii) irregular shape

2 Size of lat...
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Introduction to lathe machine

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Introduction to lathe machine

  1. 1. BY Mr Tauqeer ahmad khan Associate professor
  2. 2. Learning Objectives The students shall be able to understand the following Define a lathe Explain the construction of lathe Describe the types of lathe machine Explain the operations of lathe machine
  3. 3. Contents Introduction to centre lathe Construction of centre lathe types of lathe machine Operations of lathe
  4. 4. MOTIVATION
  5. 5. Introduction i). History ii). Work principle iii). Size of lathe
  6. 6. LATHE MACHINE Presented by Tauqeer ahmad khan
  7. 7. History
  8. 8. i) History The origin of turning dates to around 1300BC when the Egyptians first developed a twoperson lathe. One person would turn the wood work piece with a rope while the other used a sharp tool to cut shapes in the wood The Romans improved the Egyptian design with the addition of a turning bow. Early bow lathes were also developed and used in Germany, France and Britain.
  9. 9. Working principle
  10. 10. Tailstock center (Dead Centre) Headstock center (Live Centre) Working Principle Workpiece Tool post Workpiece N (rev/min) Chip Tool D S peripheral speed (m/min) 10
  11. 11. Size of lathe Depends upon following points Main points Swing (maximum diameter of job that can swing on it without touching bed ways ) Distance between centre’s of lathe
  12. 12. Size of lathe
  13. 13. Types
  14. 14. Types of lathe CNC lathe Manually operated Special purpose production Turret lathe Capstan lathe Bench lathe Tracer lathe General purpose Centre lathe Tool room lathe,etc
  15. 15. Centre lathe • • • • Most frequently used lathe Heavy duty power drive for most tool movements Size range 12”x24” to 24”x48” - can be larger
  16. 16. Bench Lathe  A bench top model usually of low power  used to make precision machine small work pieces
  17. 17. Tool room lathe • • • • Look like engine lathe Greater accuracy More versatility Wider range of speeds and feeds
  18. 18. Turret Capable of performing multiple cutting operations on the same workpiece  Turning  Boring  Drilling  Thread cutting  Facing Turret lathes are very versatile Types of turret lathes  Ram-type: ram slides in a separate base on the saddle  Saddle type:  more heavily constructed  Used to machine large workpeiceces • • • • • It is production lathe Hex turret replaces tailstock Multiple tools set to machine part Turret Head High production rates Still may require some operator skill
  19. 19. Capstan lathe • It is production lathe • Used for light duty work pieces • Small in size as compared to turret lathe • It also have turret that replaces tailstock • Multiple tools set to machine part • Still may require some operator skill Turret Head
  20. 20. Tracer/copy lathe Tracer piece • Hydraulic attachment used to copy the shape of a part from a master. • lathe that has the ability to follow a template to copy a shape or contour. • Machine tools with attachments • Capable of turning parts with various contours • A tracer finger follows the template and guides the cutting tool
  21. 21. Automatic lathe An automatic lathe is a lathe (usually a metalworking lathe) whose actions are controlled automatically. Although all electronically controlled (CNC) lathes are automatic, they are usually not called by that name, as explained under "General nomenclature". The first kinds of automatic lathes were mechanically automated ones
  22. 22. CNC lathe • Computer controlled • Wide variety of process capability • multiple axis • Indexing and contouring head • On- line and off- line programming available • Computer Numerical Controls (CNC) • Equipped with one or more turrets • Each turret is equipped with a variety of tools • Performs several operations on different surfaces of the work piece Machine Unit NC controller
  23. 23. Construction of lathe
  24. 24. Lathe Basics Spindle Nose Tailstock Spindle Clamp Tool Post Compound Rest HEADSTOCK TAILSTOCK Saddle Feed Reverse Lever Feed Change Lever Lead Screw BED WAYS APRON Gear Box Carriage Hand Wheel Motor Drive Frictionclutch Control Cross Slide Half Nut Lever Bed
  25. 25. Lathe Operations
  26. 26. Lathe Operations Turning: produce straight, conical, curved, or grooved work pieces Facing: to produce a flat surface at the end of the part or for making face grooves. Boring: to enlarge a hole or cylindrical cavity made by a previous process or to produce circular internal grooves. Drilling: to produce a hole by fixing a drill in the tailstock Threading: to produce external or internal threads Knurling: to produce a regularly shaped roughness on cylindrical surfaces 26
  27. 27. Lathe Operations 27
  28. 28. Turning .. Cylindrical job Cutting speed Workpiece Depth of cut (d) Machined surface N Chuck Feed Tool Chip Depth of cut
  29. 29. Facing Chuck Flat Surface/Reduce length Workpiece d Machined Face Cutting speed Depth of cut Tool Feed
  30. 30. Facing operation
  31. 31. Eccentric Turning 4-jaw chuck Axis of job Axis Cutting speed Eccentric peg (to be turned)
  32. 32. Knurling Knurled surface Cutting speed Feed Knurling tool Tool post Movement for depth
  33. 33. Grooving .. Shape produced by form tool Form tool Feed or depth of cut Groove Grooving tool
  34. 34. Parting .. Parting tool Feed
  35. 35. Chamfering Chamfer Feed Chamfering tool
  36. 36. Taper Turning  Taper: D1 D2 2L tan 90° D1 B A D2 C L
  37. 37. Drilling Drill – cutting tool – held in TS – feed from TS Quill clamp moving Drill quill Tail stock Feed Tail stock clamp
  38. 38. Contour Turning Instead of feeding the tool parallel to the axis of rotation, tool follows a contour that is not necessarily straight (thus creating a contoured form). Figure ..contour turning
  39. 39. Threading Pointed form tool is fed linearly across surface of rotating workpart parallel to axis of rotation at a large feed rate, thus creating threads Figure; threading
  40. 40. Summary. Introduction to centre lathe Construction of centre lathe types of lathe machines Operations of lathe
  41. 41. Feed back/Evaluation 1. Lathe is used to turn i) Square shape ii) cylindrical shape iii) irregular shape 2 Size of lathe depends upon following i) Size of chuck and length of bed ii) Distance b/w centres and length of bed iii) Its weight & length of bed iv) distance b/w centres & swing diameter of job to be held 3. What are the basic difference b/w turret lathe and capstan lathe i) Size ii) precision iii) by turret head position iv) i,iii

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