3. Trait Theories
Theories that consider personal qualities and
characteristics that differentiate leaders from non
Organizing traits around big five personality
Extraversion (ambition and energy traits, leader
emergence, moderate assertiveness)
Conscientiousness (disciplined and committed)
4. openness to experience (creative and flexible)
Empathy (sense others’ needs, listens and read
reactions of others).
Traits can predict leadership
Traits can not distinguish effective and ineffective leadership
6. Behavioral theories
Theories proposing that specific behaviors
differentiate leaders from non leaders.
Trait Approach (selecting the right leader)
Behavioral approach (training the right person)
7. Ohio state studies
Researcher at Ohio state sought to identify
independent dimensions of leader behavior.
Found 1000 dimensions
Narrowed the dimension in to two categories.
Initiating structure: Define and structure his or
her roles and those of subordinates for goal
Consideration: Job relationship characterized by
mutual trust, respect for ideas and feelings).
Little knowledge about effective leaders
Review of 160 studies found that both Initiating structure
and Consideration were associated with effective
Consideration is related to employee.
9. Michigan studies
Two dimensions of leadership
Employee oriented and production oriented
Employee oriented: Emphasizes interpersonal
relations, personal interest in the needs of employees
and accept individual differences among members.
Production oriented leader: A leader who
emphasizes technical or task aspects of jobs.
12. Fiedler Model
Fiedler contingency model
The theory that effective groups depend on a proper
match between a leader’s style of interacting with
subordinates and the degree to which the situations
gives control and influence to the leader.
Least preferred coworker questionnaire
It measures whether a person is tasks oriented or relationship
16 contrasting adjectives (such as pleasant-unpleasant).
13. Ask respondent to describe his coworkers as Least enjoyed,
Relationship oriented, Task oriented.
1 to 8 scale rating
Determine the leadership style
High score and low score indicates that the respondent is Least
enjoyed, Relationship oriented, Task oriented.
14. Defining the situation: Three contingency dimensions that
determine leadership effectiveness
Leadership-member relations is the degree of
confidence, trust and respect members.
Task structure is the degree to which the job assignments
Position power is the degree of influence a leader has over
variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotion and
Evaluate the situations in terms of these three contingency
variables. Leader member relations are either good or bad.
15. Better the leader member relations, the more highly structured
the job, the ,ore control the leader has.
Matching leaders and situations
LPC scores and an assessment of three contingency
dimensions help to achieve maximum leadership effectiveness.
problems with LPC questionnaire
Contingency variables are complex and difficult to assess.
Cognitive resource theory
Stress unfavorably affects a situations and
intelligence and experience can reduce the influence
of stress on the leader.
17. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational theory
Situational leadership theory
Focuses on followers’ readiness.
Two main points
Followers: Who reject and accept leader.
Readiness: the extent to which people have ability
and willingness to accomplish
Four specific leaders’ behavior …. From highly
directive to highly laissez-faire.
18. SLT says that if
followers are unable and unwilling to do a tasks, leader
needs to give specific direction.
Followers…unable and willing…leader needs to display
high task orientation to compensate for the followers lack of
ability and high relationship orientation.
Followers….able and unwilling… leaders use supportive and
19. Follower able and willing leader does not need to do much.
Importance of followers
Leaders can compensate for imitations in their followers
Problems with research methodology.
20. Path Goal theory
A theory that states that is the leader’s job to assist followers in
attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction to
ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall
objectives of the group and organization.
Achievement oriented leader
21. Path goal variables
Environmental and personal characteristics moderate the
relationship between leader’s behavior and followers
Predictions based on path goal theory
22. Leader member exchange theory
A theory that supports leader’s creation of in-group
and out-group; subordinates with in-group status
will have higher performance ratings, lees turn over
and greater job satisfaction.
In-group follower: Trusted, gain leader’s
attention, receive privileges
Out-group follower: Formal authority interaction,
get fewer rewards, and fewer time
23. Leaders induce LXM by rewarding those employees
with whom they want a closer linkage and punishing
those with whom they do not.
Leaders tend to choose in-group members because
they have attitude, demographic and personality
characteristics that are similar to the leaders.
Followers’ characteristics are driving the leader’s
Research support theory
Leader’s expectation for the employee to perform best also
play an important role for incorporating that employee as in-
25. Decision theory
Vroom and Yetton’s
Leader Participation Model
Provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of
participative decision making in different situations.
Leader behavior must adjust to reflect the task structure.
26. Model is normative i.e. Provides a set of rules to determine the
form and amount of participative decision making in different
Seven contingencies (yes or No choices)
Five alternative leadership styles
27. Revised Model
Five alternative leadership styles
Adds a set of problem
12 contingency variables
Stress, intelligence and experience are important.
Complicated to use on a regular basis
Not so realistic.