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# Electronic components

basic electronic components

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### Electronic components

1. 1. By Unsa Shakir
2. 2. Voltage: • Potential refers to the the possibility of doing work. • The symbol for potential difference is E (for electromotive force) • The practical unit of potential difference is the volt (V) • 1 volt is a measure of the amount of work required to move 1C of charge
3. 3. Current: • When a charge is forced to move because of a potential difference (voltage) current is produced. • In conductors - free electrons can be forced to move with relative ease, since they require little work to be moved. • So current is charge in motion. • The more electrons in motion the greater the current.
4. 4. Amperes: • Current indicates the intensity of the electricity in motion. The symbol for current is I (for intensity) and is measured in amperes. • The definition of current is: I = Q/T • Where I is current in amperes, Q is charge in coulombs, and T is time in seconds.
5. 5. Closed Circuits: • In applications requiring the use of current, electrical components are arranged in the form of a circuit. • A circuit is defined as a path for current flow.
6. 6. Open circuit : current can only exist when there is conduvtive path. In the circuit I= 0, since there is no conductor between points a and b. we reffered to this as an open circuit.
7. 7. Direction of Electron Flow • The direction of electron flow in our circuit is from the negative side of the battery, through the load resistance, back to the positive side of the battery. Direction of conventional current • The direction of conventional current in our circuit is from the positive side of the battery, through the load resistance, back to the negativeside of the battery.
8. 8. Direct Current: • Circuits that are powered by battery sources are termed direct current circuits. • It is the flow of charges in just one direction Alternating Current: • An alternating voltage source periodically alternates or reverses in polarity. • The resulting current, therefore, periodically reverses in direction.
9. 9. Resistance: • Opposition to the flow of current is termed resistance. • The fact that a wire can become hot from the flow of current is evidence of resistance. • Conductors have very little resistance. • Insulators have large amounts of resistance.
10. 10. Resistors Aresistor impedes the flow of electricity through a circuit. Resistors have a set value. Since voltage, current and resistance are related through Ohm’s law, resistors are a good way to control voltage and current in your circuit. 10
11. 11. More onresistors Resistor colorcodes 1stband = 2nd band = 3rd band = 4th band = 1stnumber 2nd number # of zeros / multiplier tolerance 11
12. 12. Color code 12
13. 13. Units Knowing your unitsis important! Kilo and Mega are common in resistors Milli, micro, nano and pico can be used in other components K(kilo) =1,000 M (mega) = 1,000,000 M (milli) = 1/1,000 u (micro) =1/1,000,000 n (nano) = 1/1,000,000,000 (one trillionth) p (pico) = 1/ 1,000,000,000,000 (one quadrillionth) 13
14. 14. Ohm’s Law • The amount of current in a circuit is dependent on its resistance and the applied voltage. Specifically I = V/R • If you know any two of the factors V, I, and R you can calculate the third. • Current I = V/R • Voltage V = IR • Resistance R = V/I
15. 15. Power: • The unit of electrical power is the watt. • Power is how much work is done over time. • One watt of power is equal to the work done in one second by one volt moving one coulomb of charge. Since one coulomb a second is an ampere: • Power in watts = volts x amperes • P = V x I • P = I² x R • P = V² / R
16. 16. Capacitors Acapacitor stores electricalenergy. Capacitance is measured in Farads. The small capacitors usually used in electronics are often measured in microfarads and nanofarads. Some capacitors are polarized. Note the different length terminals on one of the capacitors. 16
17. 17. Polarity of capacitors The shorter terminal goes on the negative side (cathode). 17
18. 18. Diode A diode is a one way valve (or gate) for electricity. It is a component with an asymmetrical transfer characteristic. A diode has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other direction. Diodes will protect your electronics. 18
19. 19. Diode circuit protection In an electronic circuit, if the polarity is wrong, you can fry your components. Diodes have abar on the cathode (negative) side. 19
20. 20. Light emitting diode(LED) A light emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. When electricity is passing through the diode, it emits light. 20
21. 21. Variable resistor / Potentiometer Apotentiometer is avariable resistor. As you manually turn a dial, the resistance changes. 21
22. 22. Transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. This is our electronic switch! 22
23. 23. How atransistor works Avoltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor’s terminals changes the current through another pairof terminals. Atransistor is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. Transistors have 3pins. For these transistors: Collector Emitter Base 23
24. 24. Terminology Useful asamplifiers. BJTversus FET Bipolar junction transistor. Collector, Emitter, Base Useful as motordrivers.Field-effect transistor. Source, Drain, Gate MOSFET: Metal-oxide-semiconductor FET NPN (N-channel FET) versus PNP (P-channel FET) NPN versus PNP is how the semiconductors are layered. NPN: Not pointing in PNP: Pointing in permanently 24
25. 25. Schematic symbols BJTPNP BJTNPN P-channel FET N-channel FET 17
26. 26. Integrated circuit An integrated circuit (IC) is a set of transistors that is the controller or ‘brain’of an electronic circuit. An input is received, an output is sent out. Modern microprocessor ICs can have billions of transistors per square inch! 26
27. 27. Printed Circuit Board Components are attached to a printed circuit board. The ‘front’side of the board will have printed component information, such as resistor # and resistance, diode type and polarity,etc. Holes go all the way through the board from one side to the other. Through- hole soldering is needed to connect components to the board. 27
28. 28. Backof Circuit Board The ‘back’side of the board will have lines indicating connections between components. The lines on the back are similar to wires. Thicker lines denote more current (electrons) moving through. Components connect the lines. 28
29. 29. Reference Material: • College Physics by Resnick, Halliday and Krane (6th and higher edition). • Behzad Razavi, ‘’Fundamental of Microelectronics’’
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