Ψ You have a “blind spot” on the back of each eye
that transmits no visual information to your brain?
Ψ Loud music (or loud noises) can lead to
permanent hearing loss?
Ψ You can see a candle burning 30 miles away on a
clear, dark night, hear the tick of a watch at 20 feet
(under quiet conditions), taste 1 teaspoon of sugar
dissolved in 2 gallons of water, and smell one drop
of perfume in a three-room apartment?
Ψ All outside information comes into us through our
Ψ Sensation—the process of detecting, receiving,
converting and transmitting information resulting from
stimulation of sensory receptors.
Ψ Perception—the process of selecting, identifying,
organizing and interpreting sensory input into a useful
and meaningful mental representations of the world in
the light of relevant memories from past experiences.
Ψ The basic function of sensation
is detection of sensory stimuli,
whereas perception generally
involves interpretation of the
Ψ Our senses tell us something is
out there. Our perception tell us
what that something is.
Ψ In practice, sensation and
perception are virtually
impossible to separate,
because they are part of one
Ψ SENSATION IS THE PROCESS OF
DETECTING AND ENCODING STIMULUS
IN THE WORLD.
Ψ Vision (sense of sight)
sensitive to LIGHT ENERGY
Ψ Auditory (sense of hearing)
stimulated by SOUND
Ψ Olfaction (sense of smell)
stimulates our nostrils by
Ψ Gustation (sense of taste)
Ψ Tactile (skin senses for
pressure, temperature, pain)
Ψ Vestibular (sense of balance)
Ψ Kinesthesia (sense of posture and
Ψ Organic (sensation from internal organs
such as hunger, thirst, drowsiness)
Information (e.g. light, sound)—activate our sense
receptors in the sensory organs which receive and
process sensory information from environment.
Transduction—after stimuli enter sensory organs, the sense
receptor will change/covert the stimulus into electrical signals
called neural impulses which are sent to the brain.
When neural impulses reach the particular area in the brain,
they are changed into meaningless bits of information called
sensation which involves the detection of sensory stimuli.
These meaningless bits of information are then changed into
meaningful and complete images called perception—the
interpretation of sensory stimuli.
Ψ Our sense organs translate
physical energy from the
environment into electrical
impulses processed by the
For example, light, in the form of
electromagnetic radiation, causes
receptor cells in our eyes to
activate and send signals to the
Ψ But we do not understand
these signals as pure energy.
The process of perception
allows us to interpret them as
objects, events, people, and
Ψ Without the ability to
organize and interpret
sensations, life would
seem like a
meaningless jumble of
colors, shapes, and
sounds. A person
without any perceptual
ability would not be able
to recognize faces,
or avoid threats.
Ψ Sensory reduction—the
process in which we filter and
analyze sensory information
before they are sent to the
Ψ Why do we need to reduce
the amount of sensory
information we receive?
So that the brain is not
overwhelmed with unnecessary
information because it needs to
be free to respond to stimuli that
have meaning for survival.
All species have evolved
selective receptors that
suppress or amplify information
to allow survival.
“mixing of senses,”
blend their sensory
repeated or constant
the number of sensory
messages sent to the
brain, which causes
a point above which a
stimulus is perceived
and below which it is
not perceived. It
determines when we
first become aware of
Ψ HOW CLOSE DOES AN
BEE HAVE TO BE,
BEFORE YOU CAN HEAR
Ψ HOW FAR DOES A
BREWING COFFEE POT
HAVE TO BE, FOR YOU
TO DETECT THE AROMA
OF THE COFFEE.
Ψ Difference threshold—or
just noticeable difference,
is the smallest change in
stimulus that we can detect.
Ψ Example: An artist might
detect the difference
between two very similar
shades of color
the smallest amount of
stimulus that can be
When a stimulus has more
energy than the absolute
threshold, we can detect its
When a stimulus has less
energy than the absolute
threshold, we cannot detect
• PEOPLE HAVE DIFFERENT THRESHOLDS,
BECAUSE SOME PEOPLE HAVE BETTER HEARING
THAN OTHERS, AND SOME PEOPLE HAVE BETTER
VISIONS THAN OTHERS.
The word perception
comes from the Latin
action of taking
the mind or senses."
To identify a pattern of
sensory input is to
categorize it, in which
motives, experiences are
brought into play.
– If this is a mice, it is
afraid of cat.
The first step in
where to direct our
We do not perceive everything at once—we
select certain objects to perceive while ignoring
Attention is selective—we focus on
specific and important aspects of
experience while ignoring others.
focus from one
specific object to
Nature—whether visual or
auditory, words or images,
animate or inanimate objects
Reality—real, concrete things
are more attention-getting
than hypothetical, abstract or
Familiarity—people pay more
attention to things that are
attention to things that are
near than those that are far
Novelty—we pay attention to
things that are new and
different in contrast to what is
Suspense—people pay attention
to things that build suspense.
Conflict—people pay attention to
a good fight.
Humor—people pay attention to
things that are funny.
The vital—people nearly always
pay attention to matters that affect
their health, reputation, property, or
Activity—things that move, flash
Intensity—sounds that are louder
are more attention-getting than soft
organize it into
principles that will
help us understand
After selectively sorting through
incoming sensory information and
organizing it into patterns, the brain
uses this information to explain and
make judgments about the external
world. This is the final stage of
Try to read the following passage:
Can you read this text when it is upside down?
Knowledge and experience are extremely
important for perception, because they
help us make sense of the input to our
In the example above, you did not stop to
read every single letter carefully. Instead,
you probably perceived whole words and
In mentally organizing stimuli, objects
that are physically close to one
another are grouped together or seen
as a unit.
In organizing stimuli,
elements that appear
similar in color,
shape, or any other
quality are grouped
The law of continuity leads us
to see a line as continuing in a
particular direction, rather than
making an abrupt turn.
We tend to favor smooth or
continuous paths when
interpreting a series of points
In organizing stimuli, we tend to fill in any missing
part or incomplete figures and see them as
In organizing stimuli, we tend to
favor symmetrical objects or
Perception does not only
involve organization and
grouping, it also involves
distinguishing an object
from its surroundings.
Once an object is
perceived, the area around
that object (figure)
becomes the background.
In organizing a
stimuli, we tend to
distinguish between a
figure or foreground
(object with more
details) and a
ground (has less
that is, drawings in which
the figure and ground
can be reversed—to
illustrate their point that
the whole is different
from the sum of its parts.
Reversible figures are
those objects that are so
shaped that both may
be seen as either the
figure or the ground—
the object that the
individual is set to
perceive will probably
be noticed first.
Interests or motives
Set of expectations
yellow blue orange
black green red
purple yellow purple
green blue orange
pink red green
orange blue black
• IT IS A PERCEPTION WITHOUT THE
MEDIATION OF THE SENSES. IT
– CLAIRVOYANCE – IS EXTRA SENSORY
AWARENESS OF OBJECTS.
– CONTACT BETWEEN THE MIND OF THE
PERSON AND ON THE OJECT.
– TELEPATHY – IS A THOUGHT
TRANSMISSION FROM ONE MIND TO
– PRECOGNITION – IS FOREKNOWLEDGE
OF SPECIFIC EVENTS WITHOUT ANY
– PSYCHOKINESIS – (MIND OVER MATTER)
INCLUDES MENTAL OPERATIONS THAT
INFLUENCES A MATERIAL BODY OR AN
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