Curriculum Change, Planning and Transaction

valarpink
Curriculum Change
With changing time, curriculum should also
change reflecting the needs and aspirations of the
people.
There cannot be a uniform curriculum for all the
countries for all the time
Curriculum content should be based on current
information and not on the past information.
There is need for constantly changing and
updating the curriculum content.
Curriculum change includes the following
Successful curriculum development
requires better use of ‘change knowledge’
Policy‐makers, education leaders and
teachers need to know more about the
drivers of successful curriculum change in
schools
curriculum orientation should shift from a
curriculum as product model to a curriculum as
process model.
Changing the way teachers teach and students
learn requires specific approaches
Need for curriculum change
Only in some countries, still the traditional
curriculum is in vogue.
In advanced countries, as a result of knowledge
explosion and with continuous research findings and
new inventions, the content of the school courses is
being questioned.
New reform movement has been started.
Knowledge explosion
Rethinking on the length of school education
Changing society
Changing student population
Developing technology
Strategies for curriculum change
•Changing curriculum and instruction should be a gradual
process.
•Curriculum change should be worked with individual
teachers at first, or with small clusters of motivated
individuals.
•Individuals respond uniquely (at times unpredictably) to
new ways of doing things, no matter how sensible or
appealing the new ways might be.
•It takes time — often years — to successfully implement
curriculum change.
•A number of organizations host websites and conferences
dedicated to curriculum improvement.
Curriculum Planning
The phrase “curriculum planning” can mean one of two
related things:
either the process of an individual teacher to build a
class curriculum, or
the means through which school boards coordinate the
various curricula being used by teachers in order to
achieve uniform goals.
On its own, a curriculum is basically a lesson plan
that functions as a map for learning.
Participants of curriculum planning get involved in
variety of activities such as:
•Discussing common problems
•Making decisions
•Developing a functional philosophy
•Studying learners and the environment
•Keeping up-to-date with the knowledge
•Studying ways to improve instructions
•Carrying research and evaluation
Importance of Curriculum Planning
•Curriculum planning develop well-coordinated,
quality teaching, learning and assessment
programs, which build students’ knowledge, skills
and behaviours in the disciplines, as well as their
interdisciplinary and/or physical, personal and
social capacities.
Curriculum planning ensures:
•a shared vision
•shared understandings and a common language in the school
community
•optimum coverage of all domains within the curriculum
•continuity of learning between domains across year levels
•the full range of learning needs of students are addressed
•students are given opportunities to develop deep
understanding
•cohesiveness in teaching, learning and assessment practices
•elimination of repetition of learning activities without depth or
breadth across levels
Need
•A curriculum plan is one of the best ways for teachers to
look objectively
•Organize an effective way to get from beginning to end.
•Schools use curriculum plans to set overarching goals
•Curriculum plans are an easy way for teachers and
schools to quickly monitor progress.
•It is easy to notice when students are falling behind, or
when objectives are being missed.
•Planning is also an important way for schools to
streamline student assessment.
• Teachers are often required to incorporate certain
assessment rubrics into their curriculum planning
The steps in this phase include:
(1) Identify Issue/Problem/Need
(2) Form Curriculum Development Team
(3) Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis
Identify Issue/Problem/Need
The need for curriculum development concern about
a major issue or problem of one or more target
audience.
This section explores some of the questions that
need to be addressed to define the issue and to
develop a statement that will guide the selection of
the members of a curriculum development team.
The issue statement also serves to broadly identify,
the scope (what will be included) of the curriculum
content.
Form Curriculum Development Team
Once the nature and scope of the issue has been
broadly defined, the members of the curriculum
development team can be selected.
Topics covered in this section include:
(1) the roles and functions of team members,
(2) a process for selecting members of the
curriculum development team, and
(3) principles of collaboration and teamwork.
The goal is to obtain expertise for the areas
included in
the scope of the curriculum content among the
team
members and develop an effective team.
Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis
There are two phases in the needs assessment process.
The first is procedures for conducting a needs
assessment.
A number of techniques are aimed toward learning what
is needed and by whom relative to the identified issue.
Techniques covered in this section include: KAP -
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey; focus groups;
and environmental scanning.
Analysis, the second part of this needs assessment
step, describes techniques on how to use the data and
the results of the information gathered.
Included are: ways to identify gaps between knowledge
and practice; trends emerging from the data; a process
to prioritize needs; and identification of the
characteristics of the target audience.
Curriculum Transaction
Curriculum Transaction or Curriculum
management is the process of planning and
organizing the curriculum in a particular subject
area for different levels of education and
continuously monitor it while being implemented.
Curriculum construction + Curriculum Transaction =
Curriculum development
Curriculum Transaction = Planning curriculum in a subject
area for different levels of study + continuously monitoring
their implementation
•Curriculum Transaction is the effective and desired
implementation of the curriculum contents on the basis of
aims and objectives listed in the curriculum.
Curriculum Transaction incorporates
effective planning for providing learning experiences
for its learners,
organization of planning,
administration/implementation of the organized
planning and
evaluation of the implementations by the implementer
and the experts in the relevant field.
Some of the requirements of effective curriculum
transaction are:
•Planning
•Clarity of thought
•Knowing how we will transact
•Review of the work
•Team responsibility
•Clarity of communication
•Addressing different levels of children
•Knowing, observing and understanding children at all
times
•Time management
•Alertness
•Material organization
•Room set up
•The way we reach out to the children
•Ready alternatives
Teachers need training in
ways to present learning in a
wider variety, incorporating
cooperative learning, music,
role play, project- and
problem-based activities
Multiple intelligence theory has
extended our understanding of
what "success" in school
means
Curriculum Change, Planning and Transaction
Formative and "backwards design"
assessment
Inquiry science methods
1 sur 22

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Curriculum Change, Planning and Transaction

  • 1. Curriculum Change With changing time, curriculum should also change reflecting the needs and aspirations of the people. There cannot be a uniform curriculum for all the countries for all the time Curriculum content should be based on current information and not on the past information. There is need for constantly changing and updating the curriculum content.
  • 2. Curriculum change includes the following Successful curriculum development requires better use of ‘change knowledge’ Policy‐makers, education leaders and teachers need to know more about the drivers of successful curriculum change in schools curriculum orientation should shift from a curriculum as product model to a curriculum as process model. Changing the way teachers teach and students learn requires specific approaches
  • 3. Need for curriculum change Only in some countries, still the traditional curriculum is in vogue. In advanced countries, as a result of knowledge explosion and with continuous research findings and new inventions, the content of the school courses is being questioned. New reform movement has been started.
  • 4. Knowledge explosion Rethinking on the length of school education Changing society Changing student population Developing technology
  • 5. Strategies for curriculum change •Changing curriculum and instruction should be a gradual process. •Curriculum change should be worked with individual teachers at first, or with small clusters of motivated individuals. •Individuals respond uniquely (at times unpredictably) to new ways of doing things, no matter how sensible or appealing the new ways might be. •It takes time — often years — to successfully implement curriculum change. •A number of organizations host websites and conferences dedicated to curriculum improvement.
  • 6. Curriculum Planning The phrase “curriculum planning” can mean one of two related things: either the process of an individual teacher to build a class curriculum, or the means through which school boards coordinate the various curricula being used by teachers in order to achieve uniform goals. On its own, a curriculum is basically a lesson plan that functions as a map for learning.
  • 7. Participants of curriculum planning get involved in variety of activities such as: •Discussing common problems •Making decisions •Developing a functional philosophy •Studying learners and the environment •Keeping up-to-date with the knowledge •Studying ways to improve instructions •Carrying research and evaluation
  • 8. Importance of Curriculum Planning •Curriculum planning develop well-coordinated, quality teaching, learning and assessment programs, which build students’ knowledge, skills and behaviours in the disciplines, as well as their interdisciplinary and/or physical, personal and social capacities.
  • 9. Curriculum planning ensures: •a shared vision •shared understandings and a common language in the school community •optimum coverage of all domains within the curriculum •continuity of learning between domains across year levels •the full range of learning needs of students are addressed •students are given opportunities to develop deep understanding •cohesiveness in teaching, learning and assessment practices •elimination of repetition of learning activities without depth or breadth across levels
  • 10. Need •A curriculum plan is one of the best ways for teachers to look objectively •Organize an effective way to get from beginning to end. •Schools use curriculum plans to set overarching goals •Curriculum plans are an easy way for teachers and schools to quickly monitor progress. •It is easy to notice when students are falling behind, or when objectives are being missed. •Planning is also an important way for schools to streamline student assessment. • Teachers are often required to incorporate certain assessment rubrics into their curriculum planning
  • 11. The steps in this phase include: (1) Identify Issue/Problem/Need (2) Form Curriculum Development Team (3) Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis
  • 12. Identify Issue/Problem/Need The need for curriculum development concern about a major issue or problem of one or more target audience. This section explores some of the questions that need to be addressed to define the issue and to develop a statement that will guide the selection of the members of a curriculum development team. The issue statement also serves to broadly identify, the scope (what will be included) of the curriculum content.
  • 13. Form Curriculum Development Team Once the nature and scope of the issue has been broadly defined, the members of the curriculum development team can be selected. Topics covered in this section include: (1) the roles and functions of team members, (2) a process for selecting members of the curriculum development team, and (3) principles of collaboration and teamwork. The goal is to obtain expertise for the areas included in the scope of the curriculum content among the team members and develop an effective team.
  • 14. Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis There are two phases in the needs assessment process. The first is procedures for conducting a needs assessment. A number of techniques are aimed toward learning what is needed and by whom relative to the identified issue. Techniques covered in this section include: KAP - Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey; focus groups; and environmental scanning. Analysis, the second part of this needs assessment step, describes techniques on how to use the data and the results of the information gathered. Included are: ways to identify gaps between knowledge and practice; trends emerging from the data; a process to prioritize needs; and identification of the characteristics of the target audience.
  • 15. Curriculum Transaction Curriculum Transaction or Curriculum management is the process of planning and organizing the curriculum in a particular subject area for different levels of education and continuously monitor it while being implemented.
  • 16. Curriculum construction + Curriculum Transaction = Curriculum development Curriculum Transaction = Planning curriculum in a subject area for different levels of study + continuously monitoring their implementation
  • 17. •Curriculum Transaction is the effective and desired implementation of the curriculum contents on the basis of aims and objectives listed in the curriculum. Curriculum Transaction incorporates effective planning for providing learning experiences for its learners, organization of planning, administration/implementation of the organized planning and evaluation of the implementations by the implementer and the experts in the relevant field.
  • 18. Some of the requirements of effective curriculum transaction are: •Planning •Clarity of thought •Knowing how we will transact •Review of the work •Team responsibility •Clarity of communication •Addressing different levels of children •Knowing, observing and understanding children at all times •Time management •Alertness •Material organization •Room set up •The way we reach out to the children •Ready alternatives
  • 19. Teachers need training in ways to present learning in a wider variety, incorporating cooperative learning, music, role play, project- and problem-based activities Multiple intelligence theory has extended our understanding of what "success" in school means
  • 21. Formative and "backwards design" assessment