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History of Radio• 1888: Heinrich Hertz detects and produces radio waves.• 1899: Marconi establishes first radio link between England and France.• 1905: Marconi invents the directional radio antennae.• 1907: Reginald Fessenden invents a high-frequency electric generator that produces radio waves with a frequency of 100 kHz.• 1914: Edwin Armstrong patents a radio receiver circuit with positive feedback. Part of the amplified high-frequency signal is fed back to the tuning circuit to enhance selectivity and sensitivity.
History of Radio• 1919: Shortwave radio is developed. RCA is founded.• 1920: KDKA broadcasts the first regular licensed radio broadcast out of Pittsburgh, PA.• Edward Armstrong patents wide-band frequency modulation (FM radio).• 1935: FM radio is born, but only in mono.• 1938: The FCC sets aside educational/non-profit bandwidth on FM.
History of Radio• 1945: Television is born. FM is moved from its original home of 42-50 Mhz to 88-108 Mhz to make room for TV.• 1952: Sony offers a miniature transistor radio. This is one of the first mass-produced consumer AM/FM radios.• 1954: The number of radio receivers in the world exceeds the number of newspapers printed daily.• 1961: FCC approves FM stereo broadcasting, which spurs FM development.• 1962: United States radio stations begin broadcasting in stereophonic sound.
History of Radio• 1990s, Internet radio begins• 2002, Satellite Radio is born• 2004, HD Radio digital signals developed
Jobs in radio• Promotions: responsible for the internal marketing and promotion of a station. Interfaces with sales, programming and production.• Job duties: organizing live remotes, station events, usually maintains a station’s website
Jobs in radio• Programming: responsible for the content on a station. Includes the operations manager, program director, music director and on-air personalities• Interfaces with sales, promotions, traffic and production
Jobs in radio• Production: responsible for creating (producing) audio content for a station. This includes commercials, promos, sweepers and IDs.• Interfaces with sales, traffic, promotions and programming
Jobs in radio• Sales: responsible for selling radio advertising.• Interfaces with clients, promotions, production, traffic and programming• Usually the highest paid jobs in radio
Jobs in radio• Traffic: responsible for scheduling commercials for a station• Interfaces with production, programming, sales, promotions
Radio regulations• The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is a government agency that regulates broadcast stations (radio & TV)• They are gatekeepers: the FCC ensures stations follow content rules (IDs, obscenity), technical specifications (maintaining proper transmission settings, maintaining Emergency Alert Systems (EAS), copyright compliance, and awards (and takes away) broadcast licenses
Important Laws:• Communications act of 1934: establishes the FCC• Report on Chain Broadcasting: 1940; led to the breakup of NBC, which ultimately led to the creation of ABC. This report also concerned network option time, which means, the report limited the amount of time during the day, and what times the networks may broadcast. Previously a network could demand any time it wanted from an affiliate. Gives more control to network affiliates.• Telecommunications act of 1996: Deregulation of communications ownership, allowing companies to increase the number of acquisitions in any one geographical area. This was intended to create competition in markets, but in reality, has led to a few big companies owning the most stations.
Radio in the Digital Age• Terrestrial radio: traditional AM/FM radio stations• Increased web presence (previously, radio generally saw the web as a sidebar to radio broadcasts)• Many big radio companies have expanded their web presence with the acquistion of internet radio stations (CBS acquired Last FM and Yahoo! Music Launchcast Radio• Very common for stations to offer extra content, downloadable podcasts, listener reward clubs, entertainment news and social media links
Internet Radio• Offers opportunity for listeners to get very specific niche content• Customizable: Pandora, Slacker.com• Royalties issue: terrestrial stations must pay royalties to artists based on plays/population.• Copyright Royalty Board (2007) significantly increased the rates of internet stations to $0.0011 cent per song per listener• July 2009: larger web stations pay a reduced fee per song/listener, while smaller webcasters pay a fee based on a percentage of their total revenue
Trends• Mobile radio: many smartphone apps to allow radio on the go; some iPod models come with an FM tuner• User-generated content: listeners can send texts, upload videos to a station’s website• Social Media: follow your favorite on air personalities on Facebook, Twitter
Defining Features of Radio• Local stations: stations that serve one geographical area, can be a network affiliate or create all original programming• Syndicators and Networks: provide programming for local stations. Example: On Air with Ryan Seacrest, Rush Limbaugh, Weekend Top 40• AM: amplitude modulation (frequencies travel further)• FM: frequency modulation (shorter frequencies, clearer sound)
Formats• The genre of a station’s main content• Music formats: classic rock, active rock, alternative rock, country, classic country, CHR (contemporary hits radio, AKA Top 40), urban, adult/contemporary (AC)• Sports formats• News/Talk• Religious
Format Homogenization• Many radio stations sound alike, all across the country• Attributed to large corporate ownership and consolidation of jobs & programming resources• What works in one market, is generally accepted that it will work in another• National research, listener tests, syndicated programming
Commercial Radio & Copywriting• Radio commercials are written by a copywriter• Copywriters write for the EAR, not the EYE• Formatted as a script• Traditional on air advertising is how radio stations make most of their revenue
Non Commercial Radio• National Public Radio (NPR): national, syndicated, listener-supported, and supported by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) a non-profit organization founded by Congress• Public Radio International (PBI): acquires and distributes programming from station- based, independent and international producers• College & Community Radio stations
Producing Radio Content• Music formats: structured to move from one segment to another• Format Wheel: (fig 7-3 page 167)scheduling aid that organizes a clock hour for a station• Scheduling software: computer program that handles creating logs for radio stations. Can be programmed in a variety of ways to suit different formats and programming objectives• Talk formats: use a delay system, features host interactions with listeners calling in• News: most difficult to produce, involves coordinating reporters, anchors, sports/traffic departments, live audio and actualities
Feedback• People Meters and Diaries: used by tracking companies (Arbitron) to monitor people’s radio usage and habits• Information tells stations who is listening, when they listen and for how long• Ratings: the ratio of listeners of a particular station in relation to all people in the market• Share: the ratio of listeners of a particular station to the total number of people listening to radio