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Vectors, environment and society unit

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This presentation was designed by Mariam Otmani Del Barrio for the VERDAS consortium workshop held on Thursday 2 March at the University of Valle in Cali, Colombia.
The workshop was the Verdas Consortium presentation of its research results, a synthesis of knowledge on urban health interventions for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases.

Publié dans : Santé & Médecine
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Vectors, environment and society unit

  1. 1. VECTORS ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY UNIT M a r i a m O t m a n i d e l B a r r i o Ve c t o r s , E n vi r o n m e n t a n d S o c i e t y U n i t WHO/TDR/VES Overview Universidad del Valle, Cali, 2 March 2017
  2. 2. 2TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 2TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE VECTORS, ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY UNIT VES Context: Vector-Borne Diseases (VBD) represent a major source of illness in developing countries. Environment and society have major influences on the transmission of these and on their vectors. VES Impact Goal: Communities have enhanced access to improved control interventions that ultimately contribute to decreased transmission and disease burden. VES Activities: Promote research - Build capacity - Collaborate with countries and institutions
  3. 3. 3TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 3TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE HOW WE HELP COUNTRIES TO ACHIEVE DISEASES CONTROL ? Scientific Knowledge: Generation of scientific evidence relevant to the vector- borne diseases affecting poor and vulnerable populations Capacity Building: All projects include support for students and training for health professional, from community level to stakeholders. Policy Recommendations: Research results and scientific evidences have to be translated/implemented into feasible recommendations and policies. Facilitation of Collaboration and exchange through Networks: Vector-Borne Diseases are not limited by national frontiers and it is imperative that countries work together to achieve prevention, surveillance and control
  5. 5. 5TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 5TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE PROJECTS IN THE WORK STREAM ON ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES • ER.1.3.3 Resilience of most vulnerable populations to Climate Change for vector- borne diseases in Africa • ER.1.3.7 Environmental Public Health Services to prevent and control vector- borne diseases in South-East Asia
  6. 6. 6TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 6TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE RESILIENCE OF VULNERABLE POPULATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE 5 RESEARCH PROJECTS IN 7 AFRICAN COUNTRIES, 4 DISEASES: • Human African trypanosomiasis: alleviating the effects of climate change (South Africa, Tanzania) • Climate change impact on malaria and schistosomiasis in arid areas of Southern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Botswana) • Vulnerability and resilience to malaria and schistosomiasis in the Sahelian belt (Côte d’Ivoire, Mauritania ) • Predicting vulnerability and improving resilience of the Masai communities to trypanosomiasis and malaria (Tanzania). • Early warning systems for improved human health and resilience to climate sensitive malaria and Rift Valley fever in Kenya
  7. 7. 7TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 7TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Strengthening public health through access of community-centred health support services for the control and prevention of priority infectious diseases, 2 projects: • To identify and characterize the (environmental) health concerns/risks, and their potential impact on VBD transmission in rural communities (SEARO) • Develop community-driven services that could be developed to prevent and control these diseases (WPRO)
  8. 8. 8TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 8TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE PROJECTS IN THE WORK STREAM ON EMERGING CHALLENGES EMERGING CHALLENGES • ER.1.3.6 Impact of Insecticide Resistance on Malaria Control and Residual Malaria • SDFV.2 Caribbean Network on emerging arboviruses • SDFV.4 Development of an online platform to host Courses on Vectors • SDFV.5 Network on Insecticide Resistance
  9. 9. 9TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 9TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE IMPACT OF INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE ON MALARIA CONTROL The overall objective of this study is to assess performances of LLIN (long-lasting insecticidal nets)/(indoor residual spraying) IRS in sites where Anopheles mosquitoes have developed resistance to insecticide in comparison to sites where Anopheles are susceptible to insecticides. The specific objectives include: 1. Update data on insecticide resistance and determine resistance mechanism(s) in the 3 target countries in order to identify appropriate study sites with the knock down and metabolic-based resistance mechanisms. 2. Monitor entomological, parasitological and socio- anthropological indices of LLINs/IRS efficacy in selected study sites with and without insecticide resistance 3. Compare the performances of LLINs and IRS on entomologic indices (vector longevity, MBR and EIR) and malaria prevalence in localities where Anopheles exhibit either the knock down resistance, metabolic-based resistance or both resistance mechanisms.
  10. 10. 10TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 10TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE RESIDUAL MALARIA PROJECTS  Residual malaria hotspots in Peru and Brazil: setting the stage for testing improved: PI Dionicia Gamboa Vilela, study sites in Brazil and Peru  Understanding residual transmission for sustainable malaria control and enhancement of elimination efforts in Africa: PI Joseph Mwangangi, study sites in Kenya, Cameroon and Ethiopia.  Residual Malaria Transmission in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) - Studies to examine its magnitude and identify its causes: PI Jeffrey Hii, study sites in Thailand and Vietnam.  Understanding human, parasite, vector and environmental interractions driving residual malaria transmission in Papua New Guinea: PI Moses Laman, study sites are in Papua New Guinea.  Where and when is residual malaria transmission taking place? Investigating magnitude and drivers of persistent Plasmodium infections in East and West Africa: PI Fredros Okumu, study sites in Burkina Faso and Tanzania.
  11. 11. 11TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 11TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE CARIBBEAN NETWORK ON EMERGING VBD Consortium selected in June 2015 First Workshop on Surveillance and Diagnostics of Emerging VBDs Trinidad, December 2015 Second Workshop on Vector Surveillance and Control Saint-Kitts, May 2016
  12. 12. 12TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 12TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE DEVELOPMENT OF A PLATFORM ON COURSES ON VECTORS FOR LMICs Activity 1: Mapping of available courses Worldwide Activity 2: Workshop with institutions to develop the platform (Lisbon, February 16- 17, 2016) Future: Selection of a partner for construction and hosting of the platform. Outcome 1: Online availability of the courses for students, health professionals and any other capacity building issue. Outcome 2: Possible discussion for harmonization of the courses.
  15. 15. 15TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 15TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE IN AFRICA EC funded, 4 expected outcomes 1.Community-based interventions (CBI) for strengthening Primary Health Care (PHC) 2.Incentives for Community Health Workers 3.Integrated Community Case Management of malaria and pneumonia (iCCM). 4.Knowledge generation and management. All outcomes fully achieved Now, translation of research into practices at national level. Some Data on severe malaria: % Before Intervention % After Intervention Burkina F Nigeria Uganda Burkina F Nigeria Uganda Fast breathing 1.7 4.0 2.2 0.5 0.5 2.6 Convulsion 5.4 5.3 17.1 5.0 5.8 4.9 Weakness/Lethargy 4.3 15.0 17.1 5.1 1.33 12.4
  16. 16. 16TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 16TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION/community-based interventions CollaborationMobilisationInformation sharing Empowerment Community actively lobbying for improved environmental and living conditions, including better housing Community actively directs its own vector control and surveillance efforts Community informed about risk (vectors) and prevention as well as protection measures (breeding sites elimination) Community mobilized to improve peri- domestic and domestic environmental conditions and community-based surveillance Community collaborates with vector control services/health system on protection of potential breeding-sites, serological surveillance, environmental management
  17. 17. 17TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 17TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE SCALING UP OF DENGUE INTERVENTIONS 4 LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, MEXICO, URUGUAY EXAMPLE: INTERVENTION PACKAGE IN BRAZIL In Goiânia, window and door screens in a metallic frame are manufactured and installed by a local commercial enterprise in about 3500 households. In Belo Horizonte, curtains with long-lasting insecticide will be manufactured by a group of women and placed in two pilot areas and then two larger areas (10 000 households) and (6 328 households). Long-lasting insecticide treated nets are provided by WHO/PAHO. The municipalities have already acquired one part of the material with the support of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, through PAHO. Targeted interventions of the most productive type of containers. Covering unprotected elevated water containers and waste disposal through community actions, led by control agents in both cities.
  18. 18. 18TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 18TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE SOCIAL INNOVATION IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY Partnership development Bertha Center for Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship (University of Cape Town. Skoll Centre for Social Innovation (Oxford University) Innovation research: case-study research on 25 selected social innovations (http://healthinnovationproject.org) Major international stakeholder meeting in December 2015 . Innovation: Barcoded vaccination card with redeemable credit for farm inputs Implementer: University of Nairobi Website: www.uonbi.ac.ke Innovation: Disease surveillance system for malaria using a mobile platform Implementer: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing Website: http://www.cdac.in Innovation: Integrated management of fever, malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in children at drug shops Implementer: Makerere University Website: http://www.musph.ac.ug
  19. 19. 19TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 19TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE URBAN HEALTH Goal • Develop integrated community-based interventions for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases of poverty in urban contexts • Generate evidence on innovative urban health interventions • Inform policy and practice Output • Urban intervention “packages” • Innovative housing protection strategies • Multi-stakeholder partnerships • Community-based delivery options Consortium selected to conduct a research gap analysis Organize workshop and commission reviews for setting research priorities (2015-2017) and develop evidence-based policy briefs Focused research scheme on specific urban health issues (2016-2017)
  20. 20. 20TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 20TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE PROJECTS IN THE WORK STREAM ON GENDER EQUITY AND ETHICS GENDER EQUITY AND ETHICS • SDFV.1 Support activities for the improvement of the careers of women research scientists in infectious diseases. • ER.1.3.8 Training courses for capacity building in gender-based analysis (2015- 2018)
  21. 21. 21TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 21TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE GENDER EQUITY IMPROVING THE CAREERS OF WOMEN RESEARCH SCIENTISTS TDR-wide activity 9 projects in Kenya, Nigeria, Guinea, Uganda, Malawi, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Mali and Ethiopia DEVELOPMENT TRAINING COURSE FOR CAPACITY BUILDING ON GENDER-BASED ANALYSIS IN VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES Collaboration with RCS-KM Implemented with the TDR Regional Training Center for the African Region (School of Public Health, University of Ghana). Curriculum development started in August 2015 http://www.who.int/tdr/capacity/gender/en/
  22. 22. 22TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE 22TDR • MAKING A DIFFERENCE TDR/VES INVOLVEMENT IN ZIKA EMERGENCY RESPONSE 1) Vector Control Group – Focal Point: R. Velayudhan (NTD/WHO) 2) Public Health Research – TDR activities Priority 1. Research on insecticide resistance impact on vector control and disease transmission. Priority 2. Research on new indicators for entomological surveillance. Priority 3. Investigations on community-based vector control approaches, taking into account social and cultural differences
  23. 23. THANK YOU