Is defined as the science of
all things studied from the
viewpoint of their ultimate
causes, reasons, or
principles by the light of
human reason alone.
Is also seen as a reflective
technique applied to lived
It a science which verifies all
things in one
All men, by
There is in man a
philosophical drive to want to
know and explanation of all
that he has.
*HE REFLECTS ON UPON
HIS EXPERIENCE AND ASKS
QUESTIONS OF HIMSELF.
*HE ASKS ABOUT THE
ULTIMATE MEANING THAT
CAN BE GIVEN TO HUMAN
*THE METHOD IS
is in the
High priority concern for
95% of the greatest scientists
live in this age.
Thus, there is an inevitable
knowledge explosion which
carries with it the power of
development and the power
Mans knowledge is,
unsure: having mixed,
uncertain, or conflicting
TECHNOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC AGE
Modern man is called SECULAR MAN.
Man’s reputation as a sacred being created
God’s image and likeness has been challenged
And reduced because of the event of the
Scientific revolution. He is supposed to be a
steward of the creation but has fallen short of
Is Philosophy a valid
possess a method all
What does Philosophy
have to tell about man?
“The empirical and positivist
assumed simply that there is NO
KNOWABLE REALITY beyond what we can
see, hear, measure, test, etc.” – Bacon and
Philosophical method -reflective and abstract
and aims at an understanding of nature and
purpose = METAPHYSICAL (lying beyond
what we see, hear)
(Bacon & Hume)
Imperical Science (Bacon & Hume) Metaphysical - Philosophers
Have brought about the progress which
has allowed man to master the physical
world around him.
Beyond the physical
Philosophical questions concern the
nature of things, purpose, meaning,
values, causes and so on.
Any progress wrought by philosophy
seems insignificant because of scientific
feats like man’s landing on the moon,
Answers are not found in the realm of
tangible or empirical.
Dismiss philosophy as a pseudo-
science, mere juggling of ideas, a non-
significant mental exercise.
Philosophical questions cannot be
answered with empirical facts and
tangible evidence, there will always be
room for further questions.
=PHILOSOPHY destined to the
There are as many philosophies as
there are philosophers.
WHAT IS MAN?
biologist Man is a gregarious mammalian biped.
Sociologist The patterns of behavior he exhibits in societal living.
Philosophical Man can talk and dogs cannot. Man possesses a superior or
higher nature than dogs.
Q: What is the source of all philosophical
The Philosophical method is the
observation of common experiences.
Certain simple facts are considered such
Method is, therefore
the study of common
experience in order to
come to some
understanding of that
> End of God’s creation and King of all
creations. - Philosophy and Theology
>contra factum non valet argumentum (Against
facts there is no argument)
>was always believed to be a special reserved
>Man has lost the mysterious sacredness that
he possessed since time immemorial.
Man is no longer that special
creature among creatures
because he has been
explained away by science.
Man can be
Philosophy judges reality from the viewpoint
of the total context.
Philosophy is necessary in order to
humanize the sciences, to regulate the
sciences in view of man’s growth and
“Science can produce an atomic bomb but
science cannot say when or what condition it
may be used.”
-Sec. of Educ. Alejandro
Man according to Socrates
>man is aware of himself
>man is free
FREEDOM establishes man’s
dignity. Without it, man
ceases to exist as man. With
it, he is a “Little less than
Education has to do with influencing
man to become what he ought to be.
We must understand man as he is
Man is what he is because of what he
was and because of his relationships
with other people and with his changing
The wisdom of the intellect makes a
Aristotle has said that the
virtuous man is a happy man
and that happiness is the
ultimate goal of man.
Plato has declared: “The best
man makes the best citizen”
Wisdom is the comprehensive
view of reality which in
integrates all kinds of
Understanding is more specific.
It can refer to mathematical,
historical, scientific, linguistic or
Philosophy of education and
the Science of Education must
go in hand. Philosophy of
Education without the science
of education is empty: on the
other hand, science of
education without philosophy
of education is blind. There is
no sense of direction, there is
no compass, no guiding star.
A Philosophy of education
provides the guiding
principles received from
general philosophy. The
science of education gathers
from the data of experimental
psychology of the details
which go together to form the
mosaic of concrete reality.
Together, they form a
complete picture of the ends
and means of education.
Divorced from one another,
they will inevitably end in
sweeping contradictions of
each other. Separating them
will do violence to their
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING AND
GOD BLESS YOU
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