2. Pre-Diagnostic Assessment
1. How does the windward side differ from the
leeward side of a high land?
a. The windward receives more precipitation than
b. The leeward side has more vegetation than
the windward side.
c. The windward side receives more heat than
the leeward side.
d. The leeward side receives more precipitation
than the windward side.
3. 2. What happens to the temperature of
air when altitude increases?
a. remains the same
4. 3. Which of the following best describe a
a. The weather that occurs in the atmosphere
within a day.
b. The pattern of weather that occurs in a region
over along period of time.
c. The pattern of weather that occurs in a region
over a short period of time.
d. The disturbance in the atmosphere that
happens in a long period of time.
5. 4. Why are the coldest places on earth found at the
a. great amount of gaseous particles trap heat from
b. great amount of thermal radiation is received by
c. less amount of thermal radiation is received by
d. less amount of gaseous particles trap heat from
6. 5. What will happen when the rates of
evaporation and condensation are equal?
a. Clouds form.
b. The dew point is reached.
c. The humidity increases.
d. Precipitation occurs.
7. 6. Which of the following can cause global
a. volcanic eruptions
b. the amount of rainfall
c. the rising of warm air into the atmosphere
d. increase of the amount of CO2 in the
8. 7. When does greenhouse effect happen?
a. Greenhouse gases on the surface absorb heat
from the atmosphere.
b. Greenhouse gases on the surface absorb heat
from the earth’s interior.
c. Greenhouse gases in the upper atmosphere
absorb heat from the outer space.
d. Greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere
absorb heat from the earth’s surface.
9. 8. Which activity does not contribute to global
b. illegal fishing
c. mining activities
d. incineration of garbage
10. 9. City A is surrounded by bodies of water and
has a moderate climate. It is located near the
equator. What will most likely affect the climate
of the city?
d. all of these
11. 10. Which of following is an indication of global
a. rising of sea level
b. decrease of global temperature
c. coastal erosion
d. strong waves in the ocean
12. Definition of Terms
altitude- the height above sea level
climate- the overall condition of an area over a
long period of time.
climate change- a long term shifting of global
El Niño- brought about by the current of the
ocean bringing warm air to a landmass in the
13. fauna – composed of living animals.
flora- composed of different plant vegetation.
greenhouse effect- the increase of global
temperature due to some atmospheric gases.
gyre- the circular patterns formed by surface
14. latitude- an imaginary line that is parallel to the
leeward- the side of the mountain that receives
less amount of precipitation.
longitude- an imaginary line that extends from
north pole to south pole.
mitigation – a manner of modifying something
to become useful.
15. precipitation- forms when water vapor
condenses and falls to the ground as rain,
snow, hail or sleet.
topography- the surface features of an area.
temperature- refers to the hotness or coldness
of an object.
windward- the side of the mountain that
receives most of the precipitation.
Climate is the overall atmospheric condition of
a place for a period of 30 years or more.
Climate is influenced by latitude, altitude,
distance from bodies of water, ocean currents,
As the latitude increases, the smaller the angle
of the sun’s rays strike the surface.
When the area is further from the equator, the
air temperature is lower. When a place is
closer to the equator, the air temperature is
The air temperature decreases as the altitude
Baguio City is the summer capital of the
Philippines because of its cold climate. It has
an annual average temperature of 16⁰C. It has
an elevation of 1435m above sea level.
19. Distance from bodies of water
Soil absorbs heat faster than water. Soil
releases heat faster compared to water.
Places that are near oceans have moderate
climate as the body of water regulates the
temperature. Places that are far from the
bodies of water have extreme climates.
21. Figure 6.1 shows different loops or gyres of
surface currents around the world. In northern
hemisphere, the current flows in clockwise
direction. On the other hand, in southern
hemisphere the current flows in
counterclockwise direction. These clockwise
and counterclockwise of ocean currents are
caused by Coriolis Effect.
22. Ocean currents that flow away from the
equator carries warm water. The air above the
warm water has higher temperature.
When ocean currents that bring cold water
move towards a coastal region, the
temperature of that area decreases as warmer
air from the land flows to the sea resulting to a
23. When warm ocean currents that take along
warm water go to a land mass, the
temperature of that place increases as warmer
air above the water flows inland, resulting to a
One of the topographic features of an area is
mountain. Mountainous areas greatly affect the
amount of precipitation in a certain region. The
area in which the wind blows is called the
windward side. Here, the wind is blocked by
the mountain, forcing it to move upward. As it
moves up, the water vapor condenses and
forms clouds. This will result in precipitation on
the windward side.
25. The air moves down towards the opposite
region called leeward side. The cold air mass
starts to absorb heat and becomes warm and
dry. As a result, the area near the leeward side
becomes dry and has less precipitation. The
dry region on the leeward side is called rain
shadow. Vegetation in this region includes
desert plants and grassland.
The closer the place is to the equator, the
warmer the climate; the farther the place is
from the equator the colder the climate.
Air temperature decreases when altitude
Bodies of water help regulate the climate of a
28. Mountain ranges affect the formation of
Ocean currents will either cool or warm the air
Cold currents bring cold water while warm
currents take along warm water.
Coriolis Effect deflects the ocean currents.
30. Climate change brings drastic effects
to some people and animals.
Human activities may speed up the
rising of the global temperature.
31. Climate change
Global warming can bring about a rising of
sea level due to the melting of ice caps and
Effect: We may experience severe weather
disturbances such as much stronger typhoons
and heavier rainfalls. Some parts of the world
may experience El Niño or La Niña. And most
of all, it can cause extinction of some fauna
32. Climate change
El Niño happens when the
temperature in eastern Pacific rises
La Niña occurs when the temperature
in eastern Pacific decreases below
33. Solar radiation warms the Earth as its
energy is absorbed by the atmosphere. In
the atmosphere, there are greenhouse
gases present. These include water
vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and
nitrous oxide. Greenhouse gases
prevent heat to escape from earth making
earth’s temperature higher.
35. Fig. 8.2 shows that greenhouse gases such as
carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs), and nitrous oxide trap heat preventing
it to escape from the earth. All gases absorb
heat, some just absorb more than others. So
assuming solar radiation is constant, the
average atmospheric temperature depends on
the mix of gases.
36. More greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
means that the equilibrium temperature will be
higher as these absorb more heat. This will
result to the increase of global temperature.
Less greenhouse gases will mean lower
temperature. Mankind more or less evolved
under conditions of a specific mix of gases (of
course with certain degree of variation) in the
atmosphere, and we thrived under these
37. If the mix of gases in the atmosphere were
altered considerably, earth’s temperature would
change significantly, and we will be faced with
new conditions that we are not used to, which
we will have to somehow adapt to, or face
extinction. Areas that are found in temperate
regions may have shorter winter. Countries that
are found in tropical regions may have longer
and drier summer. Glaciers that cover land will
melt which results in the increase of sea level.
when are we going to start changing for the
when are we going to care???
Act now if you care…
1. What are the factors that affect
2. How can you lessen the harmful
effects of climate change?
3. Explain how greenhouse effect
4. How is rain shadow form (leeward)?
5. What are some impacts of climate
change to people and animals?