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DR.M.VENKATESAN
MONEY
• A current medium of exchange in the
form of coins and banknotes ..
• Item or verifiable record that is generally
a...
Money as a medium of exchange
• The use of money spans a very large part of our
everyday life. Several transactions involv...
Problem of double coincidence of wants
• In the olden days, when modern currency was not
in vogue, people had to sell and ...
Barter system
• A barter system is an old method of exchange.
• The system has been used for centuries and long
before mon...
Different countries different currencies
i) USA - dollar
ii) Britain – Pound Sterling
iii) Canada – Canadian dollar
iv) Si...
v) China – Chinese Yuan renminbi
vi) Japan – Japanese yen
vii) Australia – Australian dollar
viii) Sri Lanka - Sri Lankan ...
Deposits money in Banks
• People need only some currency for their day-to-day needs.
• people deposit the extra money with...
Cheque• A deposit in a Bank offers the customer the facility of
issuing cheques.
• A cheque is a paper instructing the ban...
LOAN
• a loan is the lending of money from one individual,
organization or entity to another individual,
organization or e...
Loan Activities of Banks
• Banks keep a small proportion of their deposits as
cash with themselves to pay the depositors w...
Collateral
• In addition to the interest , lenders may demand collateral
(security) against loans.
• Collateral is an asse...
Credit Arrangements
I
A small farmer borrows money from an
Agricultural trader.
The rate of interest is 36 % per annum.
Th...
The working of Cooperatives and people
take loans from Cooperatives.
• Besides banks, the other major source of cheap cred...
• The Cooperative accepts deposits from its
members.
• Using the deposit as collateral, the Cooperative
obtains a large lo...
SHG
• In recent years, people have tried out some newer ways of providing
loans to the poor. The idea is to organize rural...
Grameen Bank of Bangladesh
• Grameen Bank of Bangladesh is one of the biggest success
stories in reaching the poor to meet...
Debt-trap
• It is a situation in which a
person takes a loan and due
to unavoidable
circumstances he is not able
to repay ...
Chit fund• Chit fund mean a fund set up for collection of
small savings of the people who earn on daily
basic like chaiwal...
Plastic money
Debit and Credit cards are called Plastic money
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
money and credit class 10
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money and credit class 10

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money and credit class 10

  1. 1. DR.M.VENKATESAN
  2. 2. MONEY • A current medium of exchange in the form of coins and banknotes .. • Item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or social-economic context, or is easily converted to such a form. The main functions of money are distinguished as a medium of exchange; a unit of account; a store of value; and, sometimes, a standard of deferred payment.Any item or verifiable record that fulfills these functions can be considered as money.
  3. 3. Money as a medium of exchange • The use of money spans a very large part of our everyday life. Several transactions involving money are made in any single day. • Goods are being bought and sold with the use of money. • Services are being exchanged with money. • Goods are also bought with a promise to pay money later. • Money is sometimes paid as advance with the promise of delivery of goods later. • As the need for a medium of exchange became a necessity different materials were used as a medium of exchange
  4. 4. Problem of double coincidence of wants • In the olden days, when modern currency was not in vogue, people had to sell and buy each others commodities. This was called the barter system. For instance if a shoe manufacturer wants to buy wheat, he has to find a farmer who wants to buy his shoes in exchange for the wheat. • Both parties have to agree to sell and buy each others commodities. This is known as double coincidence of wants. • In a barter system where goods are directly exchanged without the use of money, double coincidence of wants is an essential feature.
  5. 5. Barter system • A barter system is an old method of exchange. • The system has been used for centuries and long before money was invented. • People exchanged services and goods for other services and goods in return.
  6. 6. Different countries different currencies i) USA - dollar ii) Britain – Pound Sterling iii) Canada – Canadian dollar iv) Singapore – Singapore dollar USA - dollar Britain – Pound Sterling Canada – Canadian dollar Singapore – Singapore dollar
  7. 7. v) China – Chinese Yuan renminbi vi) Japan – Japanese yen vii) Australia – Australian dollar viii) Sri Lanka - Sri Lankan rupee. China – Chinese Yuan renminbi Japan – Japanese yen Australia – Australian dollar Sri Lanka - Sri Lankan rupee.
  8. 8. Deposits money in Banks • People need only some currency for their day-to-day needs. • people deposit the extra money with the banks by opening a bank account in their name. • Banks accept the deposits and also pay an interest rate on the deposits. In this way people’s money is safe with the banks and it earns an interest. • People also have the provision to withdraw the money as and when they require. Since the deposits in the bank accounts can be withdrawn on demand, these deposits are called demand deposits.
  9. 9. Cheque• A deposit in a Bank offers the customer the facility of issuing cheques. • A cheque is a paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount from the person’s account to the person in whose name the cheque has been made. • The recipient of the cheque can deposit it in his own account in his bank. • The money is transferred from one bank account to another bank account in a couple of days. • The transaction is complete without any payment of cash. • This is a safe mode of transferring money avoiding the possibility of any theft.
  10. 10. LOAN • a loan is the lending of money from one individual, organization or entity to another individual, organization or entity. A loan is a debt provided by an entity (organization or individual) to another entity at an interest rate, and evidenced by a promissory note which specifies, among other things, the principal amount of money borrowed, the interest rate the lender is charging, and date of repayment. A loan entails the reallocation of the subject asset(s) for a period of time, between the lender and the borrower.
  11. 11. Loan Activities of Banks • Banks keep a small proportion of their deposits as cash with themselves to pay the depositors who might come to withdraw money from the bank on any given day • Banks use the major portion of the deposits to extend loans. • In this way, banks mediate between those who have surplus funds (the depositors) those who are in need of these funds (the borrowers). • Banks charge a higher interest rate on loans than what they offer on deposits. • The difference between what is charged from borrowers and what is paid to depositors is their main source of income. Coupon Accepted Successfully!
  12. 12. Collateral • In addition to the interest , lenders may demand collateral (security) against loans. • Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns (such as land, building, vehicle, livestock’s, deposits with banks) and uses this as a guarantee to a lender until the loan is repaid. • If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right to sell the asset or collateral to obtain payment. • Property such as land titles, deposits with banks, livestock are some common examples of collateral used for borrowing.
  13. 13. Credit Arrangements I A small farmer borrows money from an Agricultural trader. The rate of interest is 36 % per annum. The trader supplies farm inputs like seeds and fertilizers. In addition to the interest and capital the farmer has to sell his crops only to the trader. The farmer has to accept the price offered by the trader. The trader not only gets a interest for his loan, but also earns a huge profit from selling the crop at a very high price. II A farmer borrows money from a bank The rate of interest is 8.5 % per annum. The loan can be repaid anytime in the next three years. The farmer plans to repay the loan after harvest by selling a part of the crop. The farmer will then store the rest of the potatoes in a cold storage and sell it when the price is high. The farmer can apply for a fresh loan from the bank against the cold storage receipt. The bank offers this facility to III An agricultural laborer borrows money from her employer to meet the expenses for sudden illness in the family. The rate of interest is 60 % per annum The laborers has to repay her loan by working for the employer. The employer does not treat the laborer well Employers are the only source of credit for the landless agricultural laborers.
  14. 14. The working of Cooperatives and people take loans from Cooperatives. • Besides banks, the other major source of cheap credit in rural areas is the cooperative societies (or cooperatives). • Members of a cooperative pool their resources for cooperation in certain areas. There are several types of cooperatives, namely:- • Farmers cooperatives .Weavers cooperatives . Industrial workers cooperative the example of Krishak Cooperative. • Krishak Cooperative functions in a village not very far away from Sonpur. • It has 2300 farmers as members.
  15. 15. • The Cooperative accepts deposits from its members. • Using the deposit as collateral, the Cooperative obtains a large loan from the bank. The loan amount received from the bank is used as funds to provide loans to the members. • Once the members repay the loans the amount is repaid to the bank and a fresh loan is taken from the bank. • The Cooperative provides loans to its members for the purchase of agricultural implements, loans for cultivation and agricultural trade, fishery loans, loans for construction of houses and for a variety of other expenses.
  16. 16. SHG • In recent years, people have tried out some newer ways of providing loans to the poor. The idea is to organize rural poor, in particular women, into small Self Help Groups (SHGs) and pool (collect) their savings. • A typical SHG has 15-20 members, usually belonging to one neighborhood, who meet and save regularly. • Saving per member varies from Rs. 25 to Rs. 100 or more. • Members can take small loans from the group itself to meet their needs. • The group charges interest on these loans but this is still less than what the moneylender charges. • After a year or two, if the group is regular in savings, it becomes eligible for availing loan from the bank. • Loan is sanctioned in the name of the group and is meant to create self- employment opportunities for the members. • SHGs help borrowers overcome the problem of lack of collateral. • They can get timely loans. • SHGs are the building blocks of organization of the rural
  17. 17. Grameen Bank of Bangladesh • Grameen Bank of Bangladesh is one of the biggest success stories in reaching the poor to meet their credit needs at reasonable rates. • Started in the 1970s as a small project, now has over 6 million borrowers in about 40,000 villages spread across Bangladesh. • Almost all of the borrowers are women and belong to poorest sections of the society. • These borrowers have proved that not only are poor women reliable borrowers, but that they can start and run a variety of small income-generating activities successfully. • Professor Muhammad Yunus was the founder of Grameen Bank ,and recipient of 2006 Nobel Prize for peace.
  18. 18. Debt-trap • It is a situation in which a person takes a loan and due to unavoidable circumstances he is not able to repay his loan. • Now faces a difficult situation and has to take a tough decision , either he has to borrow a fresh loan or sell some part of his property to repay the earlier loan.
  19. 19. Chit fund• Chit fund mean a fund set up for collection of small savings of the people who earn on daily basic like chaiwala, panwala etc . • These people can save rupees10 and rupees 100 on daily basis and deposit in the fund . • The money collected in invested in the shares or debentures of the companies or in the government bonds the return earned on these investment paid back to the investors after deducting the administrative charges of managing the funds .
  20. 20. Plastic money Debit and Credit cards are called Plastic money

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