The term Internet of Things was first coined by Kevin
Ashton in 1999 in the context of supply chain management.
– Mobile wireless communications
– Internet technology
– Future is IOT
Internet- Connecting world
Internet of things-Controlling the world by using internet
and establishing communication between devices/sensors
and making life easier.
3. Introduction contd...
Here devices could be microcontrollers or sensors which
Sense from environment/nature, perform some analytics
and give that as output.
Internet of things is
Any thing connection
Any place connection
Any time connection
4. Why Internet of Things
It is estimated by 2020 there would be 50 billion
objects/devices connected to the Internet which
includes almost every electronic products.
To Make life easier
Improve the resource utilization ratio
Better relationship between human and nature
5. Feel of IOT...
What if there is sudden fire accident/short circuit at your
home when you were at your work place ??
6. The application of IoT
(2) When shopping in the
market, the goods will
(1) When entering the doors,
scanners will identify the tags on
(4) When paying for the goods, the
microchip of the credit card will
communicate with checkout
(3) When moving the goods, the
reader will tell the staff to put a
7. Wireless Sensor Network
A wireless sensor network (WSN) of spatially distributed
autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental
conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and
to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a
Building Internet of things using RFID
RFID approach is discussed.
Future Internet: The Internet of Things Architecture,
Possible Applications and Key Challenges.
- Architecture of IOT, its challenges and applications is
An Internet of Things (IoT) architecture for embedded
- How embedded appliances can be connected to internet is
9. Technologies used with IOT
Following technologies are being considered for
implementing device to device communication in IOT:
- WiMax etc..
The above technologies are short ranged communication
10. Device to Device Communication
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) devices are wireless
microchips used for tagging objects for automated identification
RFID can identify objects wirelessly without line-of-sight
RFID systems consist of a reading device called a reader, and
one or more tags.
The reader is a powerful device with ample memory and
Interoperability is an issue.
What kind of data formats need to be used ?.
How many functionalities can a device perform?.
Will it support legacy systems?
Life of a Network.
Addressing each device uniquely is big concern.
IPv6 provides unique addressing to the 2^128 devices.
What if some more devices added to the Internet?
How about the security of each device connected to the
Even if, we chose to use IPv6. More the header wastage
involved than the data provided by the Low-end devices.
Each end-node is low-power device.
Internet Protocol Stack is used then, it needs more memory
and processing power.
Life of network will go down.
Queried for information on the end-node, if it is off. Who
notifies it to the requester that it is not available ?.
How can a end-device configured to dynamic IP- addressing? .
If collision happen, how many times it will retry for
How can a requester will understand the data send by end-
node?. It sends only raw data, otherwise lot of analytics is
Multidisciplinary nodes, variable data types, and formats.
18. Adressing Schemes
Wireless sensor networks (considering them as
building blocks of IoT), which run on a different stack
compared to the Internet, it cannot possess IPv6 stack
to address individually and hence a subnet with a
gateway having a URN will be required.
BT devices emit signals with a unique Media Access
Identification (MAC-ID) number that can be read by
BT sensors within the coverage area.
20. Device Addressing Table
Device Address Machine Address Last updated time
at central node
MAC ID Eg: 10 msec ON/OFF
Device Address: It is the unique address(may be universally accepted)
assigned by central node to all the devices paired with it.
Machine Address:It is the unique address assigned to each device by
manufacturer or vendor of respective device.
Last updated time at central node:It is the most recent time At
which specific device has given a response to central node. Central node
maintains Last updated time of all devices individually
Device Status: This field updates automatically which intimates
centralnode the status of device i.e ON/OFF or any mal functioning.
21. Information table
Machine Address Information present at central node
eg-: 30 degrees,
Machine Address: It is the unique address assigned to each
device by manufacturer or vendor of respective devices.
Information present at central node: It is the information
given by respective devices upon sensing and processing
Medium Access Control
1. Central Node Polling.
- Normal cases.
2. Threshold Crossing
- Special cases where immediate response
Ex: Fire Alarming, it needs to report to the fire
Central Node Polling
Central node will make a request to the each node on
Retrieve the data from the end-node(sensors) store it to the
Duration upon which data to be accessed will be decided
by the Administrator(owner).
Life of network will be high.
No data processing required at end-nodes. No
Traffic on end-node will be less.
Each node will get some threshold setting, or a special
case it can access the medium for data transmission to
No need to wait for central node to poll for data
Multiple transmissions may be needed.
Life of end-node will go down.
Life of network will be more.
- end-nodes will be active mode for long time.
No need of huge processing power at end-nodes.
- No need of complex algorithms required.
Security is addressed.
- All the nodes can be accessed from central node.
Mobility of end-nodes.
- No complex wiring required, and battery powered.
QoS is enabled.
- Priority can be set by the user, slot-based.
Faulty end-nodes can be detected instantly.
- Node goes off, no request can be processed.
End-user understandable data.
- Processed data, digital data.
No need of interoperability.
- All can follow one protocol.
- More processors, ADC's and Memory chips are not
Dynamic data diversion and easy change of behavioral
parameters. - Destination address can change.
1. K. Ashton, That ‘‘Internet of Things’’ thing, RFiD Journal
(2009). H. Sundmaeker, P. Guillemin, P. Friess, S.
2. Vision and challenges for realizing the Internet of Things,
Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of
Things—CERP IoT, 2010.
3. J. Buckley (Ed.), The Internet of Things: From RFID to the
Next-Generation Pervasive Networked Systems, Auerbach
Publications, New York, 2006. M. Weiser, R. Gold, The
origins of ubiquitous computing research at PARC in the
late 1980s, IBM Systems Journal (1999).
4. Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements,
and future directions. Jayavardhana Gubbi