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Archival Management: Principles and Techniques

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A 3-day training program developed for the seminar-workshop on Archival Management, sponsored by South Manila Inter-Institutional Consortium Committee of Librarians, held on March 26-28, 2008.

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Archival Management: Principles and Techniques

  1. 1. Overview <ul><li>Archives usually consist of unique materials, and unlike Libraries, cannot take advantage of standardized organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Archives preserve records of enduring value; these may be organizational or personal records. They are not necessarily old, and may come in different formats. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike libraries, archival materials are arranged and described in aggregates or groups. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Differences between archival and library materials Category Libraries Archives Nature published unpublished discrete items groups of related items available elsewhere unique Method of receipt selected as single appraised in aggregates items Arrangement predetermined sub- provenance and original ject classification order Level of description individual items aggregate (record group or series) Descriptive media card catalog, OPAC inventories, guides Access open stacks closed stacks
  3. 3. Archives <ul><ul><li>noncurrent records of an organization or the personal papers of one or more individuals, families, or groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retained for their continuing value to be preserved for posterity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually in a repository managed and maintained by trained personnel </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Archives <ul><ul><li>also refers to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the office or agency responsible for selecting, preserving, and making available records of permanent value </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Archives <ul><ul><li>repository (place , part of a building) where these records are kept </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fonds <ul><li>The whole of the records, regardless of form or medium, automatically and organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular individual, family or corporate body in the course of that creator’s activities or functions </li></ul><ul><li>A fonds (sometimes called “record group”) is a level of arrangement and description, under which exist series, files and items. </li></ul><ul><li>A fonds is not equivalent to an ACCESSION. A fonds may contain more than one accession. </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, an accession may contain more than one fonds . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Records <ul><ul><li>Documents in any form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>created or received by an office, agency or person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accumulated in the normal conduct of business or affairs, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retained as evidence of such activity, permanently or for a limited period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually arranged according to a discernible system of recordkeeping </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Collection <ul><li>An artificial accumulation of records of any provenance brought together on the basis of some common characteristic, e.g., medium, or subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Records of an organization collected and brought into the archives for research, such as PAASCU Records </li></ul>Photographs are a good example of a collection. They are often brought together for preservation and access purposes. What are examples of subject collections?
  9. 9. Personal Papers <ul><li>Refers to the private documents and related materials accumulated by an individual in the course of a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Different from Official papers , which may be subject to the disposition of an employing institution or government, personal papers are subject to the owner's disposition </li></ul>
  10. 10. Personal Papers <ul><li>letters </li></ul><ul><li>memoirs </li></ul><ul><li>diaries </li></ul><ul><li>scrapbooks/photo albums </li></ul><ul><li>professional papers </li></ul><ul><li>genealogical information </li></ul><ul><li>speeches/lectures </li></ul><ul><li>business records </li></ul><ul><li>subject files </li></ul><ul><li>legal documents </li></ul><ul><li>minutes/reports </li></ul><ul><li>brochures and flyers </li></ul><ul><li>photographs (labeled) </li></ul><ul><li>films/videos/audio tapes </li></ul>
  11. 11. MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS <ul><li>Definition: “Manu” means hand; any work written by hand </li></ul><ul><li>Single pieces of handwritten or typewritten documents </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Literary Remains </li></ul><ul><li>Collections of Events </li></ul>
  12. 12. Basic Archival Principles <ul><li>Respect des fonds </li></ul><ul><li>Provenance </li></ul><ul><li>L’ordre primitif </li></ul>Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
  13. 13. Respect des fonds The principle that the records of a person, family or corporate body must be kept together in their original order, if it exists or has been maintained, and not be mixed with the records of another individual or corporate body. This fundamental principle embodies the notions of PROVENANCE and RESPECT FOR ORIGINAL ORDER.
  14. 14. Provenance <ul><li>The organization or individual that created, accumulated, and/or maintained and used records in the course of their business or activities </li></ul><ul><li>Also refers to “office of origin” </li></ul>(Bad Schussenried Bibliothekssaal, Baden-Württemberg, Germany)
  15. 15. Respect for Original Order <ul><li>Records of a single provenance should retain the arrangement established by the creator in order to preserve existing relationships and evidential significance in the records </li></ul><ul><li>Also refers to “respect pour l ’ordre primitif” or “Sanctity of the original order” </li></ul>Biblioteque Nationale de France
  16. 16. Application of archival principles <ul><li>ensures that records are preserved and used within the context of their creation, thereby lending integrity to their evidence of the actions of their creator </li></ul><ul><li>minimizes if not eliminates the subjective role that archivists play in shaping the meaning of the evidence, enabling the records to “speak for themselves” about the actions of their creator </li></ul><ul><li>Archivists do not tamper with the evidence but instead preserve its context so that it can be accessed and used in meaningful form. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Why start an archives ? <ul><li>every institution needs an official memory. </li></ul><ul><li>concept of account-ability requires full documentation. </li></ul><ul><li>as evidence of the past, the archives constitute our cultural heritage . </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Archives’ constituents … <ul><li>Institution’s academic community in general </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative units </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars and researchers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Organizational structuring of an archives … <ul><li>be independent of other departments, answering to a central administration </li></ul><ul><li>have control over archival materials, including their acquisition, disposition, and description </li></ul><ul><li>have control over its budget, including the authority to make purchases for the archives </li></ul><ul><li>have the authority to hire and supervise archival employees </li></ul>
  20. 20. Administrative Authorization <ul><li>A document authorizing the archives' existence and conferring the authority to accomplish its mission </li></ul><ul><li>authorizing document provides the rationale, focus, authority, and continuity for the archives program </li></ul><ul><li>it defines institutional records, establishes them as institutional property, and designates a single, central archives as their long-term repository </li></ul><ul><li>it should establish the archivist's authority to undertake all activities necessary to serve the program's mission according to current professional standards </li></ul>
  21. 21. Steps in beginning an archives <ul><ul><li>develop an archives policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secure approval of highest authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gather/acquire appropriate materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gain legal control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish intellectual control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish physical control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make archival materials available for use </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Core Mission is to provide appropriate and permanent care for records of historical value in order to make them available for use. <ul><li>acquisition/collecting goals </li></ul><ul><li>arrangement/ description goals </li></ul><ul><li>service goals </li></ul><ul><li>preservation goals </li></ul><ul><li>management goals </li></ul><ul><li>personnel goals </li></ul>
  23. 23. Goals <ul><li>basic goal is to aid the institution in its survival and growth by supporting the institution's education mission </li></ul><ul><li>to acquire or identify records of long-term historical, evidential, legal, fiscal, and administrative value to the institution </li></ul><ul><li>to preserve and provide access to them so that the archives is visible as a resource that: —promotes knowledge and efficient operation of the institution which it serves, —supports and nourishes teaching and learning at that institution and in the wider intellectual community. </li></ul>
  24. 24. POLICY OBJECTIVES <ul><li>to collect / preserve archival materials illustrating the growth of the institution </li></ul><ul><li>to arrange/describe these materials according to archival principles and make them accessible to the general public </li></ul><ul><li>to provide adequate facilities/personnel </li></ul><ul><li>to provide reference/research services </li></ul><ul><li>to provide administrative services </li></ul><ul><li>to provide public programs </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>SAMPLE POLICY STATEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>The ______________ Archives exists to: </li></ul><ul><li>collect and preserve archival materials which illustrate the growth and development of______________________________, both before and after incorporation; </li></ul><ul><li>arrange and describe these materials according to archival principles and make them accessible to the general public on a regular basis, unless access is restricted by legal requirements or written agreements with the donor; </li></ul><ul><li>provide adequate and appropriate conditions for the storage, protection, and preservation of archival material; </li></ul><ul><li>provide regular reference services to individuals, organizations, and the local government, or other groups interested in the activities and holdings of the Archives; </li></ul><ul><li>provide educational and outreach programming whenever possible to increase public awareness and appreciation of the history and development of ________. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reappraisal Conducting surveys Appraisal Acquisitions Accessioning Arrangement Preservation Security Description Access/reference Outreach /promotion Cyclical expression of archival functions preserve make available make available IDENTIFY
  27. 27. Exercise 1 <ul><li>Why do you want to start an archives? If you already have one, why did your institution start an archives? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of materials/media and what subjects or themes will you collect in your archives? If you already have an archives, what types of materials, records, collections, etc. do you have in your archives? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you expect to be the organizational structure of your archives? If you already have an archives, what is the organizational structure of your archives unit? (Indicate also the responsible persons to handle the archives program) </li></ul><ul><li>What are (or were) your technical or financial problems, issues, concerns in establishing an archives, in the areas of acquisition, arrangement, description, service to users, etc.? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Objective of the Exercise <ul><li>Once you have answered these questions, you will have a better idea of exactly what you want your archives to do, and you will be able to write an archives policy stating why your archives was created (or will be created), who is responsible for your activities, under what regulations you are governed, and what material you will accept. </li></ul>
  29. 29. This is the end of Part 1!
  30. 30. archival collection program <ul><li>solicitation of historical materials in all formats: textual, pictorial, cartographic, electronic, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>direct administrative transfer </li></ul><ul><li>loan or purchase </li></ul>
  31. 31. Formulating Archival Collection Development Policies <ul><li>Based on the institution’s mission to educate </li></ul><ul><li>Identify areas of weakness or gaps by unit or chronological period </li></ul><ul><li>Outline priorities to target the records of key offices </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire or identify records of long-term historical, evidential, legal, fiscal, and administrative value to the institution </li></ul>
  32. 32. Archival Collecting <ul><li>develop a written collection policy </li></ul><ul><li>survey present documentation by office or by period in the history of the college </li></ul><ul><li>plan out development/improvement of the documentation areas </li></ul><ul><li>contact offices/depts/individuals to schedule records transfer </li></ul><ul><li>select the records for archival retention </li></ul><ul><li>establish an accession register </li></ul>
  33. 33. Documentation Strategies based on functions MISSIONS Teaching research public service Confer credentials Convey knowledge Promote culture Foster socialization Conduct research Provide public services Sustain the institution
  34. 34. Potential Donors alumni friends employees faculty students administrators
  35. 35. What to collect…. <ul><li>official records and publications, especially those reflecting the development, policies, and activities of offices, units, or committees </li></ul><ul><li>Records of departments, individuals, groups, or programs which substantially influenced the institution's development or reputation </li></ul>
  36. 36. TYPES of documentation <ul><li>Constitution , bylaws, minutes, proceedings, transcripts, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Office files (correspondence, memos, reports) </li></ul><ul><li>Historical files </li></ul><ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Audiovisuals </li></ul><ul><li>Personal papers </li></ul><ul><li>Maps, plans, charts, drawings </li></ul>
  37. 37. collecting priorities <ul><li>records of the governing board </li></ul><ul><li>records of the administrative offices </li></ul><ul><li>records of the academic departments </li></ul><ul><li>theses and dissertations </li></ul><ul><li>records from student organizations </li></ul><ul><li>selected papers and publications </li></ul><ul><li>campus publications </li></ul>
  38. 38. Types of Academic Records <ul><li>Legal or constituting documents (e.g., charters, constitutions, by-laws), vital records or security copies produced by any campus vital records program, policy statements, and reports (along with their supporting documents), minutes, substantive memoranda, correspondence, and subject files of the institution's: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>governing board; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chief executive, academic, legal, financial, student affairs, and administrative officers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heads of units operating with a high degree of independence, e.g., branch campuses, universities' colleges, medical and law schools, and research institutes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>major academic and administrative committees, including the faculty senate. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Types of Academic Records <ul><li>2. Reports of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-studies and accreditation visits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>annual budgets and audits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offices of admissions, institutional research, university relations—public relations both on- and off-campus—and development (fundraising) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research projects, including grant records </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Types of Academic Records <ul><li>3. Records of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>departments, e.g., minutes, reports, syllabi, faculty vitae, and sample test questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retired, resigned, terminated, or deceased personnel the school employed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the registrar, e.g., calendars and class schedules, noncurrent student transcripts, enrollment records, graduation rosters, and other reports issued on a regular basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>academic, honorary, service, and social organizations of students, faculty, administrators, and staff on campus </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Types of Academic Records <ul><li>4. All publications, newsletters, posters, or booklets about or distributed in the name of the institution or one of its sub-units, e.g., books, posters, magazines, catalogs, special bulletins, yearbooks, student newspapers, university directories and faculty/staff rosters, alumni magazines, and ephemeral materials.. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Theses and dissertations. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Digital and other electronic records or lists of where such items are maintained and finding aids for accessing them. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Artifacts related to the institution if space permits and the institution has no museum. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Types of Academic Records <ul><li>Special format materials documenting the operation and development of the institution, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>audio, audiovisual and multi-media productions—still photographs, slides, and negatives, motion picture films, audio and audiovisual cassettes; </li></ul><ul><li>oral history interviews with their transcriptions; </li></ul><ul><li>maps, blueprints, and plot plans of the campus and its buildings. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Types of Academic Records <ul><li>9. Vertical files of primary and secondary materials for quick responses to general reference questions. Vertical files of secondary materials may be in the reading room for researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>Records and papers produced by school-related organizations, groups, and individuals while actively connected with the school, such as </li></ul><ul><li>private papers of faculty members produced while working with or for the school </li></ul><ul><li>manuscript collections related to the school   </li></ul>
  44. 44. DLSU Archives collection policy <ul><li>Records of the Board of Trustees and its committees. </li></ul><ul><li>Records of the administrative offices. </li></ul><ul><li>Records of the academic departments and their faculty including correspondence, minutes, memoranda and reports. </li></ul><ul><li>All theses and dissertations submitted to De La Salle University. </li></ul><ul><li>Records from student organizations (particularly their charters and bylaws, minutes of meetings, annual reports of activities, publications and realia). </li></ul><ul><li>Selected papers and publications of institutions related to De La Salle University (e.g., schools owned or supervised by the FSC in the Philippines). </li></ul>
  45. 45. DLSU Archives collection policy <ul><li>All campus publications issued by the University, its various offices and departments, the faculty and the students, including newsletters, booklets, pamphlets, catalogs, bulletins, directories, yearbooks, and even alumni magazines. </li></ul><ul><li>Lasalliana materials </li></ul><ul><li>Memorabilia </li></ul><ul><li>The Archives may collect materials which are not official university records but which document the history, development and accomplishments of the institution. Collecting such records will be subject to space and staff limitations, and consideration of their potential destruction or loss if they are not collected by the Archives. </li></ul>
  46. 46. APPRAISAL act of determining the worth of records to their creator or user <ul><li>in terms of use: primary or secondary </li></ul><ul><li>in terms of content : evidential informational </li></ul><ul><li>categories: administrative value fiscal value legal value historical/research value intrinsic value </li></ul>
  47. 47. Appraisal values <ul><ul><li>Evidential value - capacity to furnish proof of facts concerning their creator or the events/activities to which they pertain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational value - usefulness for reference and research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative value - utility in the conduct of current or future administrative affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiscal value - utility in the conduct of financial business or fiscal accounting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal value - utility in the conduct of future legal proceedings or as evidence of past legal decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary value - worth in the market place, based on appraisal by a person experienced in making such judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical value - capacity to document past events, providing information about the lives and activities of persons involved in them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic value - inherent worth based on content, cultural significance, antiquity, past uses, association, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Records with evidential values <ul><li>organizational charts </li></ul><ul><li>annual reports </li></ul><ul><li>directives/policy memos </li></ul><ul><li>official histories </li></ul><ul><li>correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>audit/inspection reports </li></ul><ul><li>legal opinions/decisions </li></ul><ul><li>handbooks and manuals </li></ul><ul><li>minutes of meetings </li></ul>
  49. 49. Exercise <ul><li>From the List of Academic Records, give examples of records with the following values: </li></ul><ul><li>Evidential (administrative, fiscal, legal) </li></ul><ul><li>Informational (research, historical) </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic, monetary </li></ul>
  50. 50. Exercise 3 <ul><li>Based on your institution’s mission </li></ul><ul><li>1. What will you collect for the Archives? </li></ul><ul><li>2. identify records of long-term historical, evidential, legal, fiscal, and administrative value to the institution. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Outline your collecting priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Identify areas of potential weaknesses or gaps in your acquisition program. </li></ul><ul><li>5. What other materials will you collect, if your Archives had the time, staff, and financial/other resources (physical facilities, space, etc.) </li></ul>
  51. 51. This is the end of Part 2!
  52. 52. Processing <ul><li>Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Accessioning </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul>
  53. 53. Accession <ul><li>The formal acceptance of records into custody and the documenting of this act. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessioning precedes arrangement and description and is more of an administrative function of the archives. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Accession record <ul><li>includes the records' date, title, bulk, condition, transferring office or donor, conservation needs, and access restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>also includes elements of rudimentary arrangement, description, and preservation </li></ul><ul><li>if recorded in a database or other digital format, it may become the base or platform for the later functions of arrangement and description </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><ul><li>Repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>record group ( and subgroup) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>file unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>item </li></ul></ul>Five Levels of Arrangement
  56. 56. Five Levels of Arrangement as applied in a college/university
  57. 57. Series arrangement <ul><li>A set of files maintained together as a unit because of some relationship arising from their creation, receipt, or use. </li></ul><ul><li>The files may relate to a particular subject, function, or activity, or have a common format. Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Correspondence series </li></ul><ul><li>Election campaign series </li></ul><ul><li>Martial law files </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange series order according to the value of the information within. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Series <ul><li>is simply a grouping of records according to their use, their physical type, or various subjects. Of all the levels of arrangement, the series level best illustrates the actual activities of the creator. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative documents </li></ul><ul><li>Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Personal or family correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>Original art, prints, paintings, or drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Diaries </li></ul><ul><li>Photographic material, films, or videotapes </li></ul><ul><li>Financial documents </li></ul><ul><li>Printed or published material </li></ul><ul><li>Legal documents </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Literary manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Scrapbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Maps, charts, and plans </li></ul><ul><li>Sound recordings </li></ul>
  59. 59. Subseries <ul><li>Financial documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>audit reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>budget statements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General correspondence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgoing letters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council meetings </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. File level <ul><li>Arranging archives at the file level involves grouping documents together in one file folder, to be treated as one unit </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain original file arrangement as long as it is discernible and consistent </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no apparent file order, chronological and subject arrangement is acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Records can be put into file folders in order by date of their creation or their receipt, or alphabetically by subject, geography, or personal or corporate name </li></ul><ul><li>Personal papers often exhibit no original order; in which case they can be organized according to any one of the filing systems </li></ul>
  61. 61. Item level <ul><li>The item is simply the individual record: the letter, map, journal, cassette tape </li></ul><ul><li>Within record groups and series, single items may be filed chronologically, alphabetically, geographically, or by physical needs. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, letters in a folder might be filed chronologically by date, maps may be filed geographically or by size, and photographs by subject. </li></ul>
  62. 62. List of activities in processing… Determine priority for arrangement/ description Research the life of the person or organization creating the records Decide if any item needs special storage Set aside those recommended for disposal Determine the level of arrangement / description Examine new transfers/collections thoroughly What will I do ?
  63. 63. List of activities in processing… Arrange the items, if necessary Inventory and describe the records Write the Administrative History or Biographical Note Prepare the finished descriptive guide / inventory Identify the record series
  64. 64. S t e p s in arranging a collection <ul><ul><li>Prepare to process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review accession register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Go through entire record without rearranging anything </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the processing plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort the collection into series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process each series down to file unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proceed to item level, if necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place folders in final order, box, and number the containers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare container listing. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. When arranging large record groups, consider the following… <ul><li>the significance of the creator in the institution or organization </li></ul><ul><li>the potential use of the records </li></ul><ul><li>the size of the accession </li></ul><ul><li>the amount of time available </li></ul><ul><li>the amount and importance of other archival work </li></ul>
  66. 66. Preliminary work <ul><li>Always work with only one accession at a time, no matter how large or small. </li></ul><ul><li>Put the entire accession in an area with adequate shelf and table space, where other materials will not become intermingled. </li></ul><ul><li>First, examine all the materials carefully, without rearranging them yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, try to identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any distinct record groups and series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A logical and valid original order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any series or filing arrangement </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Physical care of the records <ul><li>Evaluate its physical condition </li></ul><ul><li>Remove paper clips, staples, pins, string, rubber bands, or other harmful items. </li></ul><ul><li>Replace clips or staples with plastic clips if necessary. Unfold and uncurl pages and make sure all the material is as neat and flat as possible without changing the original order. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify any items that need special care, so they can be removed later. </li></ul><ul><li>Also identify media items which will be stored separately, according to their physical needs. These usually include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographic material Film and videotape Prints, paintings, and drawings Maps and plans Sound recordings | Books and other printed or published material Artifacts Computer diskettes or tapes </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Sorting <ul><li>Remove unwanted material, items needing conservation, and media items with different storage needs </li></ul><ul><li>Replace all removed items (except items to be discarded, such as doodles or duplicates) with a separation sheet. A separation sheet identifies what material has been removed, why, and where it is presently located. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to arrange the records until you reach your chosen level of detail, such as series, file, or item. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep notes about your work, indicating what organization you have chosen, what level of detail, and what kind of material has been removed. Also keep notes about important subjects, events, or people to include in your description. </li></ul>Sort materials according to the arrangement you have chosen, first into series down to item level if necessary
  69. 69. Packing, labeling, storing <ul><li>Use standard-size archival storage acid-free folders and boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Mark all storage boxes with the accession and box number </li></ul><ul><li>Note the location of all records on a location file (keep one copy of this finding aid in the archives' stack area) </li></ul>
  70. 70. Description the process of establishing administrative and intellectual control over archival holdings through the preparation of finding aids. <ul><li>provides the general nature of the repository </li></ul><ul><li>gives location of collections on the shelf </li></ul><ul><li>identifies the source/provenance </li></ul><ul><li>outlines the general contents of </li></ul><ul><li>individual collections </li></ul><ul><li>summarizes information on a specific topic </li></ul>
  71. 71. Types of Finding Aids <ul><li>Item level Calendars Indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Collection level </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogs </li></ul><ul><li> Container lists </li></ul><ul><li> Registers (for manuscript collections) </li></ul><ul><li>Inventories (for organizational collections) </li></ul><ul><li> Guides (repository or subject guides) </li></ul>
  72. 72. Repository Guide <ul><li>includes a brief fonds level description of each fonds listed in alphabetical order by title </li></ul><ul><li>description of each fonds includes title, dates of creation, physical description, archival description, and notes </li></ul><ul><li>Guides can be produced in three forms: catalog cards, report format, and electronic database </li></ul>
  73. 73. Descriptive Inventory <ul><li>a complete and detailed description of one archival fonds </li></ul><ul><li>begins with a fonds level description, and then expands the information to include a description of each series, and if necessary, file lists in each series </li></ul>
  74. 74. Summary Inventory <ul><li>provides basic physical control of a fonds when time does not permit the development of a descriptive inventory </li></ul><ul><li>provides introductory information about provenance, including the history and functions of the records creator, but does not provide information about the records themselves, except to note extent, dates and location </li></ul>
  75. 75. Calendar <ul><li>refers to a chronological list of the documents included in an archival collection usually annotated to indicate the date, place, contents, and other characteristics of each item--a type of finding aid that can be comprehensive or selective </li></ul>
  76. 76. DESCRIPTION WORKSHEET 1.8B13.    General note: 1.8B12.    Accruals: 1.8B11.    Associated material: 1.8B10.    Finding aids: 1.8B9.    Access restriction: 1.8B8.    Originals and reproduction: 1.8B6.    Arrangement: 1.8B5.    Source of acquisition: 1.8B4.    Physical description: 1.8B2.    Source of supplied title: 1.8 NOTES: 1.7C.         SCOPE AND CONTENT: 1.7B.         CUSTODIAL HISTORY: 1.7A.         ADMINISTRATIVE HISTORY/BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH: 1.7    ARCHIVAL DESCRIPTION: 1.5    PHY.D: 1.4    DATES: 1.1    TITLE:
  77. 77. DESCRIPTION WORKSHEET for Photographs 12. AVAILABILITY OF FINDING AIDS 11. COPYRIGHT 10. RESTRICTIONS 9. SOURCE OR DONOR 8. PROVENANCE 7. ARRANGEMENT: 6. SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE: 5. BIOGRAPHICAL OR HISTORICAL INFORMATION: 4. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION ( including form, dimensions, extent or quantity, and information about photographic processes, different shapes, or peculiar features, physical condition, and whether originals or copies) 3.  NAME OF PHOTOGRAPHER (if known): 2. DATES: 1. TITLE:
  78. 78. Considerations in developing a descriptive program… <ul><li>Types of records </li></ul><ul><li>Client needs and requirements (and whether or not the records have been processed or are available for immediate use) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of usage or potential volume of use </li></ul><ul><li>archivist's judgment of the importance of the records </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Funding and other resources </li></ul>
  79. 79. Descriptive Program Guidelines <ul><li>Complete an accession record for all accessions in your Archives before beginning any other descriptive work </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a fonds level description for all fonds, regardless of size </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare index entries based on significant people, places, events and subjects, if electronic database is not available </li></ul><ul><li>Work from the general to the specific </li></ul><ul><li>Complete accession records, main entry cards, and inventories to large accessions before beginning any detailed description of significant fonds </li></ul>
  80. 80. Exercise 4 <ul><li>Prepare an archives policy statement - stating core mission and goals </li></ul><ul><li>- collection policies (acquisition goals) </li></ul><ul><li>- arrangement / description goals </li></ul><ul><li>- service goals (identify constituents/ target clientele </li></ul><ul><li>- preservation goals </li></ul>
  81. 81. This is the end of Part 3!
  82. 82. Reference service Guidelines <ul><li>Provide access on an equal basis </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare adequate finding aids for holdings in the archives and make them easily accessible in the reference area </li></ul><ul><li>Collect standard reference material whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Refer researchers to other libraries or archives with related material or other reference tools </li></ul><ul><li>Have all visitors to the archives sign a register, including the date, their name, address, any identification, their signature, and perhaps their research interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a count of all telephone, mail, reference, or other queries received </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the contents and organization of your archives to all new visitors, or provide a handout, brochure or flyer </li></ul>
  83. 83. Reference service Guidelines <ul><li>keep a copy of all correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow researchers to retrieve or reshelve archival materials themselves. if needed, have the researcher complete a request form for material desired. Such a form may help you maintain control over material taken from the stacks, and it provides a record of items used. File the used forms in date order in a box in the storage area. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow access to restricted material without written permission from the person or agency imposing the restrictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Replace valuable or fragile items with copies whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Determine your photocopying policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what other copying services you will provide, such as copies of photographs, maps, or microforms, and under what conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline any fees or conditions for any services you provide. </li></ul><ul><li>Include your reference policies in a handout for visitors and researchers, explaining the rules and regulations of the archives, the researchers' rights and responsibilities, and details about access and various services. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a staff manual or procedures book. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Administrative Services <ul><li>providing answers to questions about the history, policies, procedures, and decision-making processes of the institution, its academic and support programs and services, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>providing copies of documents, images, and other items </li></ul><ul><li>providing finding aids to facilitate access to specific information </li></ul><ul><li>retrieving and returning segments of record series to their office of origin </li></ul><ul><li>providing some basic Records Management functions for offices/departments </li></ul><ul><li>providing all offices with information about the nature and extent of the archives' documentation, access, and reference service policies and procedures </li></ul>
  85. 85. Public Relations Program <ul><li>Outreach publications such as brochures, guides and pamphlets </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop, seminars, meetings, and other fora to generate awareness and interest </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibits or displays </li></ul><ul><li>Major publications (relating to archival collections, such as local histories, biographies, bibliographies, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Networking (thru Internet, website, etc) </li></ul>
  86. 86. Digitization Program <ul><li>What is &quot;digitization&quot; in an archival environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages of digitizing, and making available via the World Wide Web, archival materials? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the legal, ethical, technical, and professional considerations involved in developing a digital archival collection? </li></ul><ul><li>What archival materials should and should not be digitized? </li></ul>
  87. 87. Digitization <ul><li>&quot;digitization&quot; refers to the conversion of materials that were originally created in another format into an electronic form. </li></ul>
  88. 88. Benefits of Digitization … <ul><li>greatly enhances access (faster and easier) </li></ul><ul><li>allows remote access (via Internet/cd networking) by simultaneous users </li></ul><ul><li>generates publicity for institutions because it gives them the opportunity to showcase their rare or unique collections online </li></ul>
  89. 89. More benefits … <ul><li>if digitized materials serve as surrogates to the originals, it can enhance preservation efforts by reducing handling of original documents, and thereby helps to protect them from loss/mutilation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>low cost distribution of huge data </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced long-term storage costs and reduced document storage space </li></ul>
  90. 90. Disadvantages … <ul><li>Longevity issue of electronic records </li></ul><ul><li>increasing obsolescence of computer hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>storage problem for digital media , or its ‘shelf life’ </li></ul><ul><li>problem of developing a continuing program to assure access to preserved information over time </li></ul>
  91. 91. Issues and Concerns <ul><li>Getting the information into digital form </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping it in digital form </li></ul><ul><li>Standards to ensure a high quality result </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright/intellectual property implications and questions of legal rights to disseminate digitized materials (especially on the Web) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining the integrity of digitized information over time </li></ul>
  92. 92. <ul><li>Digitization, however, must not be viewed as a substitute for other preservation activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilming remains the preferred long-term preservation method in this age of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving the original materials increases the intrinsic value of the original as evidence </li></ul>More concerns….
  93. 93. De La Salle University <ul><li>on-line journal “Sinupang Lasalyano” </li></ul><ul><li>doctoral dissertations </li></ul><ul><li>master’s theses </li></ul><ul><li>born-digital masters theses </li></ul><ul><li>Born-again yearbook </li></ul><ul><li>(Green and White) </li></ul>
  94. 94. … at the RMAO Research Mgt. & Archives Office (RMAO) Consejo Superior De Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) catalogs of centuries old documents during Spanish colonial period
  95. 95. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-Cumulative Index to </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippine Periodicals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1995-2000) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-Harry Whitfield Harnish Collection (1898-1907) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3-Board of Regents Minutes of Meetings (1925-2006) </li></ul><ul><li>4-Filipiniana, UP publications, researches, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>5-UP theses and dissertations </li></ul>UP Diliman Libraries
  96. 96. Philippine eLib Project <ul><li>govt-sponsored collaborative project </li></ul><ul><li>Involving core collections from TNL, DOST, DA, and UP Library System </li></ul><ul><li>aims to make Philippine materials available in digital format (24M images) </li></ul><ul><li>to provide cooperative acquisition and sharing of expensive online databases </li></ul><ul><li>to house data center at TNL, with data recovery site at UP Diliman </li></ul><ul><li>uses open source/standard tools, which can be replicated </li></ul>
  97. 97. <ul><ul><li>Digitization of library collection began April 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aims to be primary research in the speedy delivery of justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves the entire Judiciary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available online: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SC Decisions and Resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of Court </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Matters </li></ul><ul><li>Circulars and Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Manuals of Clerks of Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Memorabilia Section </li></ul>Supreme Court eLibrary
  98. 98. Considerations for digitization projects <ul><li>Project Scope – define goals and requirements, evaluate user needs, identification and evaluation of options, cost-benefit analysis, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection – criteria, process, approval, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation – archival/curatorial assessment and preservation or conservation assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Project management – plan of work, budget, staffing, training, records handling guidelines, work done in-house vs. contractors, work space, oversight and coordination of all aspects, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to digital resources – web delivery system, migrating images and metadata to web, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues – access restrictions, copyright, rights management, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>IT infrastructure – determine system performance requirements, hardware, software, database design, networking, data/disaster recovery, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Project Assessment – project evaluation, monitoring and evaluation of use of digital assets created, etc. </li></ul>
  99. 99. Thank you for listening!