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Skinner - Operant Conditioning
Presentation
On
By-
Adesh Kumar Verma
Ph.D., Scholar
Roll No.P-1639
Outline of Presentation
Introduction
Genesis of operant conditioning
Concept of operant conditioning
Types of operant
...
Introduction
Behaviorism
Conditioning
Types of conditioning
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
B. F. Skinner ?
Genesis of operant conditioning
Thorndike
Learning in animals
Puzzle box
Propose the theory known
as the 'Law of Effect‘.
...
Concept of operant conditioning
Given by- B.F. Skinner
Coined term operant conditioning
Means :- changing of behavior by t...
Types of operant
Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior
Neutral operants: respon...
Graphical view of Behaviour by- using cumulative recorder
Schedules of Reinforcement
1. Continuous Reinforcement
2. Partial Reinforcement
Fixed-ratio schedules
Variable-ratio sched...
Shaping
Shaping is an experimental process used in operant conditioning
by which successive approximations of a target be...
How operant conditioning differs from Classical
conditioning?
Developmental differences
Functional difference
Classical
conditioning
Operant
conditioning
Nature of
response
Timing of
Stimulus
Timing of
Response...
Operant Conditioning Summary
Psychology should be seen as a science, to be studied in a scientific
manner.
Deals with obse...
Skinner operant conditioning
Skinner operant conditioning
Skinner operant conditioning
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Skinner operant conditioning

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Skinner operant conditioning

  1. 1. Skinner - Operant Conditioning Presentation On By- Adesh Kumar Verma Ph.D., Scholar Roll No.P-1639
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation Introduction Genesis of operant conditioning Concept of operant conditioning Types of operant Schedules of Reinforcement Shaping How operant conditioning differs from Classical conditioning? Summary
  3. 3. Introduction Behaviorism Conditioning Types of conditioning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning B. F. Skinner ?
  4. 4. Genesis of operant conditioning Thorndike Learning in animals Puzzle box Propose the theory known as the 'Law of Effect‘. Law of Effect – Reinforcement
  5. 5. Concept of operant conditioning Given by- B.F. Skinner Coined term operant conditioning Means :- changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement (which is given after the desired response) and punishment (which is given after the undesired response)
  6. 6. Types of operant Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior Neutral operants: responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers: Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative. Punishers: Response from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.
  7. 7. Graphical view of Behaviour by- using cumulative recorder
  8. 8. Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Continuous Reinforcement 2. Partial Reinforcement Fixed-ratio schedules Variable-ratio schedules Fixed-interval schedules Variable-interval schedules . Choosing a Schedule
  9. 9. Shaping Shaping is an experimental process used in operant conditioning by which successive approximations of a target behavior are reinforced. B.F. Skinner used shaping, a method of training by which successive approximations toward a desired target behavior are reinforced, to test his theories of behavioral psychology. The shaping method relies on the use of behavioral reinforcement and punishment, which lead subjects toward a desired behavior, and discourage them from displaying undesired behaviors. Skinner’s early experiments in operant conditioning involved the shaping of rats to learn to how press a lever to receive a food reward.
  10. 10. How operant conditioning differs from Classical conditioning? Developmental differences
  11. 11. Functional difference Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Nature of response Timing of Stimulus Timing of Response Role of learner Voluntary (usually) but can be both – Vol & Involuntary After the desired response ActivePassive Precedes the response Involuntary (reflexive) After the stimulus Before the stimulus
  12. 12. Operant Conditioning Summary Psychology should be seen as a science, to be studied in a scientific manner. Deals with observable behavior. The major influence on human behavior is learning from our environment. Skinner proposed that the way humans learn behavior is much the same as the way the rats learned to press a lever. There is little difference between the learning that takes place in humans and that in other animals.

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