Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

hybrid vehicles


Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 29 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)


Similaire à hybrid vehicles (20)


Plus récents (20)

hybrid vehicles

  1. 1. Aims and Objectives Aim •To be able to describe the operation of a vehicles hybrid system Objectives •To recognize the need for alternative fuels • To be able to describe the operation of a hybrid system •To be able to comment on the use of hybrid systems Hybrid Vehicles By Waqas CH
  2. 2. Why do we need alternative fuels? We need alternative fuels as our supply of fossil fuels (that make petrol and diesel) are becoming less and less. To make an effort to reduce our carbon footprint. To reduce the amount of harmful gases produced by vehicles. Hybrid Vehicles
  3. 3. Question In pairs discuss some other reasons why we might benefit from alternative fuels. Hybrid Vehicles
  4. 4. Alternative Fuels Ethanol Reduces the green house gases produced by vehicles, is commonly mixed with petrol to run motor vehicles:- E10 10% Ethanol 90% Petrol E85 85% Ethanol 15% Petrol (no difference in performance to the two) Hybrid Vehicles By Waqas CH
  5. 5. Alternative Fuels Ethanol Plus points •Lower Emissions •More resistance to engine knock •Added vehicle cost is minimal Ethanol Negative points •Flex fuel vehicle •Lower energy content •Limited Availability Hybrid Vehicles
  6. 6. Alternative Fuels Bio Diesel Is made up of crops, or even old restaurant oil Can be used on its own or blended with petrol Hybrid Vehicles
  7. 7. Alternative Fuels Bio Diesel Plus points •Can be utilised in most diesel engines •Less air pollutants •Biodegradable •Non-toxic •Safer to handle Bio Diesel Negative points •May not be approved by the manufacture •Lower fuel economy •More nitrogen oxide •Not suitable in lower temperature •Concerns over engine durability Hybrid Vehicles
  8. 8. Alternative Fuels Natural Gas Can be used to fuel the car as a gas or a liquid Can be utilised within duel fuel vehicles Stored in high pressure tanks (therefore two fuelling systems are required within the vehicle) Hybrid Vehicles
  9. 9. Alternative Fuels Natural Gas Plus points •60-90% less smoke producing emissions •30-40% less Green House gasses emitted •Less expensive Natural Gas Negative points •Fewer miles per tank •Less available •Limited to the type of vehicles it is available on Hybrid Vehicles
  10. 10. Alternative Fuels Propane LPG Clean burning fossil fuel Contains fewer toxins Must have a separate fuelling system for the two fuels (petrol and LPG) Hybrid Vehicles
  11. 11. Alternative Fuels Propane Plus points •Fewer toxins and smog emitting pollutants •Less expensive Propane Negative points •Not currently readily available on newer models •Fewer miles available per tank of fuel Hybrid Vehicles
  12. 12. Alternative Fuels Hydrogen Hydrogen is been readily looked at as an alternative for petrol/diesel. Environmentally friendly fuel, however, there are challenges that stop this fuel being currently widely used. Hybrid Vehicles
  13. 13. Alternative Fuels Hydrogen Plus points •Produced from several sources •No air pollutants produced •Produces only NOX Hydrogen Negative points •Expensive •Fuel cells can be expensive •Lower energy density then fuel Hybrid Vehicles
  14. 14. Alternative Fuels Questions Give two advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen fuel? Hybrid Vehicles
  15. 15. Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles
  16. 16. Hybrid Vehicles Can be split into two sections:- Series and Parallel Series The vehicles Engine will drive the generator which in turn powers the vehicle. Parallel Engine and motor can be used to drive the vehicle, this system employs brake energy regeneration. This is the most favoured amongst manufactures. Hybrid Vehicles
  17. 17. Question What are the two sections that hybrid vehicles can be split into? Hybrid Vehicles
  18. 18. Hybrid Vehicles The main components include:- Motor High Voltage Battery Power drive Unit DC converter (direct current) Hybrid Vehicles
  19. 19. Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Uses a Power Split system 1)the high voltage battery provides power to the motor to drive the wheels 2)Wheels are driven by engine to power splitting device. The generator is driven by planetary gears to provide the motor with electricity to drive the wheels 3)During de-acceleration energy is recovered at the wheels, the energy in converted to mechanical energy to charge the vehicles high voltage battery Hybrid Vehicles
  20. 20. Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Power Splitter Is a epicycle gear box, that transmits energy in main components. Hybrid Vehicles
  21. 21. Toyota Prius 5 Operating Modes Hybrid Vehicles
  22. 22. Question Name one of the five modes that hybrid vehicles use. Hybrid Vehicles
  23. 23. Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Start up Under normal conditions the motor will start the engine Under poor start up conditions the 12v starting system will start the vehicle Hybrid Vehicles
  24. 24. Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Acceleration DC is converted to AC via the power drive unit This is used as supply to the motor It is also used to supplement engine output Hybrid Vehicles
  25. 25. Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Cruise Engine drives the motor (which acts as a generator) The output current drives the motor Converted to 12v DC supplies the vehicles charging system Hybrid Vehicles
  26. 26. Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Deceleration Motor is driven by the wheels under deceleration conditions, regeneration takes place Power drive unit converts AC current to DC current to charge the batter module. Some energy is then used to charge the 12v electrical system. If ABS senses wheel lock up, a signal is sent to the ECU and re-generation stops to prevent interference. Hybrid Vehicles
  27. 27. Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Idle The flow of energy is similar to that of cruising If the charge of the battery is low, the ECU will raise the vehicles idle speed to compensate for this. Hybrid Vehicles
  28. 28. Summary - have we ? Recognized the need for alternative fuels ? Can we describe the operation of a hybrid system ? Are we able to comment on the use of hybrid system ? Hybrid Vehicles
  29. 29. Any Questions ? Hybrid Vehicles