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Factors of environmental constraints

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Factors of environmental constraints

  1. 1. FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS (PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION) Presented by: VICTOR A. ASTILLO
  2. 2. There is no other way whereby the administrator could escape from the influences of the external environmental forces of his organization, except for his organization to control it.
  3. 3. The organization’s external factors can be classified as follows: 1) Educational Constraint 2) Legal-Political Constraint 3) Socio-Cultural Constraint 4) Economic Constraint 5) Religious Constraint
  4. 4. Advanced society is not exempt from the educational constraint of environment. As seen by Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell, there is always the phenomenon of a shortage of educational brain power. They claim that the characteristics of a society, the presence of literacy level, the availability of specialized vocational training, higher education, and management development program could lessen its educational motives. EDUCATIONAL CONSTRAINT
  5. 5. For this, the development of certain level of education in the country, particularly those pertaining to the development of management skills, has an important impact on the pace of economic progress the organization is capable of undertaking. In fact, this problem is not only limited to the intervention of organization’s external forces, but also on the country’s total national socio-economic development program.
  6. 6. Elaborating on this, Arsenio P. Talingdan says that technical skill implies an understanding of and proficiency in a specific kind of activity, particularly those involving methods, approaches, processes or techniques in dealing with education as an external constraint. He suggests also that the conceptual skill of an administrator should be developed. It involves the ability to recognize and integrate the interrelationships of any various factors in the organization.
  7. 7. In other words, an administrator must perceive the significant elements in any management situation. He should, by then, be capable to act in any given way to advance the organization toward attaining its goals. To do that, he must possess the ability to perceive any changes that will happen within the environment of his organization. Only in this manner can he be capable of gearing the activities of his organization along such developments.
  8. 8. Most organizations, if not all, are governed by laws that are extremely complicated. These laws usually apply to personnel administration. While these laws were designed to guide the administrator in the management of the organization, in some instances, they hamper the attainment of its administrative efficiency. In other words, the administrator cannot apply these laws to many of his administrative problems. Administration is not only based on laws but also on human relations. LEGAL - POLITICAL CONSTRAINT
  9. 9. As Albert K. Wickesberg says: ...the task and duties required of the firm if it is to survive and remain successful are continually in flux in response to the changing needs and of the external environment, the interest and personalities within the firm, and the goals as these are formulated and reformulated for the firm. The result is an ever- changing, continually adjusting set of personal relationships. Thus, Wickesberg concludes: External as well as internal environmental factors thus play a role in determining the nature, extent, and effectiveness of the individual’s actual authority.
  10. 10. Needless to say, politics and administration are inseparable. Very few administrators understand, however, as a Filipino author views it, that “politics is government itself.” Thus, decision-making in the government is shaped by them. Politics should never be a problem to a knowledgeable administrator. Indeed, politics would be an asset in public administration, if he knows how to handle this properly. If not, it will, of course, hamper the effectiveness of his administration.
  11. 11. Richard A. Johnson, Fremont E. Kast and James E. Rosenzweig point out that “organization can be thought of as a subsystem of the broader sociocultural environment in which it operates.” Accordingly, Benita Yap states that social processes are interactive. In this way, the administrator, interacting with the other members of his social system, is capable of modifying the behavior of his group. Likewise, the members of the group can modify his behavior. The extent to which such interaction is reciprocal depends, of course, upon the dominating character possessed by each person, as well as on the rigidity of the patterns of the group behavior. SOCIO – CULTURAL CONSTRAINT
  12. 12. In this regard, Talingdan observes that the Filipino people is a conglomeration of different customs, idiosyncrasies and habits. By this, it is shown that the social relationships of the Filipinos are quite complicated. The administrator must fully consider these characteristics of his people in planning, as well as in implementing, his programs. Organization has its own culture. This culture must be fully known and understood by the administrator. R.N. Farmer and B.M. Richman identify a large number of factors that pronounced the behavior, as well as the tie of relationship between the administrator and subordinates.
  13. 13. These factors are as follows: 1. The general attitude of the society towards managers; 2. The dominant views of authority and subordinates; 3. The extent to which cooperation between various group is a way of life; 4. The view of achievement; 5. The extent of inflexible class structure and individual class structure and individual mobility; 6. The view of scientific method; 7. The view of risk; and 8. The view of change.
  14. 14. Moreover, due to varying beliefs, values or cultures of the people, these factors, many social scientists claim, could either contribute to the building of the constructive atmosphere or to the failure of administration. Also, Yap had observed that culture affects the individual in the traditions he has learned, shared and valued.
  15. 15. Economic stability is a significant economic variable. It is accepted by many that money is the lifeblood of any organization. By that alone, it is clear that it is an important economic environmental factor. In preparing the development plans of the organization, the administrator is required to commit, by necessity, not only the financial resources of the organization but also its other resources. Here, he is forced to be guided only by the limited data on the economic conditions of his environment. ECONOMIC CONSTRAINT
  16. 16. Utilization of production factors, as Koontz and O’Donnell point out, is also an economic environmental matter of great significance. He should, therefore, consider production factors, such as factor endowment, the extent of which a country has available natural resources, adequate and useful labor, capital which can be employed for efficient production, or the extent to which social overhead capital is available. That is, the supply and quality of public utility-type services. In this way, production factors refer to the host of services necessary to support the production, distribution and consumption of certain products.
  17. 17. Religion can be considered as one of the constraints or outside forces that creates a problem to the effectiveness of public administration. Certainly, there are differences among the various religious denominations existing in the country today. Members of these religious organizations are ,sometimes, fanatical in their adherence to their faiths and beliefs. RELIGIOUS CONSTRAINT
  18. 18. Of this, Yap has found out that some of the roots of personnel administration are embedded in religion and ethics. She explained that the attitudes and outlook of people are bound to be influenced by their religious perception of what is right and wrong. Their relations with others are influenced by what may be considered the correct conduct to follow. One of the inalienable rights of every Filipino is the freedom to exercise one’s religious belief. This right is mandated, sanctioned and protected by the Constitution of the Philippines.

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Flux means continuous change

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