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Bullying thesis

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Bullying thesis

  1. 1. EFFECTS OF BULLYING _________________ Undergraduate Thesis Presented to theFaculty and Staff of the College of CriminologyNueva Ecija University of Science and Technology Cabanatuan City ___________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Subject Psychology ___________________ By Marlon de Lara Cedric D Jale Arceo Arnie Angelo Andulan Melvin Marcelo Mark Joseph Arenas Maricris Estrada Jaypee Grospe Eddie Boy Tamares Rommel Grospe Jimver Reyes
  2. 2. Acknowledgements The researcher’s wishes to express their deepest gratitudeto the special people who have extended their assistance for thesuccess of this study; The Almighty God, who is the source of life and strength ofknowledge and wisdom. Mrs. __________________ for her genuine apprehension,encouragement, patient and guidance and whose expertise andknowledge were generously shared; To the fellow classmates, for sharing their knowledge andidea in helping the researchers in the construction of theproject; To the beloved parents and guardians for untiring love andsupport; The Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, this piece of work washeartily offered.
  3. 3. DEDICATION The researchers would like to dedicate this study to theAlmighty God, to their beloved families and friends, to theirAlma Mater- the Nueva Ecija University of Science andTechnology, to their classmates, instructors and to theprofessor of this subject Psychology __________________ The researchers would also like to dedicate this project totheir fellow criminology students; they knew that they willserve this information to them.
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSTITLE PAGEACKNOWLEDGEMENTDEDICATIONTABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction Statement of the Problem Assumption of the Study Importance of the Study Scope and Delimitation of the Study Definition of Terms 2 METHODOLOGY Research Method of Collecting Data Sampling Design Statistical Treatment of Data 3 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Summary of Findings Conclusions Recommendations REFERENCES Questionnaire – Checklist Curriculum vitae
  5. 5. Chapter I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGIntroduction Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior manifested by theuse of force or coercion to affect others, particularly when thebehavior is habitual and involves an imbalance of power. It caninclude verbal harassment, physical assault or coercion and maybe directed repeatedly towards particular victims, perhaps ongrounds of race, religion, gender, sexuality, or ability. The"imbalance of power" may be social power and/or physical power.The victim of bullying is sometimes referred to as a "target". Bullying consists of three basic types of abuse –emotional, verbal, and physical. It typically involves subtlemethods of coercion such as intimidation. Bullying can bedefined in many different ways. The UK currently has no legaldefinition of bullying, while some U.S. states have laws againstit Bullying ranges from simple one-on-one bullying to morecomplex bullying in which the bully may have one or morelieutenants who may seem to be willing to assist the primary
  6. 6. bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school andthe workplace is also referred to as peer abuse. Robert W.Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism. Bullying can occur in any context in which human beingsinteract with each other. This includes school, church, family,the workplace, home, and neighborhoods. It is even a common pushfactor in migration. Bullying can exist between social groups,social classes, and even between countries (see jingoism). Infact, on an international scale, perceived or real imbalances ofpower between nations, in both economic systems and in treatysystems, are often cited as some of the primary causes of bothWorld War I and World War II.Foreign Literature The word "bully" was first used in the 1530s meaning"sweetheart," applied to either sex, from the Dutch boel "lover,brother," probably diminutive of Middle High German buole"brother," of uncertain origin (compare with the German buhle"lover"). The meaning deteriorated through the 17th centurythrough "fine fellow," "blusterer," to "harasser of the weak".This may have been as a connecting sense between "lover" and"ruffian" as in "protector of a prostitute," which was one sense
  7. 7. of "bully" (though not specifically attested until 1706). Theverb "to bully" is first attested in 1710(Zwerdling, 1987 )High-level forms of violence such as assault and murder usuallyreceive most media attention, but lower-level forms of violencesuch as bullying have only in recent years started to beaddressed by researchers, parents and guardians, and authorityfigures( Whitted, K.S. & Dupper, D.R. 2005). It is only inrecent years that bullying has been recognised and recorded as aseparate and distinct offence, but there have been welldocumented cases that have been recorded over the centuries. TheFifth Volume of the Newgate Calenda(Complete Newgate CalendarTarlton Law Library) contains at least one example whereEton Scholars George Alexander Wood and Alexander WellesleyLeith were charged, at Aylesbury Assizes, with killing andslaying the Hon. F. Ashley Cooper on February 28, 1825 in anincident which might today be described as "lethal hazing(GeorgeAlexander Wood and Alexander Wellesley Leith,2003) The Newgatecalendar contains several other examples that, while not asdistinct, could be considered indicative of situations ofbullying. Virginia Woolf considered fascism to be a form ofbullying, and wrote of Hitler and the Nazis in 1934 as "thesebrutal bullies.( Zwerdling, 1987)
  8. 8. Bullying behavior can have negative consequences for boththe bully and the victim.Studies have shown that boys identified as bullies in middleschool were four times as likely as their peers to have morethan one criminal conviction by age twenty-four.Children who bully are more likely to engage in other criminaland anti-social behaviors, such as: ,Fighting,Vandalism,Truancy, Dropping out of school. Stealing SmokingandAlcohol/and or drug abuseEffects on the victimThe stress from being bullied can createproblems for children at school. Students may be fearful ofattending school, riding the bus, using the bathroom or beingalone in the hallway.This fear and anxiety can make it difficultfor the child to focus and engage in the classroom, makinglearning that much more difficult.Bullying can cause children toexperience fear, depression, loneliness, anxiety, low self-esteem, physical illness, and in some cases, even suicidalthoughts.The Kids Manual to Overcoming Bullying and Gain SelfConfidence E-Book-This e-book is among the best and easilyapplicable strategies that exists in the world today! Not onlyis it written for children, in their unique language,you as the
  9. 9. parent can learn along with them and guide them with thetechniques to conquer bullies! There are many theories on what causes violent and/or anti-social behavior in children.Increased exposure to violence through mass media, video games,and the internet.Suffering as victims of abuse or neglect themselves, or agenerally more permissive society with a corresponding lack ofdiscipline.While certainly each of these theories has merit, there is nosingle cause of bullying behavior in children.There are however certain generalized characteristics displayedby children who engage in such behavior.Children who are impulsive, socially dominant, confrontational,or easily frustrated may tend towards bullying behaviors.Other characteristics of children who bully may include a lackof empathy, a propensity to question authority and push limitsor break rules, idealization of violence, and the ability totalk their way out of difficult situations.
  10. 10. It is commonly believed that children who bully are “loners” orare socially isolated. Research, however, shows this is not thecase. Children who bully generally do not have a difficult timemaking friends and generally maintain at least a small group offriends who support their bullying behavior.Some bullies mayeven be popular; although the popularity of a bully tends todecrease at higher-grade levels.Also, contrary to popularbelief, research shows that children who bully do not lack self-esteem.While boys are more likely to be bullies than girls, bothboys and girls may bully and both may become victims.Boy bulliesare much more likely to engage in physical bullying. Bullyingbetween girls is more likely to involve social exclusion, whichis harder to discover, but no less painful for the victim.Bullying generally takes place between children in the samegrade level, although many times older students may bullyyounger students.Environmental risk factors for bullying maycome from the child’s home/family life, peers, or school.Family risk factors: Lack of involvement in child’s interests,activities, and daily life, Lack of supervision .Overlypermissive, lack of limitsand Harsh, physical discipline
  11. 11. Peer risk factors:Engage in bullying behaviors Support bullyingbehaviors Idealize violence School risk factors:Unsupervisedbreak timesUnsupervised student areas such as lunchrooms,bathrooms, hallways, locker rooms, playgrounds Apathy towardsbullying on the part of teachers and administratorsInconsistentrule enforcement Social exclusion is the most common form ofbullying between girls. This form of girl-on-girl bullying canbe very difficult to detect.. Being difficult to detect means itis difficult for parents or school officials to intervene. Think of it as the “Mean Girls” syndrome. This behavior maybegin as early as grade school, but probably peaks in juniorhigh. It entails social isolation, vicious lies and rumors, andconstant harassment. This type of bullying is focused onhumiliating the victim and is generally carried out over longperiods of time. It can be psychologically devastating for thevictim. The bully in this situation is generally very popular,smart, charming, and attractive – generally viewed positively byadults. This girl usually has a clique of girls at her beck andcall eager to join in on the harassment of the chosen victim. This form of bullying is slow, drawn-out, calculated,manipulative torture of the victim. The effects on the victimcan be so severe as to result in depression, eating disorders,
  12. 12. transferring or dropping out of school, and/or suicidal thoughtsor attempts. It is not as easy to recognize as the black eyes andplayground brawls of more traditional, physical bullying, but itis certainly no less significant.Local LiteratureBullying is the activity of repeated, aggressive behaviorintended to hurt another person, physically or mentally.Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certainway to gain power over another personNorwegian researcher Dan Olweus defines bullying as when aperson is"exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on thepart of one or more other persons." He defines negative actionas "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfortupon another person, through physical contact, through words orin other ways".Bullying behavior may include name calling, verbal or writtenabuse, exclusion from activities, exclusion from socialsituations, physical abuse, or coercion.[10][17] Bullies may behave
  13. 13. this way to be perceived as popular or tough or to getattention. They may bully out of jealousy or be acting outbecause they themselves are bullied.U.S. National Center for Education Statistics suggests thatbullying can be classified into two categories: 1. Direct bullying, and 2. indirect bullying (which is also known as social aggression).[1]Ross states that direct bullying involves a great deal ofphysical aggression, such as shoving and poking, throwingthings, slapping, choking, punching and kicking, beating,stabbing, pulling hair, scratching, biting, scraping, andpinching.[19]He also suggests that social aggression or indirect bullying ischaracterized by attempting to socially isolate the victim. Thisisolation is achieved through a wide variety of techniques,including spreading gossip, refusing to socialize with thevictim, bullying other people who wish to socialize with thevictim, and criticizing the victims manner of dress and othersocially-significant markers (including the victims race,religion, disability, sex, or sexual preference, etc.). Ross[19]outlines an array of nonviolent behavior which can be considered
  14. 14. indirect bullying, at least in some instances, such as namecalling, the silent treatment, arguing others into submission,manipulation, gossip/false gossip, lies, rumors/false rumors,staring, giggling, laughing at the victim, saying certain wordsthat trigger a reaction from a past event, and mocking. The UKbased childrens charity, Act Against Bullying, was set up in2003 to help children who were victims of this type of bullyingby researching and publishing coping skills.It has been noted that there tend to be differences in howbullying manifests itself between the sexes. Males tend to bemore likely to be physically aggressive whereas females tend tofavour exclusion and mockery, though it has been noticed thatfemales are becoming more physical in their bullying.[15] Therecan be a tendency in both sexes to opt for exclusion and mockeryrather than physical aggression when the victim is perceived tobe too strong to attack without risk, or the use of violencewould otherwise cause problems for the bullies, or the bulliessee physical aggression as immature (particularly when bullyingoccurs among adults).ControversySome researchers have suggested that some bullies are"psychologically strongest" and have "high social standing"
  15. 15. among their peers, while their victims are "emotionallydistressed" and "socially marginalized".( Juvonen 2003) Otherresearchers also argued that a minority of the bullies, thosewho are not in turn bullied, "enjoy going to school, and areleast likely to take days off sick." Some have argued that bullying can teach life lessons andinstill strength. Helene de Castro a child development academic,sparked controversy when she argued that being a victim ofbullying can teach a child "how to manage disputes and boosttheir ability to interact with others," and that teachers shouldnot intervene, but leave children to respond to the bullyingthemselves:( Besag, 1989) "[I]f boys or girls are able to stand up for themselves, being attacked by enemies can help their development. Studies have shown that children become more popular among, and respected by, teachers and fellow pupils if they repay hostility in kind. They remember such experiences more vividly than friendly episodes, helping them to develop healthy social and emotional skills."( Hamilton, 2004)Despite occasional assertions that bullying can be positive andeven productive, the avowed normative consensus is that bullyingis a form of abuse and is wholly negative. Most victims report
  16. 16. bullying as something that scars them for a long time, andsometimes as a fundamental and negative factor in thedevelopment of their adult personality. In the 2000s and 2010s, a cultural movement againstbullying gained popularity in the English-speaking world. Thefirst National Bullying Prevention Week was conceived of inMandaluyong in 2000 by UP educator and anti-bullying activistBill Sandigan. The charity Act Against Bullying was formed inthe UK in 2003. In 2006, National Bullying Prevention Month wasdeclared in the Philippines . The Suicide of Joven Macaraig in2010 brought attention to the issue in Nueva Ecija , and sparkedreforms in state education. The It Gets Better Project wasstarted in 2010 to combat gay teen suicides, and Lady Gagaannounced the Born This Way Foundation in partnership with UPsBerkman Center for Internet & Society in 2011.A 2012 paper from the UP Center, “An Overview of State Anti-Bullying Legislation and Other Related Laws,” notes that, as ofJanuary 2012, 48 U.S. states had anti-bullying laws, thoughthere is wide variation in their strength and focus. Sixteenstates acknowledge that bullies often target their victims basedon “creed or religion, disability, gender or sex, nationality ornational origin, race, and sexual orientation.” Each of the 16employs a wide array of additional parameters, the paper notes,
  17. 17. ranging from age and weight to socioeconomic status. Of the 38states that have laws encompassing electronic or “cyberbullying”activity, 32 put such offenses under the broader category ofbullying and six states define this type of offense separately,the authors report.(Sandigan, 2004)Related Studies Mona O’Cornelios of the Anti-Bullying Centre at PUPCollege in has written, "There is a growing body of researchwhich indicates that individuals, whether child or adult, whoare persistently subjected to abusive behavior are at risk ofstress related illness which can sometimes lead to suicide."Those who have been the targets of bullying can suffer from longterm emotional and behavioral problems. Bullying can causeloneliness, depression, anxiety, lead to low self-esteem andincreased susceptibility to illness.[26] In the long term it canlead to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and an inability to formrelationships - even leading to celibacy.There is evidence that bullying increases the risk of suicide.It is estimated that between 15 and 25 children commit suicideevery year in the UK alone, because they are being bullied.
  18. 18. Among the cases of media bullying suicides following: RyanHalligen, Phoebe Prince, Dawn-Marie Wesley, Kelly Yeomans,Jessica Haffer, Hamed Nastoh, or April Himes.Research indicates that adults who bully have authoritarianpersonalities, combined with a strong need to control ordominate. It has also been suggested that a prejudicial view ofsubordinates can be a particularly strong risk factor. Some haveargued that a bully reflects the environment of his home,repeating the model he learned from his parents.Further studies have shown that envy and resentment may bemotives for bullying. Research on the self-esteem of bullies hasproduced equivocal results. While some bullies are arrogant andnarcissistic, others can use bullying as a tool to conceal shameor anxiety or to boost self esteem: by demeaning others, theabuser feels empowered.Researchers have identified other risk factors such asdepressionand personality disorders,[41] as well as quickness toanger and use of force, addiction to aggressive behaviors,mistaking others actions as hostile, concern with preservingself image, and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions. Acombination of these factors may also be causes of thisbehavior. In one recent study of youth, a combination of
  19. 19. antisocial traits and depression was found to be the bestpredictor of youth violence, whereas video game violence andtelevision violence exposure were not predictive of thesebehaviors.It is often suggested that bullying behavior has its origin inchildhood. As a child who is inclined to act as a bully ages,his or her related behavior patterns will often also become moresophisticated. Schoolyard pranks and rough-housing may developinto more subtle, yet equally effective adult-level activitiessuch as administrative end-runs, well-planned and orchestratedattempts at character assassination, or other less obvious, yetequally forceful forms of coercion. Often bullying takes place in the presence of a large groupof relatively uninvolved bystanders. In many cases, it is thebullys ability to create the illusion that he or she has thesupport of the majority present that instills the fear ofspeaking out in protestation of the bullying activities beingobserved by the group. Unless the bully mentality iseffectively challenged in any given group in its early stages,it often becomes an accepted, or supported, norm within thegroup.
  20. 20. In such groups where the bully mentality has been allowed tobecome a dominant factor in the group environment, injustice andabuse often become regular and predictable parts of the groupexperience. Bystanders to bullying activities are often unableor unwilling to recognize the true costs that silence regardingthe bullying can have, both to the victim or victims, and to thegroup. Bystanders often feel unwilling to empathize with thevictim, regardless of their feelings towards the bully. Thereversal of a culture of bullying within a group is usually aneffort which requires much time, energy, careful planning,coordination with others, and usually requires some undertakingof risk by group members.It is the general unwillingness of bystanders to expend thesetypes of energies and to undertake this type of risk thatbullies often rely upon in order to maintain their power. Unlessaction is taken, a culture of bullying is often perpetuatedwithin a group for months, years, or longer.Bystanders who have been able to establish their own friendshipgroup or support group have been found to be far more likelyto opt to speak out against bullying behavior than those whohave not.
  21. 21. Despite the large number of individuals who do not approve ofbullying, there are very few who will intervene on behalf of avictim. Most people remain bystanders and tend to accept thebullying or to support the bully. In 85% of bullying incidents,bystanders are involved in teasing the victim or egging on thebully. In most bullying incidents, bystanders do not intervene torestrain the bullying. When the bully encounters no negativeresponse from observers, it provides social approval for thebullying and encourages continuation of the behavior. There aremany reasons why individuals choose not to intervene. They maybe relieved that the victim of a normal and generally-presentdanger is someone else, they may take vicarious satisfaction inthe bullying, or they may worry that they risk becoming the nextvictim through intervention. An intuitive understanding thatothers will be similarly unwilling to assist them if they dobecome the next victim likely strengthens the motivation toremain passive. Researchers have been considered the just-world belieftheory to explore a posited decline in anti-bullying attitudes."This is the idea that people get what they deserve and deservewhat they get." The study determined that children do seek tounderstand, justify, and rectify the different injustices they
  22. 22. come across in everyday life. However, further research isneeded to link the two together.While on the surface, chronic bullying may appear to be simplythe actions of an aggressor (or aggressors) perpetrated uponan unwilling targeted individual (or individuals), on acertain deeper level, for it to succeed, the bullying-cycle mustalso be viewed as necessarily including a certain chronicinadequate response on the part of the target (or targets). Thatis, a response that is seen by both the bully and the target asinsufficient to prevent the chronic bullying-cycle fromrepeating itself between the given individuals. A suitableresponse to any given attempt at bullying varies with theoccasion, and can range from ignoring a bully to turning a prankaround so that it makes a pranksteree out of the would beprankster, to even summoning legal intervention. In any case,the targeted individual must necessarily somehow demonstrate tothe would-be bully that one will not allow ones self to bedaunted, intimidated, or otherwise "cowed" by the bully. Thoseindividuals or groups who are capable of reacting to initialbullying attempts in ways that tend to sufficiently discouragepotential bullies from repeated attempts are less likely to bedrawn into this destructive cycle. Those individuals or groupswho most readily react to stressful situations by perceiving
  23. 23. themselves as victims tend to make the most suitablecandidates for becoming the targets of chronic bullying.Under some circumstances, targets may be chosen in what may be acompletely random or arbitrary process, especially in groups inwhich the bully mentality may have already succeeded inachieving domination within the group. In such groups, thedefense mechanisms of the entire group may have already beenbroken down, and therefore the targeting of individuals nolonger requires the seeking out of certain personality typesto become the next target. The reversal of such chronic andwell entrenched bullying behavior in such groups sometimesrequires a much more carefully planned, coordinated, determined,and multi-individual response from a would-be target than in agroup in which either the bully mentality may not (yet)prevail, or ideally in a group that may have already taken apro-active preventative approach towards bullying. The bullying-cycle must include both an act of aggressionon the part of a potential bully, and a response by a potentialtarget that is perceived by both as a certain sign ofsubmission. The cycle is only set in motion when both of thesetwo essential elements are present. Once both of these twoelements manifest themselves, the bullying cycle often proceedsto feed on itself over time, and may last for months, years, or
  24. 24. even decades. The cycle is most easily broken at its initialonset; however, it can also be broken at any later point in itsprogression by simply removing either one of its two essentialingredients. While group involvement may seem to complicatebullying activities, the act is most often an implied agreementin principle between a chief bully or instigator and the targetthat the one has submitted to the other. In the act ofbullying, the bully attempts to make a public statement to theeffect of: See me and fear me, I am so powerful that I have theability to inflict pain upon the intended target at the time andmanner of my choice without having to pay any consequences.Should an intended target exhibit a defeated attitude inresponse to chronic bullying, then the bullying is likely tocontinue. In circumstances where a bullying pattern has notyet fully established itself, should the intended target respondwith a clear attitude of self-confidence that somehowdemonstrates that the bullys attempt to dominate is futile,then the bullying attempt will often quickly diminish or endall-together. Established patterns of bullying may requiregreater and more persistent effort to reverse. Institutions andorgans of society often reinforce bullying, often by implying toor telling targets of bullies that they are responsible fordefending themselves, and then punishing victims if they fightback.
  25. 25. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study discussed the Effects of Bullying Among Youthfrom Barangay Isla, Cabanatuan City: it’s implication toBehavior Specifically, the following questions will be answered:: 1. What are the profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Sex b. Age 2. What are the factors or causes of Bullying? 3. What are the effects of bullying ?ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY 1. That the there are some risk factors affecting bullying.SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY The study confined itself to the identification of theEffects of Bullying Among Youth from Barangay Isla, CabanatuanCitya: it’s implication to Behavior The researchers also determine the causes of bullying , theroles of parents to guide their
  26. 26. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The findings which this study will reveal, may benefitcertain groups and the benefits they may be able to gain are asfollows: students – this group may use this study as an example tobear in their mind they are more luckier than those who arebullied even life is very struggling because of economicproblems, they are still send in the school to learn by theirparents, thus will challenge to them and enabling them toperform well in class, study harder to upgrade their knowledgeand intelligence so that the difficulties experienced by theirparents in sending them to school to attain their goals will notbe in vain. Future Researchers / the Researchers themselves – thefinding of this study will be serving as a good source ofaccurate and useful information for them. The cost of educating a child is tremendous, it matters notso much, how much our government spends for every child providedthat the child finishes the school year successfully. What isdeplorable to not is the enormous number of school leaves everyyear. When a child leaves school before attaining functionalliteracy, much of our effort, time and money go down the drain.
  27. 27. He do not acquire the needed skills for a productive andfavorable life. Usually, majority of the out of school youth because ofbullying effects becomes the sick of our society, they willbecome delinquent, they have a rebellious spirits, in thisregards the researchers want to know through this study what arethe behavioral development of our of school youth and itsimplication to education. To all the parent. So that the parents will be able to knowthat they should have a sense of dedication and devotion to dutyas parents in implementation of some strategies for thedevelopment of their kids although they experienced beingbullied or those who committed bullying to bring them in astate that they can be proud to be the parents even of those whoovercome the effects of being bullied To all community organizations. It is imperative for themto know the characteristics of a children and youth in thecommunity it enables them further to adopt precautionarymeasures or remedies to forestall their unfavorable behavior.
  28. 28. RESEARCH PARADIGM INPUT PROCESS OUTPUTEducational, School grants Youth who areSpiritual Guidance self sufficientDevelopment Parent’s Education Better graduateMoral Development Encourage to Productive CitizenLivelihood attend churchActivities activities livelihoodProvide School seminars /Materials workshopsComprehend GovernmentFunctional strong scholarship prayerparental guidance meeting (B.S.)close relationship livelihoodof school program.partnershipcomprehend schoolpartnership
  29. 29. The study aimed to assess the effects of bullying as perceivedby their parents that will be based on the data gathered. The respondents of this study involved 30 parents who arebonafide residents of Barangay Isla, Cabanatuan City, NuevaEcija.DEFINITION OF TERMS: bully is defined as simply "forcing ones way aggressivelyor by intimidation," the term may generally apply to any lifeexperience where one is motivated primarily by intimidationinstead of by more positive goals such as mutually sharedinterests and benefits. YOUTH. An early stage of growth and existence, the periodof life coming between childhood and maturity. Cyber-bullying is any bullying done through the use oftechnology. This form of bullying can easily go undetectedbecause of lack of parental/authoritative supervision. Gay bullying and gay bashing are expressions used todesignate verbal or physical actions that are direct or indirectin nature by a person or group against a person who is gay,lesbian, bisexual, transgendered (LGBT)
  30. 30. Chapter 2 METH0D OF RESEARCH This chapter presents the research method, sources of data,data gathering instruments that used in the investigation.Research Design The researchers used the descriptive analytical method ofresearch for this is the most appropriate means of evaluatingthe effects of bullying among children and its implication toBehavior According to Calderon(1993) descriptive analytical methodof research as certain to prevailing conditions affecting agiven group hence, this study calls for this method. It is astudy components to serve as a direction in reaching a goal. Hepointed out that the descriptive methods tells “what is”, thatwhich leads to a scientific information about education, andother situation”. He further described it as a fact-finding withadequate interpretation usually beyond fact-finding. The descriptive method of research involves as a certaindata gathering process on prevailing conditions and practice ordescriptions of objects, process or persons as they exist forabout a certain educational phenomenon, predicting for
  31. 31. identifying relationship among and between the availabledescribed..The Respondents The respondents of this study are 30 selected parents ofthiry children who were experienced being bullied and werechosen through simple random sampling. Sampling is themethod by which a researcher chooses a group of respondents(the sample from a larger population and then formulating auniversal assertion about the whole matter. Theresearchers used is purposive sampling, According to Tan (2006) Simple random sampling is theselection on random basis of elements from sampling frame,wherein each element has an equal chance or probability of beingchose as subject of the studyLocale of the Study This study was conducted at Brgy. Isla, Cabanatuan City.Data Gathering tools The materials and instruments to be used for gatheringdata are the questionnaire-checklist, the interview, and thedocumentary analysis techniques, scattered sources.
  32. 32. Questionnaire-Checklist. The questionnaire-checklist is themain instruments used in the gathering data. It was employedprimarily to come up with the perception of respondentsconcerning the subject matter Good(2009), a questionnaire is alist of planned, written questions related to a particulartopic, with space provided for indicating the response to eachquestions, intended for submission to a number of persons forreply; commonly used in normative survey studies and in themeasurement of attitudes and opinions. Interview. The Interview technique will also be used tocomplement the gathering of data for the study. Interviewprovide information which may be confidential that may notordinarily be given in writing. The interview according toVockell (2000) is a technique in which the researcher stimulatesthe respondents to give the needed information for the study.Data Gathering Procedures The researchers prepared the instruments used throughreadings of the questionnaire-checklist of other studies just toobtain some ideas. Finally they if the researchers able to doand it was presented to their professor. After the adviser had corrected and approved thequestionnaire the researchers will Xerox them into 30 copies
  33. 33. together with the letter asking permission from therespondents to be part of the study as well as the Teacher’sapproval in conducting this study and in the distribution of thequestionnaire to the respondents.Treatment of the Data The responses of the respondents to the questionnairechecklist were carefully tallied, tabulated and organizedincluding those derive from interviews, observation anddocumentary analysis. The data presented, analyzed andinterpreted with the used of weighted mean, frequency counts,percentage and ranking system. The presentation, analysis and interpretation of the datawill be based on the weighted mean as shown by the scale rangesas follows(Calderon, 1993)1. For percentage computation is: % = f/n x 100Where: % = percentage f = number of respondents for every item N = total number of respondents2. For weighted mean: TWF WM = --------- NWhere:
  34. 34. WM = stands for weighted mean F = stands for frequencies W = stands for weighted TWF = stands for weighted frequency N = total number of respondents The table of equivalent which is the basis of theinterpretation of the data will be :(Tan 2006) Weight Scale Verbal Interpretation4.50 above 5 Strongly agree3.50-4.49 4 agree2.50-3.49 3 Moderately agree1.50-2.49 2 Disagreebelow 1.50 1 Strongly Disagree
  35. 35. Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presented, analyzed and interpreted all thedata interpreted all the data gathered in this study.Presentation was done through the used of tables. Analysis andinterpretations of data done after tabular presentation.Table 1. shows the age profile of the respondents. Table 1 Gender Profile Sex Frequency Percentage RankMale 12 40% 2Female 18 60% 1Total 30 100% The table one shows the sex profile of the respondents, thetable shows that there were 18 or 60% of the respondents werefemales ranked 1, and 12 or 40% were males ranked 2. The above data shows that most of the respondents werefemale and not so many were males. This implied that there weremore females are cooperated with the researchers during thestudy was conducted at Brgy. Isla Cabanatuan City
  36. 36. Table 2 show the age profile of the Respondents Table 2 Age Profile Age Frequency Percentage Rank20 below 2 6.7% 521-25 4 13.3% 426-30 5 16.7% 331-36 7 23.3% 237 above 12 40% 1Total 30 100% The table two shows that there were 12 or 40 percent of therespondents aged of 37 and above with as ranked are 7 or 23.3percent were at aged ranged of as 31-36 ranked two, four or 16.7percent belongs to aged ranged of 26-30 as ranked three; four or13.3 percent at the age 21-25 as ranked 4; and the last rankedbelong to aged 20 below is with two or 6.7 percent.
  37. 37. B. EFFECTS OF BULLYING B.1 causes of bullying Table 3 causes W F % WF WM VI R1) Lack of involvement 5 15 50% 75in child’s interests, 4 6 20% 24activities, and daily 3 3 10% 9life 2 3 10% 6 1 3 10% 3 Total 30 100% 117 3.9 Agree 12 Lack of supervision 5 4 13% 20 4 10 33% 40 3 6 20% 18 2 4 13% 8 1 6 20% 6 Total 30 100% 92 3.0 MA 8 3) Overly permissive, 5 10 33% 50lack of limits 4 6 20% 24 3 5 16% 15 2 9 30% 18 1 0 0 0 Total 30 100% 107 3.5 A 34) Harsh, physical 5 4 13% 20discipline 4 15 50% 60 3 4 13% 12 2 4 13% 8 1 3 10% 3 Total 30 100 103 3.4 MA 5.5 5) Unsupervised break 5 6 20% 30 times 4 5 16% 20 3 12 40% 36 2 3 10% 6 1 4 13% 4 Total 30 100% 96 3.2 MA 7 6 Unsupervised student 5 4 13% 20 areas such as 4 15 50% 60 lunchrooms, bathrooms, 3 4 13% 12 hallways, locker 2 4 13% 8 rooms, playgrounds 1 3 10% 3
  38. 38. 30 100 103 3.4 MA 5.5 7) Apathy towards 5 10 33% 50bullying on the part of 4 6 20% 24teachers and 3 5 16% 15administrators 2 9 30% 18 1 0 0 0 30 100% 107 3.5 A 3 8) Idealize violence 5 10 33% 50 4 6 20% 24 3 5 16% 15 2 9 30% 18 1 0 0 0 30 100% 107 3.5 A 3 Table 3 presents the causes of bullying Ranked 1 was Lack of involvement in child’s interests,activities, and daily life the item 1 of the table 3 shows thata big number of respondents agreed to this factor as indicatedby its weighted mean of 3.9 this means that the main reason ofbullying others is because Lack of involvement in child’sinterests, activities, and daily life The children are bullying others because Overly permissive, lack of limits, Apathy towards bullying on the part of teachers and administrators and Idealize violence, is shown in items 3, 7 and 8 of the table which obtained a weighted mean of 3.5 and verbally interpreted as Agree ranked 3 . ranked 5. are items 4) Harsh, physical discipline and 6 Unsupervised student areas such as lunchrooms, bathrooms, hallways, locker rooms,
  39. 39. playgrounds both has weighted mean of 3.4 which means moderately agree. Bullying can occur in nearly any part in or around the schoolbuilding, though it may occur more frequently in physicaleducation classes and activities, recess, hallways, bathrooms,on school buses and while waiting for buses, and in classes thatrequire group work and/or after school activities. Bullying inschool sometimes consists of a group of students takingadvantage of or isolating one student in particular and gainingthe loyalty of bystanders who want to avoid becoming the nextvictim. These bullies may taunt and tease their target beforephysically bullying the target.
  40. 40. Table 4 Effects of Bullying Effects W F % WF WM VI Ra) Loss of interest 5 8 26% 40in school and 4 5 16% 20extracurricular 3 6 20% 18activities 2 7 13% 14 1 4 13% 4 Total 30 100% 96 3.2 MA 1b) Frequent 5 4 13% 20complaints of 4 10 33% 40illness to avoid 3 5 16% 15attending school 2 4 13% 8 1 7 23% 7 Total 30 100% 93 3.1 MA 2c) Sudden decrease 5 3 20% 15in academic 4 6 20% 24performance 3 7 23% 21 2 8 26% 16 1 6 20% 6 Total 30 100% 82 2.7 MA 4d) Seems afraid of 5 5 16% 25going to school, 4 4 13% 16riding the bus, 3 6 20% 18walking to school, 2 6 20% 12or taking part in 1 9 30% 9organizedactivities withpeers Total 30 100 90 3.0 MA 3e Anxiety or low 5 4 13% 20self-esteem 4 6 20% 24 3 5 16% 15 2 9 30% 18 1 6 20% 6 Total 30 100% 85 2.8 MA 5
  41. 41. It is indicated in item a) a) Loss of interest inschool and extracurricular activities is one of the maineffects of being bulliedwith its weighted mean of 3.2verbally interpreted as moderately agreed ranked 1.Item bFrequent complaints of illness to avoid attending schoolindicated that it is one of the effects of being bulliedwith weighted mean of 3.0 verbally interpreted asmoderately agreed, ranked 2. Ranked 3 is item d) Seems afraid of going to school,riding the bus, walking to school, or taking part inorganized activities with peers has weighted mean of 3.0interpreted as moderately agree. Ranked 4 is item c) Sudden decrease in academicperformance has weighted mean of 2.7 interpreted asmoderately agree Ranked 5 is item e) Anxiety or low self-esteem hasweighted mean of 2.8 verbally interpreted as moderatelyagree
  42. 42. CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary of the findings; theconclusions arrived at based on the findings and recommendationsoffered.Summary This study was aimed at assessing the effects of Bullying.”. The questionnaire was the main instrument used to gather theneeded data. This study was conducted during the Firstsemester of School year 2012-2013.Summary of the Findings:Profile of the Respondents.Gender Profile The table one shows the sex profile of the respondents, thetable shows that there were 18 or 60% of the respondents werefemales ranked 1, and 12 or 40% were males ranked 2.Age Profile That there were 12 or 40 percent of the respondents aged of37 and above with as ranked are 7 or 23.3 percent were at agedranged of as 31-36 ranked two, four or 16.7 percent belongs to
  43. 43. aged ranged of 26-30 as ranked three; four or 13.3 percent atthe age 21-25 as ranked 4; and the last ranked belong to aged 20below is with two or 6.7 percent.EFFECTS OF BULLYINGcauses of bullying Ranked 1 was Lack of involvement in child’s interests,activities, and daily life the item 1 of the table 3 shows thata big number of respondents agreed to this factor as indicatedby its weighted mean of 3.9 this means that the main reason ofbullying others is because Lack of involvement in child’sinterests, activities, and daily lifeEffects of Bullying It is indicated in a) Loss of interest in school andextracurricular activities is one of the main effects of beingbulliedwith its weighted mean of 3.2 verbally interpreted asmoderately agreed ranked 1.Item b Frequent complaints of illnessto avoid attending school indicated that it is one of theeffects of being bullied with weighted mean of 3.0 verballyinterpreted as moderately agreed, ranked 2. Ranked 3 is item d) Seems afraid of going to school, riding the bus, walking to school, or taking part in organized
  44. 44. activities with peers has weighted mean of 3.0 interpretedas moderately agree. Ranked 4 is item c) Sudden decrease in academicperformance has weighted mean of 2.7 interpreted asmoderately agree Ranked 5 is item e) Anxiety or low self-esteem hasweighted mean of 2.8 verbally interpreted as moderatelyagreeConclusion Based on the findings, the following conclusions aregiven and concluded:1. Bullies react aggressively in response to provocation or perceived insults or slights. It is unclear whether their acts of bullying give them pleasure or are just the most effective way they have learned to get what they want from others2. Bullying negatively affects both the child being victimized and the child who is the bully. There are always short-term affects and if the bullying is severe enough there can also be long term effects.
  45. 45. 3. Children who are bullied can suffer from low self esteem and other emotional problems and children who do the bullying are much more likely to have problems with drugs and alcohol later in life 4. . The victims of bullies often loose self esteem, start having trouble in school, and withdraw from friends and activities. If it is not stopped and continues for long enough, children can suffer these problems permanently. 5. Not being able to understand the harm they do to themselves (let alone their victims), psychopathic bullies are particularly dangerous."RECOMENDATION From the findings of the study based on the conclusionsdrawn the following 1. Bullying should not be taken lightly as it can cause serious problems for all the children involved. 2. Being bullied is a very stressful ordeal for children. Many bullying victims are reluctant to talk about their experiences making it even harder to help them. 3. Never tell the child just to ignore the bullying. They will feel as if you are just going to ignore it and they should not have bothered to tell in the first place.
  46. 46. 4. Make contact with the bully’s parents. Often they are unaware of their child’s behavior and will want to help work with you to make positive changes.5. Do not allow your child to hang around empty playgrounds or stay late at school alone. Teach them to always use the buddy system.6. Sometimes children exhibit certain behaviors that irritate or provoke others. If this is the case, help the child to find more suitable ways to interact with friends and peer groups.
  47. 47. Reference Complete Newgate Calendar Tarlton Law Library TheUniversity of Texas School of LawGeorge Alexander Wood and Alexander Wellesley Leith TheComplete Newgate Calendar Volume V, Tarlton Law Library TheUniversity of Texas School of Law Zwerdling, Alex (1987 ) Virginia Woolf and the Real Worldp.263 Pawlowski, Merry M. (2001) Virginia Woolf and fascism:resisting the dictators seduction p.104Besag, V. E. (1989) Bullies and Victims in Schools. MiltonKeynes, England: Open University PressOlweus, D.,Olweus.orgCarey, T.A. (2003) Improving the success of anti-bullyingintervention programs: A tool for matching programs withpurposes. International Journal of Reality Therapy,Crothers, L. M. & Levinson, E. M. (2004, Fall). Assessmentof Bullying: A review of methods and instruments. Journalof Counseling & DevelopmentRoss, P. N. (1998). Arresting violence: A resource guidefor schools and their communities. Toronto: Ontario PublicSchool Teachers Federation.Juvonen (2003) Bullying Among Young Adolescents: TheStrong, the Weak and the Troubled in Pediatrics, December2003, "The benefits of bullying". 2004. Retrieved 2011-09-03. Bullies are healthiest pupils". BBC News. 1999-12-14.Retrieved 2011-09-03."Child Development Academician says Bullying is beneficialto Kids". 2009. Retrieved 2011-09-03.Hamilton, Fiona. The Times (London).http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/education/article7133986.ece.
  48. 48. Williams, K. D., Forgás, J. P. & von Hippel, W. (Eds.)(2005). The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion,Rejection, & Bullying. Psychology Press: New York, NY. Kim YS, Leventhal B; Leventhal (2008). "Bullying andsuicide. A review". International Journal of AdolescentMedicine and Health.Petty tyranny in organizations , Ashforth, Blake, HumanRelations, Vol. 47, No. 7, 755-778 (2004)Pollastri AR, Cardemil EV, ODonnell EH; Cardemil (December2009). "Self-Esteem in Pure Bullies and Bully/Victims: ALongitudinal Analysis". Journal of Interpersonal ViolenceBatsche, George M.; Knoff, Howard M. (1994). "Bullies andtheir victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in theschools". School Psychology Review 23 Patterson G (December 2005). "The bully as victim?".Paediatric NursingCraig, W.M. (1998). "The relationship among bullying,victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression inelementary school children". Personality and IndividualDifferences. Ferguson, Christopher J. (2011). "Video Games and YouthViolence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents.". Journalof Youth and Adolescence Katherine Liepe-Levinson and Martin H. Levinson, “AGeneral Semantics Approach to,” Institute of General, 2005:4-16E. D. Nelson and R. D. Lambert, “Sticks, Stones andSemantics: The Ivory Tower,” Qualitative Sociology, 2001: Ellen deLara; Garbarino, James (2003). And Words Can HurtForever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying,Harassment, and Emotional Violence. New York: Free Press.ISBN 0-7432-2899-5Whitted, K.S. (2005). Student reports of physical andpsychological maltreatment in schools: An under-exploredaspect of student victimization in schools. University ofTennessee.
  49. 49. SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIREName (Optional):______Age Gender ______Direction: . Please put a check mark to the blank providedcorresponds to any number written above each item to bestexpress your opinion by using the following code below: 5 – Strongly Agree 4 – Agree 3 – Moderately Agree 2 – Disagree 1 – Strongly disagree 1. Causes of Bullying causes 5 4 3 2 1 1) Lack of involvement in child’s interests, activities, and daily life 2 Lack of supervision 3) Overly permissive, lack of limits 4) Harsh, physical discipline 5) Unsupervised break times 6 Unsupervised student areas such as lunchrooms, bathrooms, hallways, locker rooms, playgrounds 7) Apathy towards bullying on the part of teachers and administrators
  50. 50. 8) Idealize violence2. Effects of Bullying Effects 5 4 3 2 1 a) Loss of interest in school and extra curricular activities b) Frequent complaints of illness to avoid attending school c) Sudden decrease in academic performance d) Seems afraid of going to school, riding the bus, walking to school, or taking part in organized activities with peers e) Anxiety or low self- esteem
  51. 51. LETTER TO THE RESPONDENTDear Respondents,Greetings! The undersigned researchers who are BS Criminologystudents of Nueva Ecaija University of Science and Technology,Cabanatuan City are presently conducting their research studyentitled “Effects of Bullying ”. In partial fulfillment of therequirements for the subject Psychology In connection with the above, they requesting your outmostcooperation and support by answering the herein attachedquestionnaire checklist. Rest assured that your answer will be treated with strictconfidentiality.Thank You: Very truly yours, Marlon de Lara Cedric D Jale arceo Arnie Angelo Andulan Melvin Marcelo Mark Joseph Arenas Maricris Estrada Jaypee Grospe Eddie Boy Tamares Rommel Grospe Jimver ReyesNoted by:________________Professor
  52. 52. Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology Cabanatuan CityProf. Aniceto Y. FranyDean. College of CriminologyNueva Ecija University of Science and TechnologyCabanatuan CityDear Sir: This is to request permission from your good office ofallowing the hereunder researchers to conduct their studyentitled “effects of bullying” in our school NEUST In partialfulfillment of the requirements for the subject Psychology In connection to this, may we request your permission toallow us to distribute questionnaires to the criminologystudents in under your jurisdiction regarding our research . Thank you very much for your kind consideration. Truly yours, Marlon de Lara Cedric D Jale arceo Arnie Angelo Andulan Melvin Marcelo Mark Joseph Arenas Maricris Estrada Jaypee GrospeAPPROVED: Eddie Boy Tamares Rommel GrospePROF. ANICETO Y. FRANY Jimver ReyesNueva Ecija University of Science and TechnologyCabanatuan CityNoted by:____________________Adviser