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INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED LINGUISTICS Video Lesson 2 SOCIOLINGUISTICS Language VariationsMgs. Nina Nesterenko
Branch of Linguistics which deals with the study of language use in society and in sociocultural context. In addition, it is the study of the linguistic indicators of culture and power (Schmitt, 2011). studies Sociolinguistics:language explains WHYvariations studies languages change( dialects, languageaccents, change It describes language varieties between different ethnic, religious, status , and gender groups; and explains how educational level, age etc., may influence the language differences, and categorizes individuals in social or socioeconomic classes .
SOCIOLINGUISTICS is the study of howlanguage and social factors are relatedVariety of a language is “a set of linguisticitems with similar distribution” (Hudson,1980, p. 24)
LANGUAGE VARIATIONS: Standard language refers to mode of usage of most educated speakers of a language and established as the prestigious form of that language. This term is also used for that variety of a language which is considered to be the norm.
Non Standard Language• The term nonstandard was originally used by linguists to refer to language varieties that had previously been labeled with terms such as vulgar.• Non standard English differs from Standard English at the level of grammar ( it does not follow the grammar or pronunciation rules of standard language ).
Dialect and AccentDialect can be defined as STANDARD language, or PRESTIGEDIALECT used in business, education, and media. Dialects can be described at different levels according to variations • Phonological ( differences in pronunciation , ex: in Spanish llave ( llave) – llave (shave) • Morphological (word structure) • Syntactic ( it can be represented by different word order in sentences,) • Semantic (differences in meaning, ex:football – soccer ) • Grammatical ( differences in grammar structures may depend on social status of speakers, age , gender)
Accent It is a pattern or manner of pronunciation• An accent may identify the locality in which its speakers reside. (geographical or regional accent)• It can indicate the socio-economic status of its speakers, their ethnicity or social class.• Accent can also allow to determine the speaker’s native language.• Accents typically differ in quality of voice, pronunciation of vowels and consonants, and stress pitch ( ex: intonation in Spanish and English questions and the speech of people from Ecuadorian Coast and Sierra regions )
DIALECT ACCENTIt refers to the It refers tobroader set of differences inlinguisticdifferences pronunciation
• Jargon is defined in relationship to a specific activity, profession, group, or event. Jargon: the language used by people who work in a particular area or who have a common interest.• "jargon" can be technical language, for instance, the language used in a given profession (medical jargon, nautical jargon, etc.)
Jargon is used with these purposesProvide speakers of Provide speakers of aspecialized domains subgroup with awith clear, well-defined, means of marking in-unambiguous terms to group membershiprefer to their activities and exclude outsidersREMEMBER : Slang and jargon are not the same.
It refers to the use ofinformal words andexpressions that are notconsidered standard inthe speakers dialect orlanguage. It may refer to things considered taboo or euphemisms “( The substitution of an inoffensive terms such as "passed away" for "died”) .
JARGON vs SLANGrefers to the technical a variety of languagevocabulary of a used by a restrictedparticular profession part of population,group, or trade. usually young people, teenagers, or less respectable groups Its vocabulary is not“unintelligible writing or long-lasting ( not “ intalk.” fashion “ anymore )“specific dialects "Slang" usually meansresulting from a mixture rude or very informalof several languages.” language.
Language VariationsTo change from one manner of speaking toanother, according to the circumstances, in orderto give an appropriate impression, we adapt ourspeech depending on who we are talking to and anature of the contact. Deliberate change from one manner or style of speaking to another is called CODE SWITCHING or code choice