2. Wood is the hard fibrous material that forms the main substance
of the trunk or branches of a tree or shrub, used for fuel or
Timber is obtained from trees.
There is a difference between the terms “Timber” and “Wood”.
Wood includes all types of wood which may be burning wood,
structural wood, furniture wood, etc. But wood suitable for use as a
structural material is called timber.
It is common to classify wood as either softwood or hardwood. The
wood from conifers (e.g. pine) is called softwood, and the wood
from dicotyledons (usually broad-leaved trees, e.g. oak) is called
hardwood. These names are a bit misleading, as hardwoods are not
necessarily hard, and softwoods are not necessarily soft. The well-
known balsa (a hardwood) is actually softer than any commercial
softwood. Conversely, some softwoods (e.g. yew) are harder than
It should have a uniform colour.
A freshly cut surface should give a sweet smell.
It should have regular annual rings.
It should be sonorous when struck.
It should have straight and close fibers
Its colour should be dark.
A good timber should be durable.
Its colour should be dark.
Trusses, beams and pillars- both for functional as well as
Wood is used on a mammoth scale in doors, windows,
shutters and screens. Beautiful arches and partitions are
also crafted out of wood. The designs and styles are
varied and so are the types and quality of wood used.
Used for couches, chairs, different types of tables, beds,
bars, trolleys, shelving, consoles, wardrobes and cabinets.
Used for louvers, clapboards, awnings.
Staircase and verandah/balcony railings, balustrades.
Used for lamp shades and bases of lamps.
6. • Furniture
• Doors and windows
• False ceiling
• Modular kitchen
• Wooden frames of
doors and windows
• And decorative items
8. Section of wood
• Pith: It is the inner most part of the tree and therefore the
oldest part of exogenous tree when the plant becomes old. The
pith dies and becomes dark and fibrous. It varies in shape and
• Heart wood: It is the portion surrounding pith. It is strong and
dark in color. This portion is useful for several engineering
purpose. It is the dead part of wood. It consists of various
• Sapwood: It is the layer next to heart wood. It takes active
part in the growth of trees by permitting sap to move in upward
direction. Annual rings of sap wood are less sharply divided and
are light in color. The sap wood is also called as alburnum.
• Cambium layer: It is a thin layer of fresh sap lying among
sapwood and the inner bark. It has sap which is not still
converted in sapwood. If the bark is removed and cambium layer
is exposed to atmosphere then cells cease to be active and tree
9. • Inner bark: It is a inner skin of tree defensive the cambium
layer. It provides
protection to cambium
• Outer bark: It is the
outer skin of the tree
and contain wood fibers.
Sometimes it contains
cracks and fissures.
• Medullary rags: These
are thin radial fibers
extending from pith to
cambium layer. They
together hold annular
PLYWOOD – it is a sheet material manufactured from thin
layers or plies of wood veneer that are glued
together with adjacent layers having their
wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one
another . It is very strong and does not
warp or shrink . It does not split easily when nailed and a
smooth uniform finish.
BLOCK BOARD – it have stripes of softwood glued together
and faced with veneers . It does not split easily.it can screw
into the edge and have wide edges of ( 8’ x 4’).
It is very strong due to direction of veneers,
itIs water, heat, chemical, fungi, and insect
Resistant, it comes in large sizes and large
11. PINE BOARD – it is made from thin soft wood stripes glued
together . It makes a wide
board in softwood . It have uniform
thickness of (12mm – 25mm). In this
boards tends to cup and is used for
CHIP BOARD – it is made by mixing wood chips and glue. This
mixture is then pressed to form a
sheet. Plastic and veneer is then placed
over it and it is used in furniture
construction. It can be veneered ant it
is cheap. It has a uniform thickness and
makes use of waste wood.
12. • MDF ( medium density fibreboard)- it is the most popular
board material often faced with veneer
or plastic laminates. It is made with fine
wood fibres in three layers and need to
drill into face before nails or screws are
inserted and fine dust is harm full.
• HARD BOARD –hardboard is made up from wood pulp and
water is added to the pulp . The
mixture is then pressed under high
temperature and the water is
removed . Sheets are smooth on
one side and textured on the
other.It is 3-9mm thick and available
in thin sheets. It is only use in indoors.
A thin decorative covering of fine wood applied to
coarser wood or other material. An attractive
appearance that covers or disguises true nature or
14. TYPES OF VENEERS
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF VENEERS:-
# Rotary cut veneer
# Sliced veneer
ROTARY CUT VENEER:- To create rotary cut veneers, logs of
wood are mounted horizontally on a machine and rotated about
their longitudinal axis while thin layers of wood are peeled off the
SLICED VENEER:- Sliced veneers are made by slicing the logs
instead of rotating and peeling the logs. Sliced veneers are more
expensive to produce but give higher quality veneers.
Laminates or decorative laminates are artificially
produced materials made from paper and plastic resins.
Brown base paper or decorative paper is soaked and
saturated with a synthetic phenolic resin or transparent
melamine resin respectively. These are then placed over
each other and hard pressed to manufacture the
16. • MANUFACTURING PROCESS:-
- Made of brown base paper and decorative paper.
- Use of resins make the paper hard and brittle.
- The two papers are hard pressed together.
• TYPES OF LAMINATES:-
- HPL High pressure laminates
commonly fixed by carpenters over plywood while
making the furniture.
- LPL Low pressure laminates
directly bonded to particle boards or fiber boards.
• LAMINATE SIZES AND RATES:-
- Standard size-: 8’ * 4’
- Special size-: 3’ * 7’ and 5’ * 12’
- The market rates of laminates ranges from Rs. 28- Rs.390/
per sq. ft.