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  1. 1. 4– 1 Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. Personality Determinants •BIOLOGICAL oHEREDITY •SOCIAL/FAMILY •SITUATIONAL
  2. 2.  Based on Carl Jung’s work ◦ People are fundamentally different ◦ People are fundamentally alike ◦ People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment  Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences
  3. 3. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4– 4 Personality Types •Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) •Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) •Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) •Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.
  4. 4.  E OR I: Extrovert persons are dependable, friendly, outgoing and likes job that involve human interaction and PR whereas Introverts are quiet, shy ,unexpressive.  S or I: Sensing types are practical and base their decisions on facts and details . Whereas Intuitive rely on evidence as well as their intuition.
  5. 5.  T or F: thinking types use logic and scientific methods to arrive at decision. Feeling types rely on personal values and emotions.  J or P: Judging types prefer order and structure in their interactions with the external world. Perceiving are flexible, they adapt themselves according to situations
  6. 6.  The “Big Five” Dimension of Personality and organization behavior:
  7. 7. . 4–8 Extroversion Sociable, gregarious, and assertive Agreeableness Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. Conscientiousness Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. Openness to Experience Imaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism. Emotional Stability Calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).
  8. 8. 9 The “Big Five” Dimension of Personality and organization behavior: 1.Conscientionusness: a dimension ranging from careful, thorough, responsible, organized self- disciplined. 2.Extraversion-Introversion: a dimension ranging from sociable, talkative , assertive and active.
  9. 9. 10 3.Agreeableness: a dimension ranging from good natured, gentle, cooperative, forgiving and hopeful. 4.Emotional Stability: a dimension ranging from anxious, depressed, angry, emotion, insecure and excitable. 5.Openness to Experience: a dimension ranging from imaginative, narrow, crude and simple at the other.
  10. 10.  Almost all the people try to understand themselves by the virtues of their qualities, characters, actions, reactions, etc.  This process involves the interaction of the background ,one own psychology, values, social, economic, religious and other internal factors of oneself is called self concept… the concept of self-esteem and self efficacy are the part of self concept
  11. 11. Self-Esteem (SE) Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. Or perceived compete tent enough , have skills or not or perceived self image Self-efficacy has to do with self perception of how well a person can cope up with a situation as they rise . Thus we can say that self-esteem is concerned with the perceived competence while self efficacy deals with the perceived performance based o situations.
  12. 12. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4–13  Locus of control  Machiavellianism  Self-esteem  Self-monitoring  Type A personality  Type B personality
  13. 13. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4–14 Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate or they plan,direct and control their life and career Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
  14. 14. Conditions Favoring High Machs • Direct interaction • Minimal rules and regulations • Emotions distract for others Machiavellianism (Mach) Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
  15. 15. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4–16 Self-Esteem (SE) Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
  16. 16. TYPE A 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once; 4. cannot cope with leisure time; 5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. TYPE B 1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; 2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; 3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; 4. can relax without guilt.
  17. 17. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4–18 Proactive Personality Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.
  18. 18.  Behavior is motivated by desire for personal growth/achievement  Stages in such growth and achievement are not dependent upon age  Emphasizes the whole person and the importance of each subjective experience  People are basically good
  19. 19. Humanism: Approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals Human Nature: Traits, qualities, potentials, and behavior patterns most characteristic of humans Free Choice: Ability to choose that is NOT controlled by genetics, learning, or unconscious forces Subjective Experience: Private perceptions of reality
  20. 20. • Efficient perceptions of reality • Comfortable acceptance of self, others, and nature • Spontaneity • Task Centering • Autonomy • Continued freshness of appreciation • Fellowship with humanity • Profound interpersonal relationships • Comfort with solitude • Peak experiences
  21. 21.  Albert Einstein  Ralph Waldo Emerson  William James  Thomas Jefferson  Abraham Lincoln  Eleanor Roosevelt  Albert Schweitzer  Mahatma Gandhi
  22. 22. Carl Rogers: American psychologist; believed that personality formed as a result of our strivings to reach our full human potential. Fully Functioning Person: Lives in harmony with his/her deepest feelings and impulses Self-Image: Total subjective perception of your body and personality Conditions of Worth: behaviors and attitudes for which other people, starting with our parents, will give us positive regard. Unconditional Positive Regard: Unshakable love and approval Positive Self-Regard: Thinking of oneself as a good, lovable, worthwhile person
  23. 23.  Pioneered by Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis = “analyzing the psyche”  Freud’s theory compared to an “iceberg”  Freud felt the sum of all mental activity was divided into three parts ◦ Id ◦ Ego ◦ Superego
  24. 24. “the mind is like an iceberg - mostly hidden” Conscious Awareness small part above surface (Preconscious) Unconscious below the surface (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Repression Banishing unacceptable thoughts and passions to unconscious: Dreams and Slips
  25. 25.  Three levels of consciousness: ◦ Conscious mind: things we are focusing on. ◦ Preconscious mind: things are are not currently aware of but which we could focus on. ◦ Unconscious mind: that which we are unaware of.
  26. 26.  An unconscious component of the psyche  Id unconcerned about reality  The id seeks immediate pleasure and satisfaction of instinctual drives based on biological needs  It means blind demand for instant satisfaction
  27. 27.  Serves as a person’s conscience  Serves as a person’s moral standards  Operates at various levels of consciousness within the psyche  Superego unconcerned about reality ◦ Demands that moral goals be favored ◦ It consists of positive values, morals, and principle with no scope of compromising
  28. 28.  Largely conscious part of the psyche, though also operates at other levels  Operates per the reality principle  Ego tries to: ◦ satisfy the id ◦ avoid guilt or remorse experienced through the superego ◦ incorporate reality into its decision  Anxiety results when the ego loses its battle.  Personally organized behavior into social acceptable form…
  29. 29.  Source of information about personality: • obtained from observation of behavior and questionnaire responses from the general population as well as from people in therapy.  Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings: • stable internal characteristics; • some emphasize genetic basis.  Outlook on humans: • neutral - neither positive nor negative.  Comprehensiveness of theory: • not very comprehensive.
  30. 30.  Trait approaches have tried to identify the most basic and relatively enduring dimensions along which people differ from one another--dimensions known as traits.  How many trait dimensions are there?  How can we measure these trait dimensions?  Where do these trait dimensions originate?
  31. 31.  Allport: Most important personality traits are those that reflect our values.  Allport suggested that there are 3 kinds of traits: • cardinal: a single personality trait that directs most of a person’s activities (e.g., greed, kindness). • central: a set of major characteristics that make up the core of a person’s personality. • secondary: less important personality traits that do not affect behavior as much as central and cardinal traits do.
  32. 32.  Hans Eysenck: found two (2) major trait dimensions: • introversion versus extroversion (quiet versus sociable). • Neuroticism versus emotional stability (moody versus calm).
  33. 33.  Cattell’s Trait Theory: ◦ Distinguished 3 types of traits:  Dynamic.  Ability.  Temperament.  Also: ◦ Surface Traits: Less important to personality. ◦ Source Traits: More important basic underlying traits.  Cattell identified 16 basic traits. • He developed the 16PF to measure these traits.
  34. 34.  Recently personality theorists have begun to converge on the view that there are 5 basic personality dimensions:  1: emotional stability versus neuroticism: ◦ calm, secure, self-satisfied VS anxious, insecure, self- pitying.  2: extraversion versus introversion: ◦ sociable, fun-loving, affectionate VS retiring, sober, reserved.  3: openness versus close-mindedness: ◦ imaginative, independent VS practical, conforming.  4: agreeableness versus disagreeableness: ◦ kind, trusting, helpful VS ruthless, suspicious, uncooperative.  5: conscientiousness versus undependable: ◦ organized, careful, disciplined VS disorganized, careless, impulsive.
  35. 35. Observation Imitation Modeling
  36. 36. The act of watching somebody or something carefully for a period of time, especially to learn something. (Oxford,2012) Students learn through vicarious experiences.
  37. 37. The act of copying somebody or something. (Oxford,2012) Children are more likely to imitate the actions of others who seem competent, powerful, prestigious and enthusiastic. Eg: Adults, older siblings, celebrities.
  38. 38. A person or thing that is considered an excellent example of something. (Oxford,2012) Modeling consists of 4 component process : Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation Modeling describes the process of learning or acquiring new information, skills, or behavior through observation
  39. 39. The Bobo Doll  Several studies involving television commercials and videos containing violent scenes have supported this theory of modeling.  Albert Bandura believed television was a source of behavior modeling.
  40. 40. Observational Learning  In his early writing, Bandura emphasizes the power and pervasiveness of social modeling and the process of learning through observation  Bandura suggests that observational learning occurs either intentionally or accidentally  Observational Learning is done through imitation or modeling
  41. 41. Difference of Imitation and Modeling Individuals observe and just copy the action. Example: Drawing or painting objects by just copying a subject Imitation
  42. 42. Difference of Imitation and Modeling Individuals observe specific models. Observers sometimes are able to solve problems correctly even after the model fails to solve the same problem. Observers draw similar conclusions from different responses and create rules of behavior that permit them to go beyond what they have seen or heard. Modeling Example: Drawing or painting objects by using the object only as a pattern. The individual could just copy or change some of the patterns to the art piece.
  43. 43. Factors that Influence Modeling o Characteristics of the Model • We are more likely to be influenced by someone who we believe is similar to ourselves rather than by someone who is different. • According to research, people who are physically attractive influence more people. o Attributes of the Observer  People who are lacking in self-esteem or who are incompetent are especially prone to follow the structure and style of the model.  A highly motivated individual will also emulate a model in order to master a desired behavior.
  44. 44. Factors that Influence Modeling  Participants are more likely to emulate a behavior if they believe that such actions will lead to positive short- or long-term results. o Reward consequences associated with the behavior
  45. 45. Process of Observational Learning  In order for learning to take place, you need to pay attention.  Models should be noticeable enough for the observer to focus on learning a specific task Attentional Process  The ability to store information or remember it.  It can be through verbal or imagine  Verbal- remembering the words itself  Imagines- developing a visual image Retention Process
  46. 46. Reinforcement in Observational Learning  Being rewarded with objects and stuff Example: Winning a competition and being rewarded with a medal. Extrinsic Reinforcement  Being rewarded by the feedback or the outcome of the behavior done. Example: Playing a difficult piece of music well leads to feeling of accomplishment. *self-satisfaction Intrinsic Reinforcement
  47. 47. Reinforcement in Observational Learning  is learning by observing others.  if people can learn by watching, they must be focusing their attention, constructing images, remembering, analyzing, and making decisions that affect learning. Vicarious Reinforcement Example: A child who sees a sibling being spanked for a misdemeanour quickly learns not to do the same thing.
  48. 48. Reinforcement in Observational Learning  controlling your own reinforces.  This reinforcement is important for both students and teachers.  We want our students to improve not because it leads to external rewards, but because the students value and enjoy their growing competence. Self-Reinforcement Example: One runner might be satisfied by completing a mile in five minutes; another would want to finish it in less time