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DR . V.K. GUPTA
Contents
 Climate change
 Causes
 Impacts
 Combative Measures
 Conclusion
Climate Change:
“ Change of climate which is attributed directly or
indirectly to human activity that alters the compositi...
Causes:GHG(CO2,CH4,NO2)
Gases which absorb IR radiation are termed collectively as
"greenhouse gases".
 Infrared radiation from greenhouse gases ...
Mechanism:
Earths Energy Budget
Greenhouse Effect
Causes:
Change in CO2 Conc.:
N2O from agriculture
& others
Global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have
increased markedly as a result of...
Observed changesObserved changes
Global average
sea level
Northern hemisphere
snow cover
Global average
temperature
Impact
Melting of Glaciers
Vegetation
Temperature
storms / sea level rise
Humans
Volcanic eruption / earth quakes
Decrease...
Projected changes
Impact on animal health
Direct impact:
1.Impact on physiological and adaptation machenisms
2. Disease extention Emergence ...
Heat stress
Thermo neutral zone varies from 15-25o
C for crossbred
cattle and buffaloes and 15-28o
C for Sahiwal cattle
...
Increased maintenance energy requirement
Animals will activate mechanisms to dissipate the excess
heat and maintain body t...
Animal growth
Growth gradients and growth constants indicate that climate
change/global warming will negatively impact an...
Temperature:
Climate change is expected to increase average temperatures
as well as the number and intensity of heat waves...
Feed security
Climate change have serious implication on feed security resulting
in Malnutrition
Excess or Scarcity of Wa...
 New and emerging challenges in the field of livestock diseases
Disease Distribution to new regions (e.g Bluetongue)
Pr...
Impact on infectious diseases:
 Epidemiological Triad
Examples of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious
Disease: past 10 years
Climate change affect the incidence of VBDs through its effect on
geographic distribution, population density, prevalence...
Recent emerging infectious diseases transmitted via insect vectors
Mosquitoes Borne Diseases
Trypanosomiasis, Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunia, Yellow
fever, Filaria are some of most climate s...
Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at
least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borreli...
Leishmaniasis
The current environment is conducive to Phlebotomus sandfly
survival for several months. The risk of contrac...
Temperature change from 1960s
to 1990s
0.6-1.2o
C
1.2-1.8o
C
Temperature Changes:
1960s to 1990s
0.6-1.2o
C
1.2-1.8o
C
Climate change and water borne disease
 Disasters. Lack of sanitation. More flooding and run-off.Disasters. Lack of sanit...
Effect of climate change on air quality
Climate Change also change patterns of air movement and
pollution, causing expand...
 IPCC expects all parts of the planet to experience more heat
exposure in the future
(IPCC , 2007)
 Dehydration increase...
Combate the change?
Global and National Intiatives
 Global, regional or national efforts
 Sustainable Development andGre...
Efforts From Our Sector
 Development of disease and draught resistant breeds by genetic
approach
 Change in management p...
Conclusion Livestock animals are potential victims and causes of CC
 It contributes 18% of total anthropogenic GHG emiss...
References
1. Mass-Coma et al, Climate change effects on trematodiasis, with emphasis on zoonotic fascioliasis and
schisto...
Nature has greater understanding of itself than
we ...let the nature behave in its own way…..
Thank
you
Climate change &animal health      By Dr. V.K.GUPTA, Senior Scientist, Division of Medicine, I.V.R.I.Izatnagar, Bareilly (...
Climate change &animal health      By Dr. V.K.GUPTA, Senior Scientist, Division of Medicine, I.V.R.I.Izatnagar, Bareilly (...
Climate change &animal health      By Dr. V.K.GUPTA, Senior Scientist, Division of Medicine, I.V.R.I.Izatnagar, Bareilly (...
Climate change &animal health      By Dr. V.K.GUPTA, Senior Scientist, Division of Medicine, I.V.R.I.Izatnagar, Bareilly (...
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Climate change &animal health By Dr. V.K.GUPTA, Senior Scientist, Division of Medicine, I.V.R.I.Izatnagar, Bareilly (UP)

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Climate change &animal health By Dr. V.K.GUPTA, Senior Scientist, Division of Medicine, I.V.R.I.Izatnagar, Bareilly (UP)

  1. 1. DR . V.K. GUPTA
  2. 2. Contents  Climate change  Causes  Impacts  Combative Measures  Conclusion
  3. 3. Climate Change: “ Change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.” (UNFCCC,) Climate: “Climate is defined as the "average weather" or statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system”. (IPCC,)
  4. 4. Causes:GHG(CO2,CH4,NO2)
  5. 5. Gases which absorb IR radiation are termed collectively as "greenhouse gases".  Infrared radiation from greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is emitted in all directions, including back to the earth's surface.It is this re-emission to the earth's surface that maintains a higher temperature on our planet than what would be possible without the atmosphere.
  6. 6. Mechanism:
  7. 7. Earths Energy Budget
  8. 8. Greenhouse Effect
  9. 9. Causes: Change in CO2 Conc.:
  10. 10. N2O from agriculture & others Global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased markedly as a result of human activities, with an increase of 70% in 1970-2004 CO2 from fossil fuel & other sources CH4 from agriculture, waste & energy CO2 from deforestation, decay & peat F-gases 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 GtCO2-eq/yr Global Anthropogenic GHG Emission
  11. 11. Observed changesObserved changes Global average sea level Northern hemisphere snow cover Global average temperature
  12. 12. Impact Melting of Glaciers Vegetation Temperature storms / sea level rise Humans Volcanic eruption / earth quakes Decrease in food & freshwater (IPCC., 2007) Animals Climate change
  13. 13. Projected changes
  14. 14. Impact on animal health Direct impact: 1.Impact on physiological and adaptation machenisms 2. Disease extention Emergence and Reemergence Indirect impact: Feed Security Changes in climate affects the quality and quantity of forage produced (Topp and Doyle, 1996) As a consequence, productivity of dairy animals could be altered (Baker et al., 1993)
  15. 15. Heat stress Thermo neutral zone varies from 15-25o C for crossbred cattle and buffaloes and 15-28o C for Sahiwal cattle Heat stress is simply defined as the point where the animals cannot dissipate an adequate quantity of heat to maintain body thermal balance (Singh and Upadhyay., 2008, 2009)
  16. 16. Increased maintenance energy requirement Animals will activate mechanisms to dissipate the excess heat and maintain body temperature (maintenance energy increase by 20-30%) Dry matter intake (DMI) Decreases in animals subjected to heat stress (10 to 20%) (Singh et al.,2008) Feed nutrient utilization Loss of sodium and potassium , associated with heat stress due to increased sweating rate Reproductive performance Heat stress has also been reported to decrease reproductive performance in dairy animals.
  17. 17. Animal growth Growth gradients and growth constants indicate that climate change/global warming will negatively impact animal’s growth  Puberty will be prolonged due to rise in temperature  Time to attain puberty was observed to prolong from 5 to 17 days due to decline in growth rate at high temperatures (Upadhyay et al., 2008). Milk production Decrease in milk production in cattle/buffaloes under heat stress (range from 10 to >25% ) (Upadhyay etal.,2009).
  18. 18. Temperature: Climate change is expected to increase average temperatures as well as the number and intensity of heat waves Acclimation Less feed intake Decrease of calorigenic harmones (catecholamines, GH etc) Negative energy balance Alteration in glucose & lipid metabolism & liver function Less lactose Reduced milk yield Less NEFA/EFA Oxidative stress Less Immunoglobulins Metabolic diseases Infection, mastits, calf mortality (Nardone et al., 2010)
  19. 19. Feed security Climate change have serious implication on feed security resulting in Malnutrition Excess or Scarcity of Water resulting from draught, floods, heavy rains can affect production A new range of pests and diseases will affect most crop and forage species with effects on the quantity and quality of livestock feeds  Rising sea levels Coastal flooding of agricultural land due to sea levels rise leading to decreased yield of crops
  20. 20.  New and emerging challenges in the field of livestock diseases Disease Distribution to new regions (e.g Bluetongue) Prevalent Disease e.g. parasitic gastroenteritis may become more widespread Impact on Diseases over 30 diseases have appeared that are new to medicine, since1975 Of equal concern is the resurgence of old diseases,such as malaria and cholera ( WHO, 2005)
  21. 21. Impact on infectious diseases:  Epidemiological Triad
  22. 22. Examples of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Disease: past 10 years
  23. 23. Climate change affect the incidence of VBDs through its effect on geographic distribution, population density, prevalence of infection by pathogens and the pathogen load in individual hosts and vectors Vector-borne Disease Climate change : Increase range or abundance of animal reservoirs and/or arthropod vectors (e.g., Lyme, Schistosomiasis) Enhance transmission (e.g., West Nile virus and other arboviruses) Increase importation of vectors or pathogens (e.g., Dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile virus) Increase animal disease risk and potential human risk (e.g., African trypanosomiasis)
  24. 24. Recent emerging infectious diseases transmitted via insect vectors
  25. 25. Mosquitoes Borne Diseases Trypanosomiasis, Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunia, Yellow fever, Filaria are some of most climate sensitive diseases in which there is a direct correlation with temperature and rainfall Pest Borne Diseases Lyme ,Plague, Mediterranean spotted fever and west Nile fever Rodent-borne diseases Leptospirosis, are commonly reported in the after-math of flooding
  26. 26. Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia spread by blacklegged tick bites. The number of reported cases of Lyme disease has doubled during 1992-2006 Lyme disease West Nile virus Climate change may lengthen survival periods of WNV-competent Anopheles mosquitoes and possibly allow infected hosts (birds) to change their geographic range.
  27. 27. Leishmaniasis The current environment is conducive to Phlebotomus sandfly survival for several months. The risk of contracting leishmaniasis may become high. Mediterranean spotted fever Abundant and widespread distribution of the tick as well as the high prevalence of dogs infected with Rickettsia conorii. Disease transmission is highest during warmer months Schistosomiasis Schistosoma transmission, the competent snail population may be infected, and the risk of transmission is high
  28. 28. Temperature change from 1960s to 1990s 0.6-1.2o C 1.2-1.8o C Temperature Changes: 1960s to 1990s 0.6-1.2o C 1.2-1.8o C
  29. 29. Climate change and water borne disease  Disasters. Lack of sanitation. More flooding and run-off.Disasters. Lack of sanitation. More flooding and run-off. Higher water temperature improving survival. Increase waterHigher water temperature improving survival. Increase water bodiesbodies Heavy rainfall, even without flooding, may increase rates of diarrheal disease as sewage systems overflow Increases in soil run-off may contaminate water sources , Haemonchosis, cryptosporidiosis andHaemonchosis, cryptosporidiosis and Giaradiasis…Giaradiasis… eg. Salmonella , cholera
  30. 30. Effect of climate change on air quality Climate Change also change patterns of air movement and pollution, causing expanded or changed patterns of exposure and resulting health effects Higher RH allows survival, Increased air movement , Dust andHigher RH allows survival, Increased air movement , Dust and pollution exacerbating respiratory diseasepollution exacerbating respiratory disease Climate change therefore influence pollutant concentrations, which in turn may affect health especially cardiorespiratory
  31. 31.  IPCC expects all parts of the planet to experience more heat exposure in the future (IPCC , 2007)  Dehydration increases the concentration of calcium and other compounds in the urine, which facilitates the formation of kidney stones Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke Cardiovascular disease appear to be modified by weather and climate. Ozone is also associated with acute myocardial infarction (Cramer and Forrest , 2006)
  32. 32. Combate the change? Global and National Intiatives  Global, regional or national efforts  Sustainable Development andGreen Techology  Reduce GHG emissions  Follow guidelines- IPCC, UNEP, OIE, WHO  Kyoto Protocol  Carbon Trading and Clean Development Machenism
  33. 33. Efforts From Our Sector  Development of disease and draught resistant breeds by genetic approach  Change in management practices of animal production to reduce GHG emission  Improved nutritional management schemes  Thorough review of livestock production system in India  A national policy on mitigation of climate change should give more emphasis on livestock sector  Proper risk management mechanisms and preparedness for CC
  34. 34. Conclusion Livestock animals are potential victims and causes of CC  It contributes 18% of total anthropogenic GHG emissions  Climate change will badly affect the animal health and production directly or indirectly if not checked  Climate change affects host ,vector and pathogens to change disease dynamics of VBD  Management practices should be changed to adapt with changing climate
  35. 35. References 1. Mass-Coma et al, Climate change effects on trematodiasis, with emphasis on zoonotic fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. Veterinary Parasitology 163(2009) 264-280. 2. Nardone et al, Effects of climate change on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livestock science 130(2010) 57-69 3. Thornton et al,The impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems in developing countries: A review of what we know and what we need to know. Agricultural systems 101(2009) 113- 127 4. Gubler et al, Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem. Emerging infectious disease4(1998) 442-450 5. Githeko et al, Climate change vector borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull.WHO 78(2000)1136-1147 6. Patz et al. Effect of environmental change on emerging parasitic diseases. International journal of parasitology 30(2000)1395-1405 7. IPCC (Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change:AR4).2007.The Inter governmental Panel on Climate Change 4th assesment report. www.ipcc.ch/ 8. Baylis et al, The effects of climate change on infectious diseases of animals. Report for the Foresight Project on Detection of Infectious disease.2006 UK 35pp 9. Sutherst, Implications of global change and climate variability for vector!borne diseases] generic approaches to impact assessments. International Journal for Parasitology 28(1998) 935-945 10. De La Rocque et al, 2008. Climate change: effects on animal disease systems and implications for surveillance and control. In: De La Rocque, S., Hendrickx, G., Morand, S. (Eds.), Climate Change: Impact on the Epidemiology and Control of Animal Diseases. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Paris. Sci. Tech. Rev. 27 (2), 309–317
  36. 36. Nature has greater understanding of itself than we ...let the nature behave in its own way….. Thank you

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