2. What is Communication?
Communication is conveying of information or data from
one person (the sender) to another (the receiver).
Both the sender and the receiver have a part to play in
the communication process.
Competence in oral communication – in speaking and
listening , personal, and professional success in life.
Oral communication competence can contribute to
individuals' social adjustment and participation in
satisfying interpersonal relationships.
• Developing the Ability to Speak.
• Qualifies One to Participate in Public Life.
• Effective communication is essential in business both for
organizations and for individuals.
• Effective communication is a key skill in Impression
6. Why communication skills
If no communication skills
Damaging professional growth
Limiting movement to top management positions
7. Listening: heart of
About 80% of each day listening
Increasing as you climb the professional ladder
8. Reflective listening
listen for prevailing emotion
put yourself in the speaker shoes
How to do
indicate your interest
Don't interrupt speaker
Involve your whole body (e.g., good eye contact)
Make speaker pay attention (e.g., "Hmmm", "Really",
9. The Sender
The sender is responsible for creating a message
(encoding) that is clear, polite, concise.
He must take into consideration the receiver in terms of
age, maturity level, sex, language and other background.
10. The Receiver
The receiver who will be either listening, reading or
observing – is responsible for listening carefully/ reading
11. Communication Barriers
Problems/ barriers/ breakdowns may arise at any of the
(a) The sender's level in
(i) formulating/ organizing thought, ideas, message
(ii) encoding the message
(b) The receiver's level in
(i) receiving the message;
(ii) decoding the received message;
(iii) understanding/interpreting the message.
(c)Transmission level where 'noise' occurs.
(d)The feedback/reaction level that is a necessary
condition of the completion of the process.
12. 1.Wrong choice of medium
13. Wrong choice of
Miscommunication can originate at three levels: at the level of the
transmitter of the medium, or of the receiver. In technical parlance,
anything that Obstructs free flow of communication is called 'noise'.
Or we may refer to it simply as a 'barrier' to communication.
14. Physical barriers
1. Noise. Noise is quite often a barrier to communication.
2. Time anti. distance. Time and distance also act as barriers to the
smooth flow of communication.
15. Semantic barriers
1. Interpretation of words. Most of the communication is carried on
through words, whether spoken or written. But words are capable
of communicating a variety of meanings.
2. Bypassed instructions. Bypassing is said to have occurred if the
sender and the receiver of the message attribute different
meanings to the same word or use different words for the same
1. Altitudes and opinion: Personal, attitude and opinion often act as
barriers to effective communication. If an information agrees with·
our opinions and attitudes, we tend to receive it comfortably. It fits
comfortably in the filter of our mind. But if an information disagrees
with our views or tends to run contrary to our accepted beliefs; we
do not react favorably.
2. Emotions. Emotional states of mind play an important role in the act
of communication. If the sender is perplexed, worried, excited,
afraid, nervous, his thinking will be blurred and he will not be able to
organize his message properly.
3. Closed mind. A person with a closed mind is very difficult
to communicate with.
20. VERBAL COMMUNICATION
It means communicating with words,
written or spoken. Verbal communication
consists of speaking, listening, writing and
21. CHARACTERSTICS OF EFFECTIVE
Consider the objective
Use simple language, familiar words
Be brief and precise
Use polite words and tone
Say something interesting and pleasing
More personal and informal
Makes immediate impact
Provides opportunity for interaction and feedback
Help us correct ourselves (our messages according to
the feedback and non-verbal cues from the listener)
It is fastest and less expensive
It can be quickly forgotten.
A word once uttered cannot be taken back
There is no legal evidence of oral communication
Impact may be short lived
Very difficult to be conscious of our body language
24. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE VERBAL
STATUS- formal and informal status levels
affects effectiveness of face to face
COMPLEXES- lack of confidence or sense of
ABSTRACTING- it is partial and selective
listening, leading to loss of information
LANGUAGE BARRIER- listener should be
familiar with the language used by the speaker.
26. TYPES OF NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Kinesics communication Meta communication
-Body language. -through words, depicting
-includes behavior. -shows latent meaning.
27. Forms of non verbal
29. FEATURES :
Non verbal communication flows through all acts of
speaking or writing.
They are the wordless messages .
Is a creative activity , which comes through stimuli
produced by the mind.
30. Importance of non-verbal communication
A person to have quality
must possess the
knowledge of non-verbal
As compared to words
and vocal variety non-verbal
matters a lot.
32. Formal Communication
Manager Manager Manager Manager
Efforts at coordination
Upward communication, Downward communication, horizantal communication
Instructions and directives
Some examples of formal communication include reports,
presentations, and media releases. This type of communication is
usually planned and takes some time and effort to prepare.
33. Formal Communication
instructions, directions, orders
data required to complete projects
suggestions for improvement, new ideas
coordination of cooperation
34. Informal Communication
Informal communication includes emails and ad-hoc discussions.
Informal communication has increased as many projects start to use
Deviation from the planned communication structure
Direction of the flow of information
Leaving out people in the communication line
Integrating people into the communication line
35. Informal Communication
information shared without any formally imposed obligations or
if an organization’s formal communication represents its skeleton,
its informal communication constitutes its central nervous system
eng. “grapevine“ (a secret means of recieving or spreading
An organization’s informal channels of communication, based
mainly on friendship or acquaintance
37. - chain:
every member passes on information, but to just one
one person passes on information to all the others
that he encounters
- probability chain
A is very talkative and outgoing type, passes on
information to random contacts
information is passed on to selected persons
most common pattern
selectivity: pass on information to people with whom
you are in close contact
38. We need to
improve communication... as
70 % of our communication efforts are:
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