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Plus de Sherwood College of Nursing, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh(20)



  1. Emotion Mr.Visanth V S Sherwood College of Nursing Barabanki, UP
  2. Emotion Emotion is derived from a Latin word “emovere” which means “stirred up” or “to excite”. So emotion is the excited state or stirred up state of an individual and it is purely a private experience. An emotion is a full body/mind/behavior response to a situation.
  3. Definition Emotion is defined as a subjective response that is usually accompanied by physiological changes and is associated with change in behavior. Stirred up state of an organism. -Woodworth
  4. Nature and Characteristics of Emotions Emotions are universal Emotions are personal/unique. Emotions rise abruptly but subside slowly. Emotions are the product of our perceptions. Same emotions can be aroused by a number of different stimuli, objects and situations.
  5. Nature and Characteristics of Emotions Whenever an organism is experiencing an emotion a lot of energy is released. Emotions bring about physical, physiological and psychological changes in the organism Each emotion has certain definite muscular and overt behavior
  6. Types/Kinds of Emotions Positive emotions: Are the pleasant emotions which are beneficial/ helpful for the individual. Eg: happiness, joy, curiosity etc. Negative emotions: Are unpleasant emotional experiences, it doesn’t produce any beneficial effects. Eg: fear, angry, jealousy etc.
  7. Contd…. Primary emotions: These are direct emotional reactions to a situation, and they are called primary because they come first. Eg: Joy, happiness, fear, shame, sadness etc. Secondary emotion: This is an emotional response to a primary emotion, thus an emotion about what we feel. Eg: Worry, anxiety, anger, jealousy etc.
  8. Components of Emotion Responses to Emotion Subjective experiences/ Thought action tendencies/ Internal bodily changes/Facial Expression Cognitive Appraisal Stimuli from Environment
  9. Neuropsychology of Emotion Dual processing of emotions: Activation of the amygdala produces visceral responses Cortical activation allows for use of memory in understanding emotional stimuli
  10. Changes during Emotions
  11. Physical Changes in Emotions Facial expression: Each emotion has its definite facial expressions. Various muscles of the face such as the muscles of the eyes, nose, lips and forehead undergo changes by twisting and twitching. Muscular adjustments: Under certain emotional expressions the muscles of the body make automatic adjustments.
  12. Contd……. Voice changes: Voice also tells about the emotion of an individual. Releasing of energy: During emotions a lot of energy is released to meet the emergency situation. Our liver releases glycogen which gets converted into glucose and it gets burnt releasing energy. Respiration and circulation: In order to supply more oxygen, lungs function faster and so breathing becomes shallow and faster. Further there is an increased blood pressure and heartbeats.
  13. Contd…. Secretory Changes: There is a significant change in various glands. The flow of these secretions in the form of saliva, tears, sweats etc. Changes in thermoregulation: There is a change in temperature of the body. At the time of intense excitement, it generally goes down. Digestive changes: During emotions digestive system gets affected. During emotional state our stomach and intestines work quietly slow sometimes it increases the function.
  14. Contd…  Other changes:  Erection of hairs  Stimulation of sweat glands  Dryness of mouth  Pupils become dilate  Redness of the face  Changes in body movements  Blood clots more quickly in case of wounds Brain functioning Emotion changes our sensory and perceptual processes.
  15. Psychological Changes in Emotions During intense emotions our attention and perceptual process get altered. Our thinking and reasoning will be affected adversely. Learning will be slowed down during emotions. Memory will be inhibited. Disorientation of time, place and person may experience during an intense emotion.
  16. Contd….. Person may be unable to concentrate in his tasks. Decreased ability to analyze and solve problems. Decrease in self-confidence and self-esteem. Person may become dull, withdrawn and pessimistic. In certain emotions one may become aggressive, become homicidal or suicidal ideas
  17. Theories of Emotion Does your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?
  18. James-Lange Theory of Emotion This theory is proposed by William James and Carl Lange.  This is one of the best examples of physiological theory of emotions. James-Lange theory suggests that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events. For example: I see a snake “I am trembling, therefore I am feared.”
  19. James-Lange Theory of Emotion Perception of an Environmental Situation Which Produces the Emotion Physiological responses of Body Experienced Emotion
  20. Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion This theory is proposed by Walter Cannon and Philip Bard. According to this theory, the emotional experience and physiological experiences/ body arousal both are independent of each other. Both will be happening at the same time.
  21. Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Perceived Stimulus Experienced Emotion Body Responses
  22. Schachter- Singer / Two Factor Theory Proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer. The emotional experience is a result of our cognitive label or cognitive appraisal. As a result of the cognitive appraisal of the situation and body arousal we experience the emotion. For example, if you experience a racing heart and sweating palms during an exam, you will probably identify the emotion as anxiety. If you experience the same while seeing a snake, you might interpret as fear.
  23. Schachter- Singer Theory Body Arousal Cognitive Label Experienced Emotion
  24. Theories of Emotion

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