2. Internet of Things (IoT) according to the 2020
conceptual framework is expressed through a
IoT= Services+ Data+ Networks + Sensors
the term IoT is a worldwide network of intelligent
objects that are interconnected and uniquely
represent able on the basis of communication-
3. The Internet of things’ objects enable the connection
with internet to work anytime, anywhere and anyplace
The IoT four key technological enablers are: -
For tagging the things RFID technology used
For sensing the things sensor technology used
For thinking the things smart technology used
For shrinking the things Nanotechnology used
The Internet of Things is considered as the third
wave of the World Wide Web (WWW) after static
web pages and social networking’s based web. The
IoT is a worldwide network that connects different
type of objects at anytime and anywhere via a
popular internet protocol named Internet Protocol(IP)
7. Perception layer
The perception layer is the lowest layer of the conventional architecture of
IoT. This layer’s main responsibility is to collect useful information/data
from things or the environment (such as WSN, heterogeneous devices,
sensors type real world objects, humidity, and temperature etc.) and
transform them in a digital setup. The main purpose of objects is unique
address identification and communication between short-range technologies
such as RFID, Bluetooth, Near-Field Communication (NFC), 6LoWPAN
(Low Power Personal Area Network)
8. Network layer
This layer’s main responsibility is to help and secure data transmission
between the application and perception layer of IoT architecture .This
layer mainly collects information and delivers to the perception layer
toward several applications and servers. Basically, this layer is a
convergence of internet and communication-based networks.
It is the core layer (network layer) of IoT that is capable of advancing
the information for relevant procedures. The data processing relevant
tasks handled IoT management. This layer also ensures unique
addressing and routing abilities to the unified integration of uncountable
devices in a single cooperative network. Various types of technologies
are contributed for this phenomenon such as wired, wireless and
satellite. The implementation of 6LoWPAN protocol towards IPV6 for
9. Application layer
The application layer is considered as a top layer of conventional IoT
architecture. This layer provides the personalized based services
according to user relevant needs . This layer’s main responsibility is
to link the major gap between the users and applications. This IoT
layer combines the industry to attain the high-level intelligent
applications type solutions such as the disaster monitoring, health
monitoring, transposition, fortune, medical and ecological
environment, and handled global management relevant to all
intelligent type applications.
10. Three layers model is further divided
into five layers
1. The bottom layer of IoT architecture perception layer represents
an object layer. The object layer’s main responsibility is to collect
data from different heterogeneous category devices and then
process and digitize the data. It also transfers the processed data
into upper layers of IoT architecture.
2. The middle layer of conventional IoT architecture network layer
represents an object abstraction layer. The object abstraction layer
acts as a mediating layer between service management and the
object layer. In object abstraction, RFID, WIFI and Third
Generation (3G) communication technologies are used.
11. 3. The service management layer’s main responsibilities are facilitating
information processing, decision-making, and control of pairing
requestor information processing for relevant tasks.
4. The application layer provides the customers with smart high-quality
facilities according to the pre-request of the customers.
5. The Business layer represents the business model and data that’s
been received from the application layer
12. IoT Security
The IoT security is dependent on three things data confidentiality,
privacy, and trust. The IoT security goals are achieved in a better
way if the three things are utilized for all of the users of IoT efficient
and reliable way.
13. The IoT architecture layers all faced security issues in term of
security attacks. The security requirements are different according to
different applications. The IoT architectures’ top layer of the
application layers’ main security issues til today are data sharing that
protect user privacy and access controls. The other attacks also
faced on application layers include phishing, malware attack.
The IoT architecture core network layer faced main security
challenges like integrity and confidential data. The other problems on
the network layer are Denial of Services (DoS), eavesdropping, a
man in the middle, heterogeneity, RFID interference, Node jamming
14. The IoT architectures’ lowest layer, the perception layer, faces the
major security challenge of cyber-attack. The other attacks faced in
the perception layer are a fake node, malicious code injection,
protection of sensor data, side channel attack.These attacks destroy
any type of applications in IoT architecture if proper security
mechanism, algorithms, and technologies are not implemented in
time. The researchers analyzed the IoT architecture layers high
impact on security attacks are node tempering, fake node, malicious
code based injection, heterogeneity type of network problem, data
access and authentication problem,
15. IOT Security Requirement
That the application layer security requirements are authentication and
key management, privacy protection and management.
The network layer security requirements are identity authentication,
encryption mechanism, and communication security.
The perception layer security requirements are lightweight encryption
technology, protection sensor data, and key management.
The IoT security challenges involved different encryption mechanisms such as end-to-
end encryption and hop encryption. The IoT security challenges involved different
communication protocols such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), Secure Socket Layer
(SSL), Internet Protocol Security (IPSec). The IoT security challenges are controlled
through the implement action of cryptographic algorithms such Advance Encryption
Standard (AES) for confidentiality, Rivest Shamir Adelman (RSA) for the digital signature
of the key, Diffi-Hellman (DH) for key agreement and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) for
A “thing” is an object equipped with sensors that gather data which
will be transferred over a network and actuators that allow things to
act (for example, to switch on or off the light, to open or close a door,
to increase or decrease engine rotation speed and more). This
concept includes fridges, street lamps, buildings, vehicles,
production machinery, rehabilitation equipment and everything else
imaginable. Sensors are not in all cases physically attached to the
things: sensors may need to monitor, for example, what happens in
the closest environment to a thing.
Data goes from things to the cloud and vice versa through the
gateways. A gateway provides connectivity between things and the
cloud part of the IoT solution, enables data preprocessing and
filtering before moving it to the cloud (to reduce the volume of data
for detailed processing and storing) and transmits control commands
going from the cloud to things. Things then execute commands using
20. Data Lake
A data lake is used for storing the data generated by connected
devices in its natural format. Big data comes in "batches" or
in “streams”. When the data is needed for meaningful insights it’s
extracted from a data lake and loaded to a big data warehouse.
21. Big Data Warehouse
Filtered and preprocessed data needed for meaningful insights is
extracted from a data lake to a big data warehouse. A big data
warehouse contains only cleaned, structured and matched data
(compared to a data lake which contains all sorts of data generated
by sensors). Also, data warehouse stores context information about
things and sensors (for example, where sensors are installed) and
the commands control applications send to things.
22. Data analysts
Data analysts can use data from the big data warehouse to find
trends and gain actionable insights. When analyzed (and in many
cases – visualized in schemes, diagrams, info graphics) big data
show, for example, the performance of devices, help identify
inefficiencies and work out the ways to improve an IoT system (make
it more reliable, more customer-oriented). Also, the correlations and
patterns found manually can further contribute to creating algorithms
for control applications.
23. Machine learning and the models ML
With machine learning, there is an opportunity to create more
precise and more efficient models for control applications.
Models are regularly updated (for example, once in a week or
once in a month) based on the historical data accumulated in a
big data warehouse. When the applicability and efficiency of new
models are tested and approved by data analysts, new models
are used by control applications.
24. Control application
Send automatic commands and alerts to actuators, for example:
Windows of a smart home can receive an automatic command to open or close
depending on the forecasts taken from the weather service.
When sensors show that the soil is dry, watering systems get an automatic command
to water plants.
Sensors help monitor the state of industrial equipment, and in case of a pre-failure
situation, an IoT system generates and sends automatic notifications to field
Control applications can be either rule-based or machine-learning based. In the first
case, control apps work according to the rules stated by specialists. In the second
case, control apps are using models which are regularly updated (once in a week,
once in a month depending on the specifics of an IoT system) with the historical data
stored in a big data warehouse.
25. Users applications
a software component of an IoT system which enables the
connection of users to an IoT system and gives the options to
monitor and control their smart things (while they are connected
to a network of similar things, for example, homes or cars and
controlled by a central system). With a mobile or web app, users
can monitor the state of their things, send commands to control
applications, set the options of automatic behavior (automatic
notifications and actions when certain data comes from sensors).
Things equipped with sensors to gather data
and actuators to perform commands received from the cloud.
Gateways for data filtering, preprocessing and moving it to the
cloud and vice versa, – receiving commands from the cloud.
Cloud gateways to ensure data transition between field
gateways and central IoT servers.
Streaming data processors to distribute the data coming
from sensors among relevant IoT solution’s components.
Data lake for storing all the data of defined and undefined
Big data warehouse for collecting valuable data.
Control applications to send commands to actuators.
Machine learning to generate the models which are then
used by control applications.
User applications to enable users to monitor control their
Data analytics for manual data processing.