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Interinstitutional files:
2016/0280(COD)
Brussels, 16 February 2019
WK 2300/2019 INIT
LIMITE
AUDIO
COMPET
CULT
EDUC
PI
REC...
1
ANNEXI
ProposalforadirectiveoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncil
oncopyrightintheDigitalSingleMarket
COM(2016)593final...
2
EuropeanUnion,andin
particularArticle114thereof,
Union,andinparticular
Article114thereof,
EuropeanUnion,andin
particular...
3
marketisnotdistorted.
Harmonisationofthelawsof
theMemberStateson
copyrightandrelatedrights
shouldcontributefurthertothe
...
4
heritagetothefore.Article
167(4)oftheTreatyonthe
FunctioningoftheEuropean
UnionrequirestheUnionto
takeculturalaspectsint...
5
adaptandsupplementthe
currentUnioncopyright
framework.ThisDirective
providesforrulestoadapt
certainexceptionsand
limitat...
6
transparencyofauthors'and
performers'contracts,on
authors’andperformers’
remuneration,aswellasa
mechanismfortherevocatio...
7
ParliamentandoftheCouncil8
,
Directive2012/28/EUofthe
EuropeanParliamentandof
theCouncil9
andDirective
2014/26/EUoftheEu...
8
functioningoftheinternal
market.Thisisparticularly
relevantasregardscross-
borderuses,whichare
becomingincreasingly
impo...
9
providedforinthisDirective.
Directives96/9/ECand
2001/29/ECshouldbeadapted.
scopeofthemandatory
exceptionslaiddowninthis...
10
grantedtoauthorsandtoother
rightholdersunderUnionlaw.
Thisprotectionshouldbe
maintainedwhileensuringthat
theuseoftechno...
11
matteraremadeavailable
throughon-demandservices.
17.(8)Newtechnologies
enabletheautomated
computationalanalysisof
infor...
12
protectedbycopyrightand/or
bythesuigenerisdatabase
right,notablythereproduction
ofworksorothersubject-
matterand/orthee...
13
Theremayalsobeinstances
oftextanddatamining
whichdonotinvolveactsof
reproductionorwherethe
reproductionsmadefall
undert...
14
mining.Oncethereislawful
accesstoinformation,itiswhen
thatinformationisbeing
normalisedthatacopyright-
protectedusetake...
15
lawhasbeeninapplicabletouses
oftextanddatamining,such
usesshouldremainunaffectedby
thisDirective.
20.(9)Unionlawalready...
16
21.(10)Thislegaluncertainty
shouldbeaddressedby
providingforamandatory
exceptiontotherightof
reproductionandalsotothe
r...
17
theeventthattheresearchis
carriedoutintheframeworkofa
public-privatepartnership,the
undertakingparticipatinginthe
publi...
18
commonthattheyacteitheron
anotforprofitbasisorinthe
contextofapublic-interest
missionrecognisedbythe
State.Suchapublic-...
19
preferentialaccesstothe
resultsoftheresearch,should
notbeconsideredresearch
organisationsforthepurposes
ofthisDirective...
20
attachedthereto,shouldbe
coveredbythetextanddata
miningexceptionregarding
contenttowhichtheyhave
lawfulaccess.Lawfulacc...
21
scientificresearchresults,
needtoretainthecopies
madeundertheexceptionfor
thepurposesofcarryingout
textanddatamining.In...
22
jointresearch,shouldremain
covered,whereapplicable,
bytheexceptionorlimitation
providedforinArticle
5(3)(a)ofDirective
...
23
proportionatetotherisks
involvedandshouldnot
underminetheeffective
applicationofthe
exceptionpreventormake
excessivelyd...
24
andpublicentitiestoanalyse
largeamountsofdatain
differentareasoflifeandfor
variouspurposes,including
forgovernmentservi...
25
reproductionsorextractions
madeforthepurposesofthe
technicalprocessmaynot
fulfilalltheconditionsofthe
existingexception...
26
reproductionsand
extractionsfortextanddata
mining,forexampleby
agreement,unilateral
declaration,including
throughtheuse...
27
applymeasurestoensurethat
theirreservationsinthisregard
arerespected.This[optional]
exceptionorlimitationshould
leavein...
28
andmakingavailabletothe
publicforthesolepurposeof,
amongothers,illustrationfor
teaching.Inaddition,Articles
6(2)(b)and9...
29
indigitalteachingactivities,
includingonlineandacross
borders.
Therefore,theintroductionofa
newmandatoryexceptionor
lim...
30
notthedecisivefactorsto
determinethenon-commercial
natureoftheactivity.
commercialnatureoftheactivity.
Whereculturalher...
31
shouldcoverbothusesthrough
digitalmeansintheclassroom
andonlineusesthroughthe
educationalestablishment's
secureelectron...
32
teachingandlearningactivities
carriedoutunderthe
responsibilityofeducational
establishments,including
duringexamination...
33
understoodasdigital
teachingandlearning
environmentstheaccessto
whichshouldbeprotectedis
limitedtotheeducational
establ...
34
35.(17)Differentarrangements,
basedontheimplementationof
theexceptionprovidedforin
Directive2001/29/ECoron
licensingagr...
35
subjecttheapplicationofthe
exceptionorlimitation,fullyor
partially,totheavailabilityof
adequatelicences,coveringat
leas...
36
thateducationalestablishments
areawareoftheexistenceofsuch
licensingschemes.Member
Statesshouldbeabletoprovide
forsyste...
37
useprotectedworksorother
subject-matterunderthat
exceptionand,conversely,
whenitshouldactundera
licensingscheme.
36.(17...
38
Statedecidestosubjectthe
applicationoftheexceptionto
theavailabilityofadequate
licences,itisnecessarytospecify
underwhi...
39
reproductioninordertoallow
thoseactsofpreservation.
mandatoryexceptiontotheright
ofreproductioninordertoallow
thoseacts...
40
permitculturalheritage
institutionstoreproduceworks
andothersubject-matter
permanentlyintheir
collectionsforpreservatio...
41
41.(20a)Culturalheritage
institutionsdonot
necessarilyhavethetechnical
meansorexpertiseto
undertaketheactsrequired
topr...
42
permanentlyheldbythe
culturalheritageinstitution,for
exampleasaresultofa
transferofownershipor
licenceagreements.
matte...
43
andparody,notallcontentthat
isuploadedormadeavailableby
auserthatreasonablyincludes
extractsofprotectedworksor
othersub...
44
rightholder.Forthepurposeof
assessingsuchprejudice,itis
essentialthatthedegreeof
originalityofthecontent
concerned,thel...
45
Article13ofthisDirective.
45a.Theexpiryofthetermof
protectionofaworkentailsthe
entryofthatworkinthepublic
domainandthee...
46
relatedrights.Thisshouldnot
preventculturalheritage
institutionsfromselling
reproductions,suchaspostcards.
[textmoved(u...
47
collectionsofculturalheritage
institutionsandtherebyto
allowtheconclusionof
agreementswithcross-border
effectintheinter...
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market
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Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market

  1. 1. Interinstitutional files: 2016/0280(COD) Brussels, 16 February 2019 WK 2300/2019 INIT LIMITE AUDIO COMPET CULT EDUC PI RECH TELECOM WORKING PAPER This is a paper intended for a specific community of recipients. Handling and further distribution are under the sole responsibility of community members. NOTE From: General Secretariat of the Council To: Delegations N° prev. doc.: 5893/19 + ADD 1 N° Cion doc.: 12254/16 Subject: Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Copyright in the Digital Single Market - 4-column table after trilogue of 11, 12 and 13 February 2019 Delegations will find attached the 4-column table on the above proposal setting out in the 4th column the compromise text as it results from the Political Agreement reached with the EP at the trilogue on 13 February 2019. Changes compared to text set out in the 4th column in ADD 1 of document 5893/19 are in rows 14, 26, 28, 45a, 66a, 69, 72, 73, 82, 83, 85,87, 90, 125, 135, 136, 148, 151, 156, new 214 A+B, 225, 226, 237A, 254-259, 261-263, 282, 283, 285-288, 316 and are highlighted in BLUE. In this version of the 4-column table, the comments that were relating to the stage of the negotiations (such as "provisionally agreed at technical meeting/trilogue on ...") were deleted. WK 2300/2019 INIT LIMITE EN
  2. 2. 1 ANNEXI ProposalforadirectiveoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncil oncopyrightintheDigitalSingleMarket COM(2016)593final-2016/0280(COD) PART1:CITATIONSANDRECITALS Row COMMISSIONPROPOSAL COM(2016)593 EPTEXT P8_TA-PROV(2018)0337 A8-0245/2018 COUNCILTEXT 9134/18 POSSIBLECOMPROMISE SOLUTION 1.Proposalfora DIRECTIVEOFTHE EUROPEANPARLIAMENT ANDOFTHECOUNCIL oncopyrightintheDigital SingleMarket (TextwithEEArelevance) Proposalfora DIRECTIVEOFTHE EUROPEANPARLIAMENT ANDOFTHECOUNCIL oncopyrightintheDigitalSingle Market (TextwithEEArelevance) Proposalfora DIRECTIVEOFTHE EUROPEANPARLIAMENT ANDOFTHECOUNCIL oncopyrightintheDigital SingleMarket (TextwithEEArelevance) Proposalfora DIRECTIVEOFTHE EUROPEANPARLIAMENT ANDOFTHECOUNCIL oncopyrightintheDigital SingleMarket (TextwithEEArelevance) 2.THEEUROPEAN PARLIAMENTANDTHE COUNCILOFTHE EUROPEANUNION, THEEUROPEAN PARLIAMENTANDTHE COUNCILOFTHEEUROPEAN UNION, THEEUROPEAN PARLIAMENTANDTHE COUNCILOFTHE EUROPEANUNION, THEEUROPEAN PARLIAMENTANDTHE COUNCILOFTHE EUROPEANUNION, 3.HavingregardtotheTreatyon theFunctioningofthe HavingregardtotheTreatyonthe FunctioningoftheEuropean HavingregardtotheTreatyon theFunctioningofthe HavingregardtotheTreatyon theFunctioningoftheEuropean
  3. 3. 2 EuropeanUnion,andin particularArticle114thereof, Union,andinparticular Article114thereof, EuropeanUnion,andin particular ArticleArticles53(1),62and 114thereof Union,andin particularArticleArticles53(1), 62and114thereof, 4.Havingregardtotheproposal fromtheEuropean Commission, Havingregardtotheproposal fromtheEuropeanCommission, Havingregardtotheproposal fromtheEuropean Commission, Havingregardtotheproposal fromtheEuropeanCommission, 5.Aftertransmissionofthedraft legislativeacttothenational parliaments, Aftertransmissionofthedraft legislativeacttothenational parliaments, Aftertransmissionofthedraft legislativeacttothenational parliaments, Aftertransmissionofthedraft legislativeacttothenational parliaments, 6.Havingregardtotheopinionof theEuropeanEconomicand SocialCommittee1 , Havingregardtotheopinionof theEuropeanEconomicand SocialCommittee1 , Havingregardtotheopinionof theEuropeanEconomicand SocialCommittee1 , Havingregardtotheopinionof theEuropeanEconomicand SocialCommittee1, 7.Havingregardtotheopinionof theCommitteeoftheRegions2 , Havingregardtotheopinionof theCommitteeoftheRegions2 , Havingregardtotheopinionof theCommitteeoftheRegions2 , Havingregardtotheopinionof theCommitteeoftheRegions2, 8.Actinginaccordancewiththe ordinarylegislativeprocedure, Actinginaccordancewiththe ordinarylegislativeprocedure, Actinginaccordancewiththe ordinarylegislativeprocedure, Actinginaccordancewiththe ordinarylegislativeprocedure, 9.Whereas:Whereas:Whereas:Whereas: 10.(1)TheTreatyprovidesfor theestablishmentofaninternal marketandtheinstitutionofa systemensuringthat competitionintheinternal (1)TheTreatyprovidesfor theestablishmentofaninternal marketandtheinstitutionofa systemensuringthatcompetition intheinternalmarketisnot (1)TheTreatyprovidesfor theestablishmentofaninternal marketandtheinstitutionofa systemensuringthat competitionintheinternal (1)TheTreatyprovidesfor theestablishmentofaninternal marketandtheinstitutionofa systemensuringthatcompetition intheinternalmarketisnot 1 OJC,,p.. 2 OJC,,p..
  4. 4. 3 marketisnotdistorted. Harmonisationofthelawsof theMemberStateson copyrightandrelatedrights shouldcontributefurthertothe achievementofthose objectives. distorted.Harmonisationofthe lawsoftheMemberStateson copyrightandrelatedrights shouldcontributefurthertothe achievementofthoseobjectives. marketisnotdistorted. Harmonisationofthelawsof theMemberStateson copyrightandrelatedrights shouldcontributefurthertothe achievementofthose objectives. distorted.Harmonisationofthe lawsoftheMemberStateson copyrightandrelatedrights shouldcontributefurthertothe achievementofthoseobjectives. 11.(2)Thedirectiveswhich havebeenadoptedinthearea ofcopyrightandrelatedrights provideforahighlevelof protectionforrightholdersand createaframeworkwherein theexploitationofworksand otherprotectedsubject-matter cantakeplace.This harmonisedlegalframework contributestothegood functioningoftheinternal market;itstimulates innovation,creativity, investmentandproductionof newcontent,alsointhedigital environment.Theprotection providedbythislegal frameworkalsocontributesto theUnion'sobjectiveof respectingandpromoting culturaldiversitywhileatthe sametimebringingthe Europeancommoncultural (2)Thedirectiveswhichhave beenadoptedintheareaof copyrightandrelatedrights contributetothefunctioningof theinternalmarket,providefora highlevelofprotectionfor rightholders,facilitatethe clearanceofrightsandcreatea frameworkwhereinthe exploitationofworksandother protectedsubject-mattercantake place.Thisharmonisedlegal frameworkcontributestothegood functioningoftheatruly integratedinternalmarket;it stimulatesinnovation,creativity, investmentandproductionofnew content,alsointhedigital environment,withaviewto avoidingfragmentationofthe internalmarket.Theprotection providedbythislegalframework alsocontributestotheUnion's objectiveofrespectingand (2)The directivesDirectiveswhich havebeenadoptedinthearea ofcopyrightandrelatedrights provideforahighlevelof protectionforrightholdersand createaframeworkwhereinthe exploitationofworksandother protectedsubject-mattercan takeplace.Thisharmonised legalframeworkcontributesto thegoodfunctioningofthe internalmarket;itstimulates innovation,creativity, investmentandproductionof newcontent,alsointhedigital environment.Theprotection providedbythislegal frameworkalsocontributesto theUnion'sobjectiveof respectingandpromoting culturaldiversitywhileatthe sametimebringingthe Europeancommoncultural (2)Thedirectiveswhich havebeenadoptedintheareaof copyrightandrelatedrights contributetothefunctioningof theinternalmarket,providefor ahighlevelofprotectionfor rightholders,facilitatethe clearanceofrightsandcreatea frameworkwhereinthe exploitationofworksandother protectedsubject-mattercantake place.Thisharmonisedlegal frameworkcontributestothe goodfunctioningoftheinternal market;itstimulatesinnovation, creativity,investmentand productionofnewcontent,also inthedigitalenvironment,witha viewtoavoidingfragmentation oftheinternalmarket.The protectionprovidedbythislegal frameworkalsocontributesto theUnion'sobjectiveof respectingandpromoting
  5. 5. 4 heritagetothefore.Article 167(4)oftheTreatyonthe FunctioningoftheEuropean UnionrequirestheUnionto takeculturalaspectsinto accountinitsaction. promotingculturaldiversitywhile atthesametimebringingthe Europeancommoncultural heritagetothefore.Article167(4) oftheTreatyontheFunctioning oftheEuropeanUnionrequires theUniontotakeculturalaspects intoaccountinitsaction. heritagetothefore.Article 167(4)oftheTreatyonthe FunctioningoftheEuropean UnionrequirestheUnionto takeculturalaspectsinto accountinitsaction. culturaldiversitywhileatthe sametimebringingtheEuropean commonculturalheritagetothe fore.Article167(4)oftheTreaty ontheFunctioningofthe EuropeanUnionrequiresthe Uniontotakeculturalaspects intoaccountinitsaction. 12.(3)Rapidtechnological developmentscontinueto transformthewayworksand othersubject-matterare created,produced,distributed andexploited.Newbusiness modelsandnewactors continuetoemerge.The objectivesandtheprinciples laiddownbytheUnion copyrightframeworkremain sound.However,legal uncertaintyremains,forboth rightholdersandusers,as regardscertainuses,including cross-borderuses,ofworks andothersubject-matterinthe digitalenvironment.Assetout intheCommunicationofthe Commissionentitled‘Towards amodern,moreEuropean copyrightframework’3 ,in someareasitisnecessaryto (3)Rapidtechnological developmentscontinueto transformthewayworksand othersubject-matterarecreated, produced,distributedand exploited,andrelevant legislationneedstobefuture proofsoasnottorestrict technologicaldevelopment.New businessmodelsandnewactors continuetoemerge.The objectivesandtheprincipleslaid downbytheUnioncopyright frameworkremainsound. However,legaluncertainty remains,forbothrightholdersand users,asregardscertainuses, includingcross-borderuses,of worksandothersubject-matterin thedigitalenvironment.Assetout intheCommunicationofthe Commissionentitled'Towardsa modern,moreEuropeancopyright (3)Rapidtechnological developmentscontinueto transformthewayworksand othersubject-matterare created,produced,distributed andexploited.Newbusiness modelsandnewactors continuetoemerge.The objectivesandtheprinciples laiddownbytheUnion copyrightframeworkremain sound.However,legal uncertaintyremains,forboth rightholdersandusers,as regardscertainuses,including cross-borderuses,ofworks andothersubject-matterinthe digitalenvironment.Assetout intheCommunicationofthe Commissionentitled‘Towards amodern,moreEuropean copyrightframework’3 ,in someareasitisnecessaryto (3)Rapidtechnological developmentscontinueto transformthewayworksand othersubject-matterarecreated, produced,distributedand exploited.Newbusinessmodels andnewactorscontinueto emerge.Relevantlegislation needstobefutureproofsoas nottorestricttechnological development.Theobjectivesand theprincipleslaiddownbythe Unioncopyrightframework remainsound.However,legal uncertaintyremains,forboth rightholdersandusers,asregards certainuses,includingcross- borderuses,ofworksandother subject-matterinthedigital environment.Assetoutinthe Communicationofthe Commissionentitled'Towardsa modern,moreEuropean
  6. 6. 5 adaptandsupplementthe currentUnioncopyright framework.ThisDirective providesforrulestoadapt certainexceptionsand limitationstodigitalandcross- borderenvironments,aswell asmeasurestofacilitatecertain licensingpracticesasregards thedisseminationofout-of- commerceworksandthe onlineavailabilityof audiovisualworksonvideo- on-demandplatformswitha viewtoensuringwideraccess tocontent.Inordertoachieve awell-functioningmarketplace forcopyright,thereshouldalso berulesonrightsin publications,ontheuseof worksandothersubject-matter byonlineserviceproviders storingandgivingaccessto useruploadedcontentandon thetransparencyofauthors' andperformers'contracts. framework'3 ,insomeareasitis necessarytoadaptand supplementthecurrentUnion copyrightframework.This Directiveprovidesforrulesto adaptcertainexceptionsand limitationstodigitalandcross- borderenvironments,aswellas measurestofacilitatecertain licensingpracticesasregardsthe disseminationofout-of-commerce worksandtheonlineavailability ofaudiovisualworksonvideo-on- demandplatformswithaviewto ensuringwideraccesstocontent. Inordertoachieveawell- functioningandfairmarketplace forcopyright,thereshouldalsobe rulesonrightsinpublications,on theexerciseandenforcementof theuseofworksandother subject-matterbyononline serviceprovidersstoringand givingaccesstouseruploaded contentproviders’platformsand onthetransparencyofauthors' andperformers'contractsandof theaccountinglinkedwiththe exploitationofprotectedworksin accordancewiththosecontracts. adaptandsupplementthe currentUnioncopyright framework.keepingahigh levelofprotectionof copyrightandrelatedrights. ThisDirectiveprovidesfor rulestoadaptcertain exceptionsandlimitationsto digitalandcross-border environments,aswellas measurestofacilitatecertain licensingpracticesasregards thedisseminationofout-of- commerceworksandthe onlineavailabilityof audiovisualworksonvideo- on-demandplatformswitha viewtoensuringwideraccess tocontent.Inordertoachieve awell-functioningmarketplace forcopyright,thereshouldalso berulesonrightsin publications,ontheuseof worksandothersubject-matter byonlineserviceproviders storingandgivingaccessto useruploadedcontentandon thetransparencyofauthors' andperformers'contracts. copyrightframework'3 ,insome areasitisnecessarytoadaptand supplementthecurrentUnion copyrightframeworkkeepinga highlevelofprotectionof copyrightandrelatedrights. ThisDirectiveprovidesforrules toadaptcertainexceptionsand limitationstodigitalandcross- borderenvironments,aswellas measurestofacilitatecertain licensingpracticesnotablybut notonlyasregardsthe disseminationofout-of- commerceworksandtheonline availabilityofaudiovisualworks onvideo-on-demandplatforms withaviewtoensuringwider accesstocontent.Italso containsrulestofacilitatethe useofcontentinthepublic domain.Inordertoachievea well-functioningandfair marketplaceforcopyright,there shouldalsoberulesonrightsin publications,ontheuseofworks andothersubject-matterby onlineserviceprovidersstoring andgivingaccesstouser uploadedcontent,onthe 3 COM(2015)626final.
  7. 7. 6 transparencyofauthors'and performers'contracts,on authors’andperformers’ remuneration,aswellasa mechanismfortherevocationof therightsthatauthorsand performershavetransferredon anexclusivebasis. 13.(4)ThisDirectiveisbased upon,andcomplements,the ruleslaiddowninthe Directivescurrentlyinforcein thisarea,inparticular Directive96/9/ECofthe EuropeanParliamentandof theCouncil4 ,Directive 2001/29/ECoftheEuropean ParliamentandoftheCouncil6 , Directive2006/115/ECofthe EuropeanParliamentandof theCouncil7 ,Directive 2009/24/ECoftheEuropean (4)ThisDirectiveisbasedupon, andcomplements,theruleslaid downintheDirectivescurrently inforceinthisarea,inparticular Directive96/9/ECofthe EuropeanParliamentandofthe Council4 ,Directive2000/31/EC oftheEuropeanParliamentand oftheCouncil5,Directive 2001/29/ECoftheEuropean ParliamentandoftheCouncil6 , Directive2006/115/ECofthe EuropeanParliamentandofthe Council7 ,Directive2009/24/EC (4)ThisDirectiveisbased upon,andcomplements,the ruleslaiddowninthe Directivescurrentlyinforcein thisarea,inparticular Directive96/9/ECofthe EuropeanParliamentandofthe Council4 ,Directive 2000/31/ECoftheEuropean Parliamentandofthe Council5,Directive 2001/29/ECoftheEuropean ParliamentandoftheCouncil6 , Directive2006/115/ECofthe (4)ThisDirectiveisbasedupon, andcomplements,theruleslaid downintheDirectivescurrently inforceinthisarea,inparticular Directive96/9/ECofthe EuropeanParliamentandofthe Council4 ,Directive2000/31/EC oftheEuropeanParliamentand oftheCouncil5,Directive 2001/29/ECoftheEuropean ParliamentandoftheCouncil6 , Directive2006/115/ECofthe EuropeanParliamentandofthe Council7 ,Directive2009/24/EC 4 Directive96/9/ECoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof11March1996onthelegalprotectionofdatabases(OJL77,27.3.1996,p.20– 28). 5 Directive2000/31/ECoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof8June2000oncertainlegalaspectsofinformationsocietyservices,in particularelectroniccommerce,intheInternalMarket(OJL178,17.07.2000,p.1–16). 6 Directive2001/29/ECoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof22May2001ontheharmonisationofcertainaspectsofcopyrightandrelated rightsintheinformationsociety(OJL167,22.6.2001,p.10–19). 7 Directive2006/115/ECoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof12December2006onrentalrightandlendingrightandoncertainrights relatedtocopyrightinthefieldofintellectualproperty(OJL376,27.12.2006,p.28–35).
  8. 8. 7 ParliamentandoftheCouncil8 , Directive2012/28/EUofthe EuropeanParliamentandof theCouncil9 andDirective 2014/26/EUoftheEuropean Parliamentandofthe Council10 . oftheEuropeanParliamentandof theCouncil8 ,Directive 2012/28/EUoftheEuropean ParliamentandoftheCouncil9 andDirective2014/26/EUofthe EuropeanParliamentandofthe Council10 . EuropeanParliamentandofthe Council7 ,Directive 2009/24/ECoftheEuropean ParliamentandoftheCouncil8 , Directive2012/28/EUofthe EuropeanParliamentandofthe Council9 andDirective 2014/26/EUoftheEuropean Parliamentandofthe Council10 . oftheEuropeanParliamentand oftheCouncil8 ,Directive 2012/28/EUoftheEuropean ParliamentandoftheCouncil9 andDirective2014/26/EUofthe EuropeanParliamentandofthe Council10 . 14.(5)Inthefieldsof research,educationand preservationofcultural heritage,digitaltechnologies permitnewtypesofusesthat arenotclearlycoveredbythe currentUnionruleson exceptionsandlimitations.In addition,theoptionalnatureof exceptionsandlimitations providedforinDirectives 2001/29/EC,96/9/ECand 2009/24/ECinthesefieldsmay negativelyimpactthe (5)Inthefieldsofresearch, innovation,educationand preservationofculturalheritage, digitaltechnologiespermitnew typesofusesthatarenotclearly coveredbythecurrentUnion rulesonexceptionsand limitations.Inaddition,the optionalnatureofexceptionsand limitationsprovidedforin Directives2001/29/EC,96/9/EC and2009/24/ECinthesefields maynegativelyimpactthe functioningoftheinternalmarket. (5)Inthefieldsof research,educationand preservationofcultural heritage,digitaltechnologies permitnewtypesofusesthat arenotclearlycoveredbythe currentUnionruleson exceptionsandlimitations.In addition,theoptionalnatureof exceptionsandlimitations providedforinDirectives 2001/29/EC,96/9/ECand 2009/24/ECinthesefieldsmay negativelyimpactthe (5)Inthefieldsofresearch, innovation,educationand preservationofculturalheritage, digitaltechnologiespermitnew typesofusesthatarenotclearly coveredbythecurrentUnion rulesonexceptionsand limitations.Inaddition,the optionalnatureofexceptionsand limitationsprovidedforin Directives2001/29/EC,96/9/EC and2009/24/ECinthesefields maynegativelyimpactthe functioningoftheinternal 8Directive2009/24/ECoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof23April2009onthelegalprotectionofcomputerprograms(OJL 111,5.5.2009,p.16–22). 9Directive2012/28/EUoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof25October2012oncertainpermittedusesoforphanworks(OJL 299,27.10.2012,p.5–12). 10Directive2014/26/EUoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof26February2014oncollectivemanagementofcopyrightand relatedrightsandmulti-territoriallicensingofrightsinmusicalworksforonlineuseintheinternalmarket(OJL84,20.3.2014,p.72–98).
  9. 9. 8 functioningoftheinternal market.Thisisparticularly relevantasregardscross- borderuses,whichare becomingincreasingly importantinthedigital environment.Therefore,the existingexceptionsand limitationsinUnionlawthat arerelevantforscientific research,teachingand preservationofcultural heritageshouldbereassessed inthelightofthosenewuses. Mandatoryexceptionsor limitationsforusesoftextand dataminingtechnologiesinthe fieldofscientificresearch, illustrationforteachinginthe digitalenvironmentandfor preservationofcultural heritageshouldbeintroduced. Forusesnotcoveredbythe exceptionsorthelimitation providedforinthisDirective, theexceptionsandlimitations existinginUnionlawshould continuetoapply.Directives 96/9/ECand2001/29/EC shouldbeadapted. Thisisparticularlyrelevantas regardscross-borderuses,which arebecomingincreasingly importantinthedigital environment.Therefore,the existingexceptionsand limitationsinUnionlawthatare relevantforinnovation,scientific research,teachingand preservationofculturalheritage shouldbereassessedinthelight ofthosenewuses.Mandatory exceptionsorlimitationsforuses oftextanddatamining technologiesinthefieldof innovationandscientific research,illustrationforteaching inthedigitalenvironmentandfor preservationofculturalheritage shouldbeintroduced.Forusesnot coveredbytheexceptionsorthe limitationprovidedforinthis Directive,theexceptionsand limitationsexistinginUnionlaw shouldcontinuetoapply. Therefore,existingwell- functioningexceptionsinthose fieldsshouldbeallowedto continuetobeavailablein MemberStates,aslongasthey donotrestrictthescopeofthe exceptionsorlimitations functioningoftheinternal market.Thisisparticularly relevantasregardscross- borderuses,whichare becomingincreasingly importantinthedigital environment.Therefore,the existingexceptionsand limitationsinUnionlawthat arerelevantforscientific research,teachingand preservationofcultural heritageshouldbereassessed inthelightofthosenewuses. Mandatoryexceptionsor limitationsforusesoftextand dataminingtechnologiesinthe fieldofscientificresearch, illustrationforteachinginthe digitalenvironmentandfor preservationofcultural heritageshouldbeintroduced. Forusesnotcoveredbythe exceptionsorthelimitation providedforinthisDirective, theTheexceptionsand limitationsexistinginUnion lawshouldcontinuetoapply, includingtotextanddata mining,educationand preservationactivities,as longastheydonotlimitthe market.Thisisparticularly relevantasregardscross-border uses,whicharebecoming increasinglyimportantinthe digitalenvironment.Therefore, theexistingexceptionsand limitationsinUnionlawthatare relevantforinnovation, scientificresearch,teachingand preservationofculturalheritage shouldbereassessedinthelight ofthosenewuses.Mandatory exceptionsorlimitationsforuses oftextanddatamining technologiesinthefieldof scientificresearch,illustration forteachinginthedigital environmentandforpreservation ofculturalheritageshouldbe introduced.Forusesnotcovered bytheexceptionsorthe limitationprovidedforinthis Directive,theTheexceptionsand limitationsexistinginUnionlaw shouldcontinuetoapply, includingtotextanddata mining,educationand preservationactivities,aslong astheydonotlimitthescopeof themandatoryexceptionslaid downinthisDirective,which needtobeimplementedby
  10. 10. 9 providedforinthisDirective. Directives96/9/ECand 2001/29/ECshouldbeadapted. scopeofthemandatory exceptionslaiddowninthis Directiveandoncondition thattheirapplicationdoes notadverselyaffectnor circumventthemandatory rulessetoutinthisDirective. Directives96/9/ECand 2001/29/ECshouldbeadapted. MemberStatesintheirnational lawandonconditionthattheir applicationdoesnotadversely affectnorcircumventthe mandatoryrulessetoutinthis Directive.Directives96/9/EC and2001/29/ECshouldbe adapted. 15.(6)Theexceptionsandthe limitationsetoutinthis Directiveseektoachieveafair balancebetweentherightsand interestsofauthorsandother rightholdersontheonehand, andofusersontheother.They canbeappliedonlyincertain specialcaseswhichdonot conflictwiththenormal exploitationoftheworksor othersubject-matteranddonot unreasonablyprejudicethe legitimateinterestsofthe rightholders. (6)Theexceptionsandthe limitationlimitationssetoutin thisDirectiveseektoachievea fairbalancebetweentherights andinterestsofauthorsandother rightholdersontheonehand,and ofusersontheother.Theycanbe appliedonlyincertainspecial caseswhichdonotconflictwith thenormalexploitationofthe worksorothersubject-matterand donotunreasonablyprejudicethe legitimateinterestsofthe rightholders. (6)Theexceptionsandthe limitationsetoutprovidedfor inthisDirectiveseekto achieveafairbalancebetween therightsandinterestsof authorsandotherrightholders ontheonehand,andofusers ontheother.Theycanbe appliedonlyincertainspecial caseswhichdonotconflict withthenormalexploitationof theworksorothersubject- matteranddonotunreasonably prejudicethelegitimate interestsoftherightholders. (6)Theexceptionsand limitationssetoutprovidedforin thisDirectiveseektoachievea fairbalancebetweentherights andinterestsofauthorsandother rightholdersontheonehand,and ofusersontheother.Theycan beappliedonlyincertainspecial caseswhichdonotconflictwith thenormalexploitationofthe worksorothersubject-matter anddonotunreasonably prejudicethelegitimateinterests oftherightholders. 16.(7)Theprotectionof technologicalmeasures establishedinDirective 2001/29/ECremainsessential toensuretheprotectionandthe effectiveexerciseoftherights (7)Theprotectionof technologicalmeasures establishedinDirective 2001/29/ECremainsessentialto ensuretheprotectionandthe effectiveexerciseoftherights (7)Theprotectionof technologicalmeasures establishedinDirective 2001/29/ECremainsessential toensuretheprotectionandthe effectiveexerciseoftherights (7)Theprotectionof technologicalmeasures establishedinDirective 2001/29/ECremainsessentialto ensuretheprotectionandthe effectiveexerciseoftherights
  11. 11. 10 grantedtoauthorsandtoother rightholdersunderUnionlaw. Thisprotectionshouldbe maintainedwhileensuringthat theuseoftechnological measuresdoesnotpreventthe enjoymentoftheexceptions andthelimitationestablished inthisDirective,whichare particularlyrelevantinthe onlineenvironment. Rightholdersshouldhavethe opportunitytoensurethis throughvoluntarymeasures. Theyshouldremainfreeto choosetheformatandthe modalitiestoprovidethe beneficiariesoftheexceptions andthelimitationestablished inthisDirectivewiththe meanstobenefitfromthem providedthatsuchmeansare appropriate.Intheabsenceof voluntarymeasures,Member Statesshouldtakeappropriate measuresinaccordancewith thefirstsubparagraphof Article6(4)ofDirective 2001/29/EC. grantedtoauthorsandtoother rightholdersunderUnionlaw. Thisprotectionshouldbe maintainedwhileensuringthatthe useoftechnologicalmeasures doesnotpreventtheenjoymentof theexceptionsandthelimitation establishedinthisDirective, whichareparticularlyrelevantin theonlineenvironment. Rightholdersshouldhavethe opportunitytoensurethisthrough voluntarymeasures.Theyshould remainfreetochoosetheformat andthemodalitiestoprovidethe beneficiariesoftheexceptions andthelimitationestablishedin thisDirectivewiththemeansto benefitfromthemprovidedthat suchmeansareappropriate.Inthe absenceofvoluntarymeasures, MemberStatesshouldtake appropriatemeasuresin accordancewiththefirst subparagraphofArticle6(4)of Directive2001/29/EC. grantedtoauthorsandtoother rightholdersunderUnionlaw. Thisprotectionshouldbe maintainedwhileensuringthat theuseoftechnological measuresdoesnotpreventthe enjoymentoftheexceptions andthelimitationestablished inthisDirective,whichare particularlyrelevantinthe onlineenvironment.. Rightholdersshouldhavethe opportunitytoensurethis throughvoluntarymeasures. Theyshouldremainfreeto choosetheformatandthe modalitiesto provideappropriatemeansof enablingthebeneficiariesof theexceptionsandthe limitationestablishedinthis Directivewiththemeansto benefitfromthemprovided thatsuchmeansare appropriate.Intheabsenceof voluntarymeasures,Member Statesshouldtakeappropriate measuresinaccordancewith thefirstsubparagraphof Article6(4)ofDirective 2001/29/EC,includingwhere worksandothersubject- grantedtoauthorsandtoother rightholdersunderUnionlaw. Thisprotectionshouldbe maintainedwhileensuringthat theuseoftechnological measuresdoesnotpreventthe enjoymentoftheexceptionsand limitationsestablishedinthis Directive,whichareparticularly relevantintheonline environment..Rightholders shouldhavetheopportunityto ensurethisthroughvoluntary measures.Theyshouldremain freetochoosetheformatandthe modalitiestoprovideappropriate meansofenablingthe beneficiariesoftheexceptions andlimitationsestablishedinthis Directivewiththemeansto benefitfromthemprovidedthat suchmeansareappropriate.In theabsenceofvoluntary measures,MemberStatesshould takeappropriatemeasuresin accordancewiththefirst subparagraphofArticle6(4)of Directive2001/29/EC,including whereworksandothersubject- matteraremadeavailable throughon-demandservices.
  12. 12. 11 matteraremadeavailable throughon-demandservices. 17.(8)Newtechnologies enabletheautomated computationalanalysisof informationindigitalform, suchastext,sounds,imagesor data,generallyknownastext anddatamining.Those technologiesallowresearchers toprocesslargeamountsof informationtogainnew knowledgeanddiscovernew trends.Whilsttextanddata miningtechnologiesare prevalentacrossthedigital economy,thereiswidespread acknowledgmentthattextand dataminingcaninparticular benefittheresearchcommunity andinsodoingencourage innovation.However,inthe Union,researchorganisations suchasuniversitiesand researchinstitutesare confrontedwithlegal uncertaintyastotheextentto whichtheycanperformtext anddataminingofcontent.In certaininstances,textanddata miningmayinvolveacts (8)Newtechnologiesenablethe automatedcomputationalanalysis ofinformationindigitalform, suchastext,sounds,imagesor data,generallyknownastextand datamining.Thosetechnologies allowresearcherstoprocessText anddataminingallowsthe readingandanalysisoflarge amountsofdigitallystored informationtogainnew knowledgeanddiscovernew trends.Whilsttextanddata miningtechnologiesareprevalent acrossthedigitaleconomy,there iswidespreadacknowledgment thattextanddataminingcanin particularbenefittheresearch communityandinsodoing encourageinnovation.However, intheUnion,research organisationssuchasuniversities andresearchinstitutesare confrontedwithlegaluncertainty astotheextenttowhichtheycan performtextanddataminingof content.Incertaininstances,text anddataminingmayinvolveacts protectedbycopyrightand/orby (8)Newtechnologies enabletheautomated computationalanalysisof informationindigitalform, suchastext,sounds,imagesor data,generallyknownastext anddatamining.Those technologiesallowresearchers toprocesslargeamountsof informationwithaviewto gaingainingnewknowledge anddiscoverdiscoveringnew trends.Whilsttextanddata miningtechnologiesare prevalentacrossthedigital economy,thereiswidespread acknowledgmentthattextand dataminingcaninparticular benefittheresearchcommunity andinsodoing encouragesupportinnovation. However,intheUnion,These technologiesbenefitresearch organisationssuchas universitiesandwellas culturalheritageinstitutions, whichmayalsocarryout researchinstitutesinthe contextoftheirmain (8)Newtechnologiesenable theautomatedcomputational analysisofinformationindigital form,suchastext,sounds, imagesordata,generallyknown astextanddatamining.Textand dataminingallowsthe processingoflargeamountsof informationwithaviewto gainingnewknowledgeand discoveringnewtrends.Whilst textanddatamining technologiesareprevalentacross thedigitaleconomy,thereis widespreadacknowledgment thattextanddataminingcanin particularbenefittheresearch communityandinsodoing supportinnovation.These technologiesbenefituniversities andotherresearchorganisations aswellasculturalheritage institutions,whichmayalso carryoutresearchinthecontext oftheirmainactivities. However,intheUnion,such organisationsandinstitutionsare confrontedwithlegaluncertainty astotheextenttowhichtheycan performtextanddataminingof
  13. 13. 12 protectedbycopyrightand/or bythesuigenerisdatabase right,notablythereproduction ofworksorothersubject- matterand/ortheextractionof contentsfromadatabase. Wherethereisnoexceptionor limitationwhichapplies,an authorisationtoundertakesuch actswouldberequiredfrom rightholders.Textanddata miningmayalsobecarriedout inrelationtomerefactsordata whicharenotprotectedby copyrightandinsuchinstances noauthorisationwouldbe required. thesuigenerisdatabaseright, notablythereproductionofworks orothersubject-matterand/orthe extractionofcontentsfroma database.Wherethereisno exceptionorlimitationwhich applies,anauthorisationto undertakesuchactswouldbe requiredfromrightholders.Text anddataminingmayalsobe carriedoutinrelationtomere factsordatawhicharenot protectedbycopyrightandinsuch instancesnoauthorisationwould berequired. activities.However,inthe Union,suchorganisations andinstitutionsare confrontedwithlegal uncertaintyastotheextentto whichtheycanperformtext anddataminingofcontent.In certaininstances,textanddata miningmayinvolveacts protectedbycopyrightand/or bythesuigenerisdatabase right,notablythereproduction ofworksorothersubject- matterand/ortheextractionof contentsfromadatabase. Wherethereisnoexceptionor limitationwhichapplies,an authorisationtoundertakesuch actswouldberequiredfrom rightholders. [Lastphraseofrecital(8)of theCOMproposalwasmoved tonewrecital(8a)Council's text-seefollowingrow18] content.Incertaininstances,text anddataminingmayinvolve actsprotectedbycopyright and/orbythesuigeneris databaseright,notablythe reproductionofworksorother subject-matterand/orthe extractionofcontentsfroma database,whichforexample happenswhenthedatais normalisedintheprocessoftext anddatamining.Wherethereis noexceptionorlimitationwhich applies,anauthorisationto undertakesuchactswouldbe requiredfromrightholders. 18.(8a)Textanddatamining mayalsobecarriedoutin relationtomerefactsordata whicharenotprotectedby copyrightandinsuchinstances noauthorisationwouldbeis requiredundercopyrightlaw. (8a)Textanddataminingmay alsobecarriedoutinrelationto merefactsordatawhicharenot protectedbycopyrightandin suchinstancesnoauthorisationis requiredundercopyrightlaw. Theremayalsobeinstancesof
  14. 14. 13 Theremayalsobeinstances oftextanddatamining whichdonotinvolveactsof reproductionorwherethe reproductionsmadefall undertheThenewexception shouldbewithoutprejudiceto theexistingmandatory exceptionfortemporaryactsof reproductionlaiddownin Article5(1)ofDirective 2001/29/EC,whichshould continuetoapplytotextand dataminingtechniqueswhich donotinvolvethemakingof copiesbeyondthescopeofthat exception. [Firstphraseofnewrecital (8a)wastakenfromrecital(8) (lastphrase),secondphraseof newrecital(8a)wastaken fromrecital(10)(second phrase)] textanddataminingwhichdo notinvolveactsofreproduction orwherethereproductionsmade fallunderthemandatory exceptionfortemporaryactsof reproductionlaiddowninArticle 5(1)ofDirective2001/29/EC, whichshouldcontinuetoapply totextanddatamining techniqueswhichdonotinvolve themakingofcopiesbeyondthe scopeofthatexception. 19.(8a)Fortextanddataminingto occur,itisinmostcases necessaryfirsttoaccess informationandthento reproduceit.Itisgenerallyonly afterthatinformationis normalisedthatitcanbe processedthroughtextanddata [deleted]
  15. 15. 14 mining.Oncethereislawful accesstoinformation,itiswhen thatinformationisbeing normalisedthatacopyright- protectedusetakesplace,since thisleadstoareproductionby changingtheformatofthe informationorbyextractingit fromadatabaseintoaformat thatcanbesubjectedtotextand datamining.Thecopyright- relevantprocessesintheuseof textanddataminingtechnology is,consequently,notthetextand dataminingprocessitselfwhich consistsofareadingand analysisofdigitallystored, normalisedinformation,butthe processofaccessingandthe processbywhichinformationis normalisedtoenableits automatedcomputational analysis,insofarasthisprocess involvesextractionfroma databaseorreproductions.The exceptionsfortextanddata miningpurposesprovidedforin thisDirectiveshouldbe understoodasreferringtosuch copyright-relevantprocesses necessarytoenabletextanddata mining.Whereexistingcopyright
  16. 16. 15 lawhasbeeninapplicabletouses oftextanddatamining,such usesshouldremainunaffectedby thisDirective. 20.(9)Unionlawalready providescertainexceptionsand limitationscoveringusesfor scientificresearchpurposes whichmayapplytoactsoftext anddatamining.However, thoseexceptionsand limitationsareoptionalandnot fullyadaptedtotheuseof technologiesinscientific research.Moreover,where researchershavelawfulaccess tocontent,forexamplethrough subscriptionstopublicationsor openaccesslicences,theterms ofthelicencesmayexclude textanddatamining.As researchisincreasinglycarried outwiththeassistanceof digitaltechnology,thereisa riskthattheUnion's competitivepositionasa researchareawillsufferunless stepsaretakentoaddressthe legaluncertaintyfortextand datamining. (9)Unionlawalready providescertainexceptionsand limitationscoveringusesfor scientificresearchpurposeswhich mayapplytoactsoftextanddata mining.However,those exceptionsandlimitationsare optionalandnotfullyadaptedto theuseoftechnologiesin scientificresearch.Moreover, whereresearchershavelawful accesstocontent,forexample throughsubscriptionsto publicationsoropenaccess licences,thetermsofthelicences mayexcludetextanddatamining. Asresearchisincreasinglycarried outwiththeassistanceofdigital technology,thereisariskthatthe Union'scompetitivepositionasa researchareawillsufferunless stepsaretakentoaddressthelegal uncertaintyfortextanddata mining. (9)Unionlawalready providesforcertainexceptions andlimitationscoveringuses forscientificresearchpurposes whichmayapplytoactsoftext anddatamining.However, thoseexceptionsand limitationsareoptionalandnot fullyadaptedtotheuseof technologiesinscientific research.Moreover,where researchershavelawfulaccess tocontent,forexamplethrough subscriptionstopublicationsor openaccesslicences,theterms ofthelicencesmayexclude textanddatamining.As researchisincreasinglycarried outwiththeassistanceof digitaltechnology,thereisa riskthattheUnion's competitivepositionasa researchareawillsufferunless stepsaretakentoaddressthe legaluncertaintyfortextand datamining. (9)Unionlawprovidesfor certainexceptionsand limitationscoveringusesfor scientificresearchpurposes whichmayapplytoactsoftext anddatamining.However,those exceptionsandlimitationsare optionalandnotfullyadaptedto theuseoftechnologiesin scientificresearch.Moreover, whereresearchershavelawful accesstocontent,forexample throughsubscriptionsto publicationsoropenaccess licences,thetermsofthe licencesmayexcludetextand datamining.Asresearchis increasinglycarriedoutwiththe assistanceofdigitaltechnology, thereisariskthattheUnion's competitivepositionasa researchareawillsufferunless stepsaretakentoaddressthe legaluncertaintyfortextand datamining.
  17. 17. 16 21.(10)Thislegaluncertainty shouldbeaddressedby providingforamandatory exceptiontotherightof reproductionandalsotothe righttopreventextractionfrom adatabase.Thenewexception shouldbewithoutprejudiceto theexistingmandatory exceptionontemporaryactsof reproductionlaiddownin Article5(1)ofDirective 2001/29,whichshould continuetoapplytotextand dataminingtechniqueswhich donotinvolvethemakingof copiesgoingbeyondthescope ofthatexception.Research organisationsshouldalso benefitfromtheexception whentheyengageintopublic- privatepartnerships. (10)Thislegaluncertaintyshould beaddressedbyprovidingfora mandatoryexceptionforresearch organisationstotherightof reproductionandalsototheright topreventextractionfroma database.Thenewexception shouldbewithoutprejudicetothe existingmandatoryexceptionon temporaryactsofreproduction laiddowninArticle5(1)of Directive2001/29,whichshould continuetoapplytotextanddata miningtechniqueswhichdonot involvethemakingofcopies goingbeyondthescopeofthat exception.Researchorganisations shouldalsobenefitfromthe exceptionwhentheyengageinto public-privatepartnerships. Educationalestablishmentsand culturalheritageinstitutionsthat conductscientificresearch shouldalsobecoveredbythetext anddataminingexception, providedthattheresultsofthe researchdonotbenefitan undertakingexercisingadecisive influenceuponsuch organisationsinparticular.In (10)Thislegaluncertainty shouldbeaddressedby providingforamandatory exceptiontotheexclusiveright ofreproductionandalsotothe righttopreventextractionfrom adatabase.Thenewexception shouldbewithoutprejudiceto theexistingmandatory exceptionontemporaryactsof reproductionlaiddownin Article5(1)ofDirective 2001/29,whichshould continuetoapplytotextand dataminingtechniqueswhich donotinvolvethemakingof copiesgoingbeyondthescope ofthatexception.Inlinewith theexistingEuropean researchpolicy,which encouragesuniversitiesand researchinstitutestodevelop collaborationswiththe privatesector, Researchresearch organisationsshouldalso benefitfromtheexception whentheyengageintotheir researchactivitiesare carriedoutintheframework (10)Thislegaluncertainty shouldbeaddressedby providingforamandatory exceptionforuniversitiesand otherresearchorganisations,as wellasculturalheritage institutionstotheexclusiveright ofreproductionandalsotothe righttopreventextractionfroma database.Inlinewiththe existingEuropeanresearch policy,whichencourages universitiesandresearch institutestodevelop collaborationswiththeprivate sector,researchorganisations shouldalsobenefitfromthe exceptionwhentheirresearch activitiesarecarriedoutinthe frameworkofpublic-private partnerships.Whileresearch organisationsandcultural heritageinstitutionsshould remainthebeneficiariesofthe exception,theyshouldbeableto relyontheirprivatepartnersfor carryingouttextanddata mining,includingbyusingtheir technologicaltools.
  18. 18. 17 theeventthattheresearchis carriedoutintheframeworkofa public-privatepartnership,the undertakingparticipatinginthe public-privatepartnershipshould alsohavelawfulaccesstothe worksandothersubjectmatter. Thereproductionsand extractionsmadefortextand dataminingpurposesshouldbe storedinasecuremannerandin awaythatensuresthatthecopies areonlyusedforthepurposeof scientificresearch. ofpublic-privatepartnerships. Whileresearchorganisations andculturalheritage institutionsshouldremain thebeneficiariesofthe exception,theyshouldbe abletorelyontheirprivate partnersforcarryingouttext anddatamining,including byusingtheirtechnological tools. [Thesecondphraseofrecital (10)oftheCOMproposalwas movedtonewrecital(8a)-see row18] [astothelastsentenceoftheEP text,seerecitals11(c),row25] 22.(11)Researchorganisations acrosstheUnionencompassa widevarietyofentitiesthe primarygoalofwhichisto conductscientificresearchor todosotogetherwiththe provisionofeducational services.Duetothediversity ofsuchentities,itisimportant tohaveacommon understandingofthe beneficiariesoftheexception. Despitedifferentlegalforms andstructures,research organisationsacrossMember Statesgenerallyhavein (11)Researchorganisations acrosstheUnionencompassa widevarietyofentitiesthe primarygoalofwhichisto conductscientificresearchorto dosotogetherwiththeprovision ofeducationalservices.Duetothe diversityofsuchentities,itis importanttohaveacommon understandingofthebeneficiaries oftheexception.Despitedifferent legalformsandstructures, researchorganisationsacross MemberStatesgenerallyhavein commonthattheyacteitherona notforprofitbasisorinthe (11)Researchorganisations acrosstheUnionencompassa widevarietyofentitiesthe primarygoalofwhichisto conductscientificresearchor todosotogetherwiththe provisionofeducational services.Theterm"scientific research"withinthe meaningofthisDirective coversboththenatural sciencesandthehuman sciences.Duetothediversity ofsuchentities,itisimportant tohaveacommon understandingofthe (11)Researchorganisations acrosstheUnionencompassa widevarietyofentitiesthe primarygoalofwhichisto conductscientificresearchorto dosotogetherwiththeprovision ofeducationalservices.Theterm "scientificresearch"withinthe meaningofthisDirectivecovers boththenaturalsciencesandthe humansciences.Duetothe diversityofsuchentities,itis importanttohaveacommon understandingofresearch organisations.Theyshouldfor examplecover,besides
  19. 19. 18 commonthattheyacteitheron anotforprofitbasisorinthe contextofapublic-interest missionrecognisedbythe State.Suchapublic-interest missionmay,forexample,be reflectedthroughpublic fundingorthroughprovisions innationallawsorpublic contracts.Atthesametime, organisationsuponwhich commercialundertakingshave adecisiveinfluenceallowing themtoexercisecontrol becauseofstructuralsituations suchastheirqualityof shareholdersormembers, whichmayresultin preferentialaccesstothe resultsoftheresearch,should notbeconsideredresearch organisationsforthepurposes ofthisDirective. contextofapublic-interest missionrecognisedbytheState. Suchapublic-interestmission may,forexample,bereflected throughpublicfundingorthrough provisionsinnationallawsor publiccontracts.Atthesame time,organisationsuponwhich commercialundertakingshavea decisiveinfluenceallowingthem toexercisecontrolbecauseof structuralsituationssuchastheir qualityofshareholdersor members,whichmayresultin preferentialaccesstotheresultsof theresearch,shouldnotbe consideredresearchorganisations forthepurposesofthisDirective. beneficiariesofthe exception.research organisations.Theyshould forexamplecoverentities suchasresearchinstitutes, hospitalscarryingout research,universities, includinguniversity libraries,orotherhigher educationinstitutions. Despitedifferentlegalforms andstructures,research organisationsacrossthe MemberStatesgenerallyhave incommonthattheyacteither onanotforprofitbasisorin thecontextofapublic-interest missionrecognisedbythe State.Suchapublic-interest missionmay,forexample,be reflectedthroughpublic fundingorthroughprovisions innationallawsorpublic contracts.Atthesame timeConversely,organisations uponwhichcommercial undertakingshaveadecisive influenceallowingthemto exercisecontrolbecauseof structuralsituationssuchas theirqualityofshareholdersor members,whichmayresultin universitiesorotherhigher educationinstitutionsandtheir libraries,alsoentitiessuchas researchinstitutes,hospitals carryingoutresearch.Despite differentlegalformsand structures,researchorganisations acrosstheMemberStates generallyhaveincommonthat theyacteitheronanotforprofit basisorinthecontextofa public-interestmission recognisedbytheState.Sucha public-interestmissionmay,for example,bereflectedthrough publicfundingorthrough provisionsinnationallawsor publiccontracts.Conversely, organisationsuponwhich commercialundertakingshavea decisiveinfluenceallowingthem toexercisecontrolbecauseof structuralsituationssuchastheir qualityofshareholdersor members,whichmayresultin preferentialaccesstotheresults oftheresearch,shouldnotbe consideredresearch organisationsforthepurposesof thisDirective.
  20. 20. 19 preferentialaccesstothe resultsoftheresearch,should notbeconsideredresearch organisationsforthepurposes ofthisDirective. 23.(11a)Culturalheritage institutionsshouldbe understoodascovering publiclyaccessiblelibraries, museumsandarchives regardlessofthetypeof worksandothersubject matterwhichtheyholdin theirpermanentcollections, aswellasfilmoraudio heritageinstitutions.They shouldinclude,among others,nationallibrariesand nationalarchives.They shouldalsoinclude educationalestablishments andpublicsector broadcastingorganisations, asfarastheirarchivesand publiclyaccessiblelibraries areconcerned. (11a)Culturalheritage institutionsshouldbeunderstood ascoveringpubliclyaccessible librariesorandmuseumsand archivesregardlessofthetypeof worksandothersubjectmatter whichtheyholdintheir permanentcollections,aswellas archives,filmoraudioheritage institutions.Theyshouldinclude, amongothers,nationallibraries andnationalarchives.They shouldalsoincludeeducational establishments,andpublicsector broadcastingorganisationsand researchorganisations,asfar astheirarchivesandpublicly accessiblelibrariesare concerned. 24.(11b)Research organisationsandcultural heritageinstitutions, includingthepersons (11b)Researchorganisations andculturalheritageinstitutions, includingthepersonsattached thereto,shouldbecoveredbythe
  21. 21. 20 attachedthereto,shouldbe coveredbythetextanddata miningexceptionregarding contenttowhichtheyhave lawfulaccess.Lawfulaccess shouldbeunderstoodas coveringaccesstocontent basedonopenaccesspolicy orthroughcontractual arrangementsbetween rightholdersandresearch organisationsorcultural heritageinstitutions,suchas subscriptions,orthrough otherlawfulmeans.For instance,incasesof subscriptionstakenby researchorganisationsor culturalheritageinstitutions, thepersonsattachedthereto coveredbythese subscriptionswouldbe deemedtohavelawfulaccess. Lawfulaccessalsocovers accesstocontentthatis freelyavailableonline. textanddataminingexception regardingcontenttowhichthey havelawfulaccess.Lawful accessshouldbeunderstoodas coveringaccesstocontentbased onopenaccesspolicyorthrough contractualarrangements betweenrightholdersand researchorganisationsorcultural heritageinstitutions,suchas subscriptions,orthroughother lawfulmeans.Forinstance,in casesofsubscriptionstakenby researchorganisationsorcultural heritageinstitutions,thepersons attachedtheretocoveredbythese subscriptionswouldbedeemed tohavelawfulaccess.Lawful accessalsocoversaccessto contentthatisfreelyavailable online. 25.(11c)Research organisationsandcultural heritageinstitutionsmayin certaincases,forexamplefor subsequentverificationof (11c)Researchorganisations andculturalheritageinstitutions mayincertaincases,forexample forsubsequentverificationof scientificresearchresults,need
  22. 22. 21 scientificresearchresults, needtoretainthecopies madeundertheexceptionfor thepurposesofcarryingout textanddatamining.Insuch cases,thecopiesshouldbe storedinasecure environmentandnotbe retainedforlongerthan necessaryforthescientific researchactivities.Member Statesmaydetermine,at nationallevelandafter discussionswithrelevant stakeholders,further concretemodalitiesfor retainingthecopies, includingthepossibilityto appointtrustedbodiesfor thepurposeofstoringsuch copies.Inordernotto undulyrestrictthe applicationoftheexception, thesemodalitiesshouldbe proportionateandlimitedto whatisneededforretaining thecopiesinasafemanner andpreventingunauthorised uses.Usesforthepurposeof scientificresearchotherthan textanddatamining,suchas scientificpeerreviewand toretainthecopiesmadeunder theexceptionforthepurposesof carryingouttextanddata mining.Insuchcases,thecopies shouldbestoredinasecure environment.MemberStates maydetermine,atnationallevel andafterdiscussionswith relevantstakeholders,further concretemodalitiesforretaining thecopies,includingthe possibilitytoappointtrusted bodiesforthepurposeofstoring suchcopies.Inordernotto undulyrestricttheapplicationof theexception,thesemodalities shouldbeproportionateand limitedtowhatisneededfor retainingthecopiesinasafe mannerandpreventing unauthoriseduses.Usesforthe purposeofscientificresearch otherthantextanddatamining, suchasscientificpeerreview andjointresearch,shouldremain covered,whereapplicable,by theexceptionorlimitation providedforinArticle5(3)(a)of Directive2001/29/EC.
  23. 23. 22 jointresearch,shouldremain covered,whereapplicable, bytheexceptionorlimitation providedforinArticle 5(3)(a)ofDirective 2001/29/EC. 26.(12)Inviewofapotentially highnumberofaccessrequests toanddownloadsoftheir worksorothersubject-matter, rightholdersshouldbeallowed toapplymeasureswherethere isriskthatthesecurityand integrityofthesystemor databaseswheretheworksor othersubject-matterarehosted wouldbejeopardised.Those measuresshouldnotexceed whatisnecessarytopursuethe objectiveofensuringthe securityandintegrityofthe systemandshouldnot underminetheeffective applicationoftheexception. (12)Inviewofapotentially highnumberofaccessrequeststo anddownloadsoftheirworksor othersubject-matter,rightholders shouldbeallowedtoapply measureswherethereisriskthat thesecurityandintegrityofthe systemordatabaseswherethe worksorothersubject-matterare hostedwouldbejeopardised. Thosemeasuresshouldnot exceedwhatisnecessaryto pursuetheobjectiveofensuring thesecurityandintegrityofthe systemandshouldnotundermine theeffectiveapplicationofthe exception. (12)Inviewofapotentially highnumberofaccessrequests toanddownloadsoftheir worksorothersubject-matter, rightholdersshouldbeallowed toapplymeasureswherewhen thereisariskthatthesecurity andintegrityofthe systemtheirsystemsor databaseswheretheworksor othersubject-matterarehosted wouldcouldbejeopardised. ThoseSuchmeasurescould forexamplebeusedto ensurethatonlypersons havinglawfulaccesstotheir datacanaccessit,including throughIPaddress validationoruser authentication.These measuresshouldnotexceed whatisnecessarytopursuethe objectiveofensuringthe securityandintegrityofthe systemhoweverremain (12)Inviewofapotentially highnumberofaccessrequests toanddownloadsoftheirworks orothersubject-matter, rightholdersshouldbeallowedto applymeasureswhenthereisa riskthatthesecurityand integrityoftheirsystemsor databasescouldbejeopardised. Suchmeasurescouldfor examplebeusedtoensurethat onlypersonshavinglawful accesstotheirdatacanaccessit, includingthroughIPaddress validationoruserauthentication. Thosemeasuresshouldremain proportionatetotherisksand shouldnotexceedwhatis necessarytopursuethe objectiveofensuringthe securityandintegrityofthe systemandshouldnot underminetheeffective applicationoftheexception. Thesemeasuresshouldhowever
  24. 24. 23 proportionatetotherisks involvedandshouldnot underminetheeffective applicationofthe exceptionpreventormake excessivelydifficulttextand dataminingcarriedoutby researchers. remainproportionatetotherisks involvedandshouldnotprevent ormakeexcessivelydifficulttext anddataminingcarriedoutby researchers. 27.(13)Thereisnoneedto provideforcompensationfor rightholdersasregardsuses underthetextanddatamining exceptionintroducedbythis Directivegiventhatinviewof thenatureandscopeofthe exceptiontheharmshouldbe minimal. (13)Thereisnoneedto provideforcompensationfor rightholdersasregardsusesunder thetextanddataminingexception introducedbythisDirectivegiven thatinviewofthenatureand scopeoftheexceptiontheharm shouldbeminimal. (13)ThereisnoneedtoIn viewofthenatureandscope oftheexception,whichis limitedtoentitiescarrying outscientificresearchany potentialharmto rightholderscreatedthrough thisexceptionshouldbe minimal.Therefore,Member Statesshouldnotprovidefor compensationforrightholders asregardsusesunderthetext anddataminingexception introducedbythisDirective giventhatinviewofthenature andscopeoftheexceptionthe harmshouldbeminimal. (13)Inviewofthenatureand scopeoftheexception,whichis limitedtoentitiescarryingout scientificresearchanypotential harmtorightholderscreated throughthisexceptionshouldbe minimal.Therefore,Member Statesshouldnotprovidefor compensationforrightholdersas regardsusesunderthetextand dataminingexceptions introducedbythisDirective. 28.(13a)Inadditiontotheir significanceinthecontextof scientificresearch,textand dataminingtechniquesare widelyusedbothbyprivate (13a)Inadditiontotheir significanceinthecontextof scientificresearch,textanddata miningtechniquesarewidely usedbothbyprivateandpublic
  25. 25. 24 andpublicentitiestoanalyse largeamountsofdatain differentareasoflifeandfor variouspurposes,including forgovernmentservices, complexbusinessdecisions andthedevelopmentofnew applicationsortechnologies. Rightholdersshouldremain abletolicensetheusesof theirworksandother subject-matterfallingoutside thescopeofthemandatory exceptionprovidedforinthis Directiveandtheexisting exceptionsandlimitations providedforinDirective 2001/29/EC.Atthesame time,considerationshouldbe giventothefactthatusersof textanddatamining techniquesmaybefacedwith legaluncertaintyasto whethertemporary reproductionsand extractionswhichareapart oftheprocessoftextand dataminingmaybecarried outonpubliclyavailableand lawfullyaccessedworksand othersubject-matter,in particularwhenthe entitiestoanalyselargeamounts ofdataindifferentareasoflife andforvariouspurposes, includingforgovernment services,complexbusiness decisionsandthedevelopmentof newapplicationsortechnologies. Rightholdersshouldremainable tolicensetheusesoftheirworks andothersubject-matterfalling outsidethescopeofthe mandatoryexceptionprovided forinthisDirectiveandthe existingexceptionsand limitationsprovidedforin Directive2001/29/EC.Atthe sametime,considerationshould begiventothefactthatusersof textanddataminingtechniques maybefacedwithlegal uncertaintyastowhether temporaryreproductionsand extractionswhichareapartof theprocessofmadeforthe purposesoftextanddatamining maybecarriedoutonpublicly availableandlawfullyaccessed worksandothersubject-matter, inparticularwhenthe reproductionsorextractions
  26. 26. 25 reproductionsorextractions madeforthepurposesofthe technicalprocessmaynot fulfilalltheconditionsofthe existingexceptionfor temporaryactsof reproductioninArticle5(1) ofDirective2001/29/EC.In ordertoprovideformore legalcertaintyinsuchcases, thisDirectiveshouldenable theMemberStatesto provideundercertain conditionsforanexception orlimitationfortemporary reproductionsand extractionsofworksand othersubject-matter,insofar astheseformapartofthe textanddataminingprocess andthecopiesmadearenot keptbeyondthatprocess. Thisoptionalexceptionor limitationshouldonlyapply whentheworkorother subject-matterisaccessed lawfullybythebeneficiary, includingwhenithasbeen madeavailabletothepublic online,andinsofarasthe rightholdershavenot reservedtherighttomake madeforthepurposesofthe technicalprocessmaynotfulfil alltheconditionsoftheexisting exceptionfortemporaryactsof reproductioninArticle5(1)of Directive2001/29/EC. Inordertoprovideformore legalcertaintyinsuchcasesand toencourageinnovationalsoin theprivatesector,thisDirective should[enabletheMember Statesto]provideundercertain conditionsforanexceptionor limitationfor temporaryreproductionsand extractionsofworksandother subject-matter,insofarasthese formapartoftheforthe purposesoftextanddatamining processandallowthecopies madearenottobekeptbeyond thatprocessaslongasnecessary forthetextanddatamining purposes.Thisoptional exceptionorlimitationshould onlyapplywhentheworkor othersubject-matterisaccessed lawfullybythebeneficiary, includingwhenithasbeenmade
  27. 27. 26 reproductionsand extractionsfortextanddata mining,forexampleby agreement,unilateral declaration,including throughtheuseofmachine readablemetadataorbythe useoftechnicalmeans. Rightholdersshouldbeable toapplymeasurestoensure thattheirreservationsinthis regardarerespected.This optionalexceptionor limitationshouldleaveintact themandatoryexceptionfor textanddataminingfor researchpurposeslaiddown inthisDirective. availabletothepubliconline, andinsofarastherightholders havenotreservedtherightsto makereproductionsand extractionsfortextanddata miningforexampleby agreement,unilateraldeclaration, includingthroughtheuseof machinereadablemetadataorby theuseoftechnicalmeans.in anappropriatemanner.Inthe caseofcontentthathasbeen madepubliclyavailableonline, itshouldonlybeconsidered appropriatetoreservethe rightsbytheuseofmachine readablemeans,including metadataandtermsand conditionsofawebsiteora service.Otherusesshallnotbe affectedbythereservationof rightsforthepurposesoftext anddatamining.Inother cases,itmaybeappropriateto reservetherightsbyother means,suchasthismaybe expressedbycontractual agreementsorunilateral declaration,asappropriate. Rightholdersshouldbeableto
  28. 28. 27 applymeasurestoensurethat theirreservationsinthisregard arerespected.This[optional] exceptionorlimitationshould leaveintactthemandatory exceptionfortextanddata miningforresearchpurposeslaid downinthisDirective,aswellas theexistingexceptionfor temporaryactsofreproductionin Article5(1)ofDirective 2001/29/EC. 29.(13a)Toencourageinnovation alsointheprivatesector, MemberStatesshouldbeableto provideforanexceptiongoing furtherthanthemandatory exception,providedthattheuse ofworksandothersubjectmatter referredtothereinhasnotbeen expresslyreservedbytheir rightholdersincludingby machinereadablemeans. [deleted] 30.(14)Article5(3)(a)of Directive2001/29/ECallows MemberStatestointroducean exceptionorlimitationtothe rightsofreproduction, communicationtothepublic (14)Article5(3)(a)ofDirective 2001/29/ECallowsMember Statestointroduceanexceptionor limitationtotherightsof reproduction,communicationto thepublicandmakingavailable (14)Article5(3)(a)of Directive2001/29/ECallows MemberStatestointroducean exceptionorlimitationtothe rightsofreproduction, communicationtothepublic (14)Article5(3)(a)of Directive2001/29/ECallows MemberStatestointroducean exceptionorlimitationtothe rightsofreproduction, communicationtothepublicand
  29. 29. 28 andmakingavailabletothe publicforthesolepurposeof, amongothers,illustrationfor teaching.Inaddition,Articles 6(2)(b)and9(b)ofDirective 96/9/ECpermittheuseofa databaseandtheextractionor re-utilizationofasubstantial partofitscontentsforthe purposeofillustrationfor teaching.Thescopeofthose exceptionsorlimitationsas theyapplytodigitalusesis unclear.Inaddition,thereisa lackofclarityastowhether thoseexceptionsorlimitations wouldapplywhereteachingis providedonlineandtherebyat adistance.Moreover,the existingframeworkdoesnot provideforacross-border effect.Thissituationmay hamperthedevelopmentof digitally-supportedteaching activitiesanddistancelearning. Therefore,theintroductionofa newmandatoryexceptionor limitationisnecessaryto ensurethateducational establishmentsbenefitfrom fulllegalcertaintywhenusing worksorothersubject-matter tothepublicforthesolepurpose of,amongothers,illustrationfor teaching.Inaddition,Articles 6(2)(b)and9(b)ofDirective 96/9/ECpermittheuseofa databaseandtheextractionorre- utilizationofasubstantialpartof itscontentsforthepurposeof illustrationforteaching.The scopeofthoseexceptionsor limitationsastheyapplytodigital usesisunclear.Inaddition,there isalackofclarityastowhether thoseexceptionsorlimitations wouldapplywhereteachingis providedonlineandtherebyata distance.Moreover,theexisting frameworkdoesnotprovidefora cross-bordereffect.Thissituation mayhamperthedevelopmentof digitally-supportedteaching activitiesanddistancelearning. Therefore,theintroductionofa newmandatoryexceptionor limitationisnecessarytoensure thateducationalestablishments benefitfromfulllegalcertainty whenusingworksorother subject-matterindigitalteaching activities,includingonlineand acrossborders. andmakingavailabletothe publicofworksandother subjectmatterinsuchaway thatmembersofthepublic mayaccessthemfroma placeandatimeindividually chosenbythem(‘making availabletothepublic’),for thesolepurposeof,among others,illustrationforteaching. Inaddition,Articles6(2)(b) and9(b)ofDirective96/9/EC permittheuseofadatabase andtheextractionorre- utilizationofasubstantialpart ofitscontentsforthepurpose ofillustrationforteaching.The scopeofthoseexceptionsor limitationsastheyapplyto digitalusesisunclear.In addition,thereisalackof clarityastowhetherthose exceptionsorlimitations wouldapplywhereteachingis providedonlineandtherebyat adistance.Moreover,the existinglegalframeworkdoes notprovideforacross-border effect.Thissituationmay hamperthedevelopmentof digitally-supportedteaching activitiesanddistancelearning. makingavailabletothepublicof worksandothersubject matterinsuchawaythat membersofthepublicmay accessthemfromaplaceanda timeindividuallychosenby them("makingavailabletothe public"),forthesolepurposeof illustrationforteaching.In addition,Articles6(2)(b)and 9(b)ofDirective96/9/ECpermit theuseofadatabaseandthe extractionofasubstantialpart ofitscontentsforthepurposeof illustrationforteaching.The scopeofthoseexceptionsor limitationsastheyapplyto digitalusesisunclear.In addition,thereisalackofclarity astowhetherthoseexceptionsor limitationswouldapplywhere teachingisprovidedonlineand atadistance.Moreover,the existinglegalframeworkdoes notprovideforacross-border effect.Thissituationmay hamperthedevelopmentof digitally-supportedteaching activitiesanddistancelearning. Therefore,theintroductionofa newmandatoryexceptionor limitationisnecessarytoensure
  30. 30. 29 indigitalteachingactivities, includingonlineandacross borders. Therefore,theintroductionofa newmandatoryexceptionor limitationisnecessaryto ensurethateducational establishmentsbenefitfrom fulllegalcertaintywhenusing worksorothersubject-matter indigitalteachingactivities, includingonlineandacross borders. thateducationalestablishments benefitfromfulllegalcertainty whenusingworksorother subject-matterindigitalteaching activities,includingonlineand acrossborders. 31.(15)Whiledistancelearning andcross-bordereducation programmesaremostly developedathighereducation level,digitaltoolsand resourcesareincreasinglyused atalleducationlevels,in particulartoimproveand enrichthelearningexperience. Theexceptionorlimitation providedforinthisDirective shouldthereforebenefitall educationalestablishmentsin primary,secondary,vocational andhighereducationtothe extenttheypursuetheir educationalactivityforanon- commercialpurpose.The organisationalstructureandthe meansoffundingofan educationalestablishmentare (15)Whiledistancelearningand cross-bordereducation programmesaremostlydeveloped athighereducationlevel,digital toolsandresourcesare increasinglyusedatalleducation levels,inparticulartoimprove andenrichthelearning experience.Theexceptionor limitationprovidedforinthis Directiveshouldthereforebenefit alleducationalestablishmentsin primary,secondary,vocational andhighereducationtotheextent theypursuetheireducational activityforanon-commercial purpose.Theorganisational structureandthemeansof fundingofaneducational establishmentarenotthedecisive factorstodeterminethenon- (15)Whiledistancelearning andcross-bordereducation programmesaremostly developedathighereducation level,digitaltoolsand resourcesareincreasinglyused atalleducationlevels,in particulartoimproveand enrichthelearningexperience. Theexceptionorlimitation providedforinthisDirective shouldthereforebenefitall educationalestablishments inrecognisedbyaMember State,includingprimary, secondary,vocationaland highereducation.Itshould applyonlytotheextentthey pursuetheireducational activityforathattheusesare justifiedbythenon- (15)Whiledistancelearning andcross-bordereducation programmesaremostly developedathighereducation level,digitaltoolsandresources areincreasinglyusedatall educationlevels,inparticularto improveandenrichthelearning experience.Theexceptionor limitationprovidedforinthis Directiveshouldtherefore benefitalleducational establishmentsrecognisedbya MemberState,includingin primary,secondary,vocational andhighereducation.Itshould applyonlytotheextentthatthe usesarejustifiedbythenon- commercialpurposeofthe particularteachingactivity. Theorganisationalstructureand
  31. 31. 30 notthedecisivefactorsto determinethenon-commercial natureoftheactivity. commercialnatureoftheactivity. Whereculturalheritage institutionspursuean educationalobjectiveandare involvedinteachingactivities,it shouldbepossibleforMember Statestoconsiderthose institutionsasaneducational establishmentunderthis exceptioninsofarastheir teachingactivitiesareconcerned. commercialpurpose.ofthe particularteachingactivity. Theorganisationalstructure andthemeansoffundingofan educationalestablishment areshouldnotbethedecisive factorstodeterminethenon- commercialnatureofthe activity. themeansoffundingofan educationalestablishment shouldnotbethedecisive factorstodeterminethenon- commercialnatureofthe activity. 32.(16)Theexceptionor limitationshouldcoverdigital usesofworksandother subject-mattersuchastheuse ofpartsorextractsofworksto support,enrichorcomplement theteaching,includingthe relatedlearningactivities.The useoftheworksorother subject-matterunderthe exceptionorlimitationshould beonlyinthecontextof teachingandlearningactivities carriedoutunderthe responsibilityofeducational establishments,including duringexaminations,andbe limitedtowhatisnecessaryfor thepurposeofsuchactivities. Theexceptionorlimitation (16)Theexceptionorlimitation shouldcoverdigitalusesofworks andothersubject-mattersuchas theuseofpartsorextractsof workstosupport,enrichor complementtheteaching, includingtherelatedlearning activities.Theexceptionor limitationofuseshouldbe grantedaslongastheworkor othersubject-matterused indicatesthesource,including theauthors’name,unlessthat turnsouttobeimpossiblefor reasonsofpracticability.Theuse oftheworksorothersubject- matterundertheexceptionor limitationshouldbeonlyinthe contextofteachingandlearning activitiescarriedoutunderthe (16)Theexceptionor limitationforthesolepurpose ofillustrationforteaching providedforinthisDirective shouldcoverbeunderstoodas coveringdigitalusesofworks andothersubject-mattersuch astheuseofpartsorextracts ofworkstosupport,enrichor complementtheteaching, includingtherelatedlearning activities. […]* Inmostcases,theconceptof illustrationwouldtherefore implyusesofpartsor extractsofworksonly,which shouldnotsubstitutethe purchaseofmaterials GREEN (16)Theexceptionor limitationforthesolepurpose ofillustrationforteaching providedforinthisDirective shouldcoverbeunderstoodas coveringdigitalusesofworks andothersubject-mattersuchas theuseofpartsorextractsof workstosupport,enrichor complementtheteaching, includingtherelatedlearning activities. […]* Inmostcases,theconceptof illustrationwouldtherefore implyusesofpartsorextracts ofworksonly,whichshould notsubstitutethepurchaseof
  32. 32. 31 shouldcoverbothusesthrough digitalmeansintheclassroom andonlineusesthroughthe educationalestablishment's secureelectronicnetwork,the accesstowhichshouldbe protected,notablyby authenticationprocedures.The exceptionorlimitationshould beunderstoodascoveringthe specificaccessibilityneedsof personswithadisabilityinthe contextofillustrationfor teaching. responsibilityofeducational establishments,includingduring examinations,andbelimitedto whatisnecessaryforthepurpose ofsuchactivities.Theexception orlimitationshouldcoverboth usesthroughdigitalmeansinthe classroomwheretheteaching activityisphysicallyprovided, includingwhereittakesplace outsidethepremisesofthe educationalestablishment,for exampleinlibrariesorcultural heritageinstitutions,aslongas theuseismadeunderthe responsibilityoftheeducational establishment,andonlineuses throughtheeducational establishment'ssecureelectronic networkenvironment,theaccess towhichshouldbeprotected, notablybyauthentication procedures.Theexceptionor limitationshouldbeunderstoodas coveringthespecificaccessibility needsofpersonswithadisability inthecontextofillustrationfor teaching. primarilyintendedfor educationalmarkets.When implementingtheexception orlimitation,MemberStates shouldremainfreetospecify, forthedifferentcategoriesof worksorothersubject- matterandinabalanced manner,theproportionofa workorothersubject-matter thatmaybeusedforthesole purposeofillustrationfor teaching.TheUsesallowed undertheexceptionor limitationshouldbe understoodtocoverthe specificaccessibilityneedsof personswithadisabilityinthe contextofillustrationfor teaching. *[Thesecondandthirdphrase ofrecital(16)oftheCOM proposalweremovedtonew recital(16a)Council'stext- seerow33] materialsprimarilyintended foreducationalmarkets.When implementingtheexceptionor limitation,MemberStates shouldremainfreetospecify, forthedifferentcategoriesof worksorothersubject-matter andinabalancedmanner,the proportionofaworkorother subject-matterthatmaybe usedforthesolepurposeof illustrationforteaching.The Usesallowedunderthe exceptionorlimitationshouldbe understoodtocoverthespecific accessibilityneedsofpersons withadisabilityinthecontextof illustrationforteaching. *[Thesecondandthirdphraseof recital(16)oftheCOMproposal weremovedtonewrecital(16a) Council'stext-seerow33] 33. (16a)Theuseoftheworksor othersubject-matterunderthe exceptionorlimitationshould beonlyinthecontextof GREEN (16a)Theuseoftheworksor othersubject-matterunderthe
  33. 33. 32 teachingandlearningactivities carriedoutunderthe responsibilityofeducational establishments,including duringexaminationsor teachingactivitiestaking placeoutsidethepremisesof educationalestablishments, forexampleinamuseum, libraryoranothercultural heritageinstitution,andbe limitedtowhatisnecessaryfor thepurposeofsuchactivities. Theexceptionorlimitation shouldcoverbothusesthrough digitalmeansofworksand othersubjectmattermadein theclassroomandonlineuses orinothervenuesthrough digitalmeans,forexample electronicwhiteboardsor digitaldeviceswhichmaybe connectedtotheInternet,as wellasusesmadeata distancethroughthe educationalestablishment's secureelectronicnetworks, suchasonlinecoursesor accesstoteachingmaterial complementingagiven course.Secureelectronic networksshouldbe exceptionorlimitationshouldbe onlyinthecontextofteaching andlearningactivitiescarriedout undertheresponsibilityof educationalestablishments, includingduringexaminations orteachingactivitiestaking placeoutsidethepremisesof educationalestablishments,for exampleinamuseum,library oranotherculturalheritage institution,andbelimitedto whatisnecessaryforthepurpose ofsuchactivities.Theexception orlimitationshouldcoverboth usesthroughdigitalmeansof worksandothersubject mattermadeintheclassroom andonlineusesorinother venuesthroughdigitalmeans, forexampleelectronic whiteboardsordigitaldevices whichmaybeconnectedtothe Internet,aswellasusesmade atadistancethroughthe educationalestablishment's secureelectronicnetworks environments,suchasonline coursesoraccesstoteaching materialcomplementinga givencourse.Secureelectronic networksenvironmentsshould
  34. 34. 33 understoodasdigital teachingandlearning environmentstheaccessto whichshouldbeprotectedis limitedtotheeducational establishment'steachingstaff andtothepupilsorstudents enrolledinastudy programme,notablythrough appropriateauthentication procedures,including passwordbased authentication. [Phrasesofnewrecital(16a) weretakenfromrecital(16) (secondandthirdphrase)of theCOMproposal–seerow 32] beunderstoodasdigital teachingandlearning environmentstheaccessto whichshouldbeprotectedis limitedtotheeducational establishment'steachingstaff andtothepupilsorstudents enrolledinastudy programme,notablythrough appropriateauthentication procedures,includingpassword basedauthentication. 34.(16a)Asecureelectronic environmentshouldbe understoodasadigitalteaching andlearningenvironment, accesstowhichislimited throughanappropriate authenticationproceduretothe educationalestablishment’s teachingstaffandtothepupils orstudentsenrolledinastudy programme. [Deletion]
  35. 35. 34 35.(17)Differentarrangements, basedontheimplementationof theexceptionprovidedforin Directive2001/29/ECoron licensingagreementscovering furtheruses,areinplaceina numberofMemberStatesin ordertofacilitateeducational usesofworksandother subject-matter.Such arrangementshaveusually beendevelopedtakingaccount oftheneedsofeducational establishmentsanddifferent levelsofeducation.Whereasit isessentialtoharmonisethe scopeofthenewmandatory exceptionorlimitationin relationtodigitalusesand cross-borderteaching activities,themodalitiesof implementationmaydiffer fromaMemberStateto another,totheextenttheydo nothampertheeffective applicationoftheexceptionor limitationorcross-borderuses. ThisshouldallowMember Statestobuildontheexisting arrangementsconcludedat nationallevel.Inparticular, MemberStatescoulddecideto (17)Differentarrangements, basedontheimplementationof theexceptionprovidedforin Directive2001/29/ECoron licensingagreementscovering furtheruses,areinplaceina numberofMemberStatesinorder tofacilitateeducationalusesof worksandothersubject-matter. Sucharrangementshaveusually beendevelopedtakingaccountof theneedsofeducational establishmentsanddifferentlevels ofeducation.Whereasitis essentialtoharmonisethescope ofthenewmandatoryexception orlimitationinrelationtodigital usesandcross-borderteaching activities,themodalitiesof implementationmaydifferfroma MemberStatetoanother,tothe extenttheydonothamperthe effectiveapplicationofthe exceptionorlimitationorcross- borderuses.Thisshouldallow MemberStatestobuildonthe existingarrangementsconcluded atnationallevel.Inparticular, MemberStatescoulddecideto subjecttheapplicationofthe exceptionorlimitation,fullyor partially,totheavailabilityof (17)Differentarrangements, basedontheimplementationof theexceptionprovidedforin Directive2001/29/ECoron licensingagreementscovering furtheruses,areinplaceina numberofMemberStatesin ordertofacilitateeducational usesofworksandother subject-matter.Such arrangementshaveusually beendevelopedtakingaccount oftheneedsofeducational establishmentsanddifferent levelsofeducation.Whereasit isessentialtoharmonisethe scopeofthenewmandatory exceptionorlimitationin relationtodigitalusesand cross-borderteaching activities,themodalitiesof implementationmaydiffer fromaMemberStateto another,totheextenttheydo nothampertheeffective applicationoftheexceptionor limitationorcross-borderuses. MemberStatesshouldfor exampleremainfreeto requirethattheuseofworks andothersubjectmatter shouldrespectmoralrights GREEN (17)Differentarrangements, basedontheimplementationof theexceptionprovidedforin Directive2001/29/ECoron licensingagreementscovering furtheruses,areinplaceina numberofMemberStatesin ordertofacilitateeducational usesofworksandothersubject- matter.Sucharrangementshave usuallybeendevelopedtaking accountoftheneedsof educationalestablishmentsand differentlevelsofeducation. Whereasitisessentialto harmonisethescopeofthenew mandatoryexceptionor limitationinrelationtodigital usesandcross-borderteaching activities,themodalitiesof implementationmaydifferfrom aMemberStatetoanother,tothe extenttheydonothamperthe effectiveapplicationofthe exceptionorlimitationorcross- borderuses.MemberStates shouldforexampleremainfree torequirethattheuseofworks andothersubjectmatter shouldrespectmoralrightsof
  36. 36. 35 subjecttheapplicationofthe exceptionorlimitation,fullyor partially,totheavailabilityof adequatelicences,coveringat leastthesameusesasthose allowedundertheexception. Thismechanismwould,for example,allowgiving precedencetolicencesfor materialswhichareprimarily intendedfortheeducational market.Inordertoavoidthat suchmechanismresultsin legaluncertaintyor administrativeburdenfor educationalestablishments, MemberStatesadoptingthis approachshouldtakeconcrete measurestoensurethat licensingschemesallowing digitalusesofworksorother subject-matterforthepurpose ofillustrationforteachingare easilyavailableandthat educationalestablishmentsare awareoftheexistenceofsuch licensingschemes. adequatelicences,covering.Such licencescantaketheformof collectivelicensingagreements, extendedcollectivelicensing agreementsandlicencesthatare negotiatedcollectivelysuchas “blanketlicences”,inorderto avoideducationalestablishments havingtonegotiateindividually withrightholders.Suchlicenses shouldbeaffordableandcoverat leastthesameusesasthose allowedundertheexception.This mechanismwould,forexample, allowgivingprecedenceto licencesformaterialswhichare primarilyintendedforthe educationalmarket,orfor teachingineducational establishmentsorsheetmusic.In ordertoavoidthatsuch mechanismresultsinlegal uncertaintyoradministrative burdenforeducational establishments,MemberStates adoptingthisapproachshould takeconcretemeasurestoensure thatsuchlicensingschemes allowingdigitalusesofworksor othersubject-matterforthe purposeofillustrationfor teachingareeasilyavailableand ofauthorsandperformers. ThisshouldallowMember Statestobuildontheexisting arrangementsconcludedat nationallevel.Inparticular, MemberStatescoulddecideto subjecttheapplicationofthe exceptionorlimitation,fullyor partially,totheavailabilityof adequatelicences,coveringat leastthesameusesasthose allowedundertheexception. ThisMemberStatescould notablyusethismechanism would,forexample,allow givingtogiveprecedenceto licencesformaterialswhich areprimarilyintendedforthe educationalmarketorfor sheetmusic.Inordertoavoid thatsuchmechanismresultsin legaluncertaintyor administrativeburdenfor educationalestablishments, MemberStatesadoptingthis approachshouldtakeconcrete measurestoensurethat rightholdersmakethe licensingschemesallowing digitalusesofworksorother subject-matterforthepurpose ofillustrationforteachingare authorsandperformers.This shouldallowMemberStatesto buildontheexisting arrangementsconcludedat nationallevel.Inparticular, MemberStatescoulddecideto subjecttheapplicationofthe exceptionorlimitation,fullyor partially,totheavailabilityof adequatelicencescoveringat leastthesameusesasthose allowedundertheexception. MemberStatesshouldensure thatwherelicensescoveronly partiallytheusesallowed undertheexception,allthe otherusesremainsubjectto theexception.MemberStates couldforexampleusethis mechanismtogiveprecedence tolicencesformaterialswhich areprimarilyintendedforthe educationalmarketorforsheet music. Inordertoavoidthatthe possibilitytosubjectthe applicationoftheexceptionto theavailabilityoflicences resultsinlegaluncertaintyor administrativeburdenfor educationalestablishments, MemberStatesadoptingthis
  37. 37. 36 thateducationalestablishments areawareoftheexistenceofsuch licensingschemes.Member Statesshouldbeabletoprovide forsystemstoensurethatthereis faircompensationfor rightholdersforusesunderthose exceptionsorlimitations. MemberStatesshouldbe encouragedtousesystemsthat donotcreateanadministrative burden,suchassystemsthat provideforone-offpayments. [SeeCouncil’srecital(17a)-row 36] easilyavailableandthat educationalestablishmentsare awareoftheexistenceofsuch licensingschemes.Such measuresmayincludethe developmentoflicensing schemestailoredtotheneeds ofeducationalestablishments andthedevelopmentof informationtoolsaimedat ensuringthevisibilityofthe existinglicensingschemes. approachshouldtakeconcrete measurestoensurethatright holdersmakethelicensing schemesallowingdigitalusesof worksorothersubject-matterfor thepurposeofillustrationfor teachingareeasilyavailableand thateducationalestablishments areawareoftheexistenceof suchlicensingschemes.Such licensingschemesmeasures mayincludethedevelopment oflicensingschemestailoredto shouldmeettheneedsof educationalestablishments. andthedevelopmentof Informationtoolsaimingat ensuringthevisibilityofthe existinglicensingschemes couldalsobedeveloped. Suchschemescould,for example,bebasedoncollective licensingoronextended collectivelicensinginorderto avoideducational establishmentshavingto negotiateindividuallywith rightholders.Inorderto guaranteelegalcertainty, MemberStatesshouldspecify underwhichconditionsan educationalestablishmentmay
  38. 38. 37 useprotectedworksorother subject-matterunderthat exceptionand,conversely, whenitshouldactundera licensingscheme. 36.(17a)MemberStatesshould remainfreetoprovidethat rightholdersreceivefair compensationforthedigital usesoftheirworksorother subject-matterunderthe exceptionorlimitationfor illustrationforteaching providedforinthis Directive.Forthepurposes ofdeterminingthepossible leveloffaircompensation, dueaccountshouldbetaken, interalia,ofMemberStates' educationalobjectivesandof theharmtorightholders. GREEN (17a)MemberStatesshould remainfreetoprovidethat rightholdersreceivefair compensationforthedigitaluses oftheirworksorothersubject- matterundertheexceptionor limitationforillustrationfor teachingprovidedforinthis Directive.Forthepurposesof determiningthepossiblelevelof faircompensation,dueaccount shouldbetaken,interalia,of MemberStates'educational objectivesandoftheharmto rightholders.MemberStates decidingtoprovideforfair compensationshouldencourage theuseofsystems,whichdonot createadministrativeburdenfor educationalestablishments. 37.(17a)Inordertoguarantee legalcertaintywhenaMember [movedunderrecital17(row 35)]
  39. 39. 38 Statedecidestosubjectthe applicationoftheexceptionto theavailabilityofadequate licences,itisnecessarytospecify underwhichconditionsan educationalestablishmentmay useprotectedworksorother subject-matterunderthat exceptionand,conversely,when itshouldactunderalicensing scheme. 38.(18)Anactofpreservation mayrequireareproductionofa workorothersubject-matterin thecollectionofacultural heritageinstitutionand consequentlytheauthorisation oftherelevantrightholders. Culturalheritageinstitutions areengagedinthepreservation oftheircollectionsforfuture generations.Digital technologiesoffernewwaysto preservetheheritagecontained inthosecollectionsbutthey alsocreatenewchallenges.In viewofthesenewchallenges, itisnecessarytoadaptthe currentlegalframeworkby providingamandatory exceptiontotherightof (18)Anactofpreservationofa workorothersubject-matterin thecollectionofacultural heritageinstitutionmayrequirea reproductionofaworkorother subject-matterinthecollectionof aculturalheritageinstitutionand consequentlyrequirethe authorisationoftherelevant rightholders.Culturalheritage institutionsareengagedinthe preservationoftheircollections forfuturegenerations.Digital technologiesoffernewwaysto preservetheheritagecontainedin thosecollectionsbuttheyalso createnewchallenges.Inviewof thesenewchallenges,itis necessarytoadaptthecurrent legalframeworkbyprovidinga (18)Anactofpreservation mayrequireareproductionof aworkorothersubject-matter inthecollectionofacultural heritageinstitutionmay requireareproductionand consequentlytheauthorisation oftherelevantrightholders. Culturalheritageinstitutions areengagedinthepreservation oftheircollectionsforfuture generations.Digital technologiesoffernewwaysto preservetheheritagecontained inthosecollectionsbutthey alsocreatenewchallenges.In viewofthesenewchallenges, itisnecessarytoadaptthe currentlegalframeworkby providingamandatory [theorderoffirstandsecond sentencewasinverted] (18)Culturalheritage institutionsareengagedinthe preservationoftheircollections forfuturegenerations.Anactof preservationofaworkorother subject-matterinthecollection ofaculturalheritageinstitution mayrequireareproductionofa workorothersubject-matterin thecollectionofacultural heritageinstitutionand consequentlyrequirethe authorisationoftherelevant rightholders.Culturalheritage institutionsareengagedinthe preservationoftheircollections forfuturegenerations.Digital technologiesoffernewwaysto
  40. 40. 39 reproductioninordertoallow thoseactsofpreservation. mandatoryexceptiontotheright ofreproductioninordertoallow thoseactsofpreservationbysuch institutions. exceptiontotherightof reproductioninordertoallow thoseactsofpreservation. preservetheheritagecontained inthosecollectionsbuttheyalso createnewchallenges.Inviewof thesenewchallenges,itis necessarytoadaptthecurrent legalframeworkbyprovidinga mandatoryexceptiontotheright ofreproductioninordertoallow thoseactsofpreservationby suchinstitutions. 39.(19)Differentapproachesin theMemberStatesforactsof preservationbycultural heritageinstitutionshamper cross-bordercooperationand thesharingofmeansof preservationbycultural heritageinstitutionsinthe internalmarket,leadingtoan inefficientuseofresources. (19)Differentapproachesinthe MemberStatesforactsof reproductionforpreservationby culturalheritageinstitutions hampercross-bordercooperation, andthesharingofmeansof preservationbyculturalheritage institutionsintheinternalmarket, andtheestablishmentofcross- borderpreservationnetworksin theinternalmarketorganisations thatareengagedinpreservation, leadingtoaninefficientuseof resources.Thiscanhavea negativeimpactonthe preservationofculturalheritage. (19)Differentapproachesin theMemberStatesforactsof preservationbycultural heritageinstitutionshamper cross-bordercooperationand thesharingofmeansof preservationbycultural heritagesuchinstitutionsinthe internalmarket,leadingtoan inefficientuseofresources. (19)Differentapproachesinthe MemberStatesforactsof reproductionforpreservationby culturalheritageinstitutions hampercross-border cooperation,andthesharingof meansofpreservationby culturalheritageinstitutionsin theinternalmarket,andthe establishmentofcross-border preservationnetworksinthe internalmarketbysuch institutionsleadingtoan inefficientuseofresources.This canhaveanegativeimpacton thepreservationofcultural heritage. 40.(20)MemberStatesshould thereforeberequiredto provideforanexceptionto (20)MemberStatesshould thereforeberequiredtoprovide foranexceptiontopermitcultural (20)MemberStatesshould thereforeberequiredto provideforanexceptionto (20)MemberStatesshould thereforeberequiredtoprovide foranexceptiontopermit
  41. 41. 40 permitculturalheritage institutionstoreproduceworks andothersubject-matter permanentlyintheir collectionsforpreservation purposes,forexampleto addresstechnological obsolescenceorthe degradationoforiginal supports.Suchanexception shouldallowforthemakingof copiesbytheappropriate preservationtool,meansor technology,intherequired numberandatanypointinthe lifeofaworkorothersubject- mattertotheextentrequiredin ordertoproduceacopyfor preservationpurposesonly. heritageinstitutionstoreproduce worksandothersubject-matter permanentlyintheircollections forpreservationpurposes,for exampletoaddresstechnological obsolescenceorthedegradation oforiginalsupportsortoinsure works.Suchanexceptionshould allowforthemakingofcopiesby theappropriatepreservationtool, meansortechnology,inany formatormedium,intherequired number,atanypointinthelifeof aworkorothersubject-matter andtotheextentrequiredinorder toproduceacopyforpreservation purposesonly.Thearchivesof researchorganisationsorpublic- servicebroadcasting organisationsshouldbe consideredculturalheritage institutionsandtherefore beneficiariesofthisexception. MemberStatesshould,forthe purposeofthisexception,beable tomaintainprovisionstotreat publiclyaccessiblegalleriesas museums. permitculturalheritage institutionstoreproduceworks andothersubject-matter permanentlyintheir collectionsforpreservation purposes,forexampleto addresstechnological obsolescenceorthe degradationoforiginal supports.Suchanexception shouldallowforthemakingof copiesbytheappropriate preservationtool,meansor technology,intherequired numberandatanypointinthe lifeofaworkorothersubject- mattertotheextentrequiredin ordertoproduceacopyfor preservationpurposesonly. Actsofreproduction undertakenbycultural heritageinstitutionsfor purposesotherthanthe preservationofworksand othersubject-matterintheir permanentcollectionsshould remainsubjecttothe authorisationofrightholders, unlesspermittedbyother exceptionsorlimitations providedforbyUnionlaw. culturalheritageinstitutionsto reproduceworksandother subject-matterpermanentlyin theircollectionsforpreservation purposes,forexampletoaddress technologicalobsolescenceor thedegradationoforiginal supportsortoinsureworksand othersubject-matter.Suchan exceptionshouldallowforthe makingofcopiesbythe appropriatepreservationtool, meansortechnology,inany formatormedium,inthe requirednumberandatanypoint inthelifeofaworkorother subject-matterandtotheextent requiredinordertoproducea copyforpreservationpurposes only.Actsofreproduction undertakenbycultural heritageinstitutionsfor purposesotherthanthe preservationofworksand othersubject-matterintheir permanentcollectionsshould remainsubjecttothe authorisationofrightholders, unlesspermittedbyother exceptionsorlimitations providedforbyUnionlaw.
  42. 42. 41 41.(20a)Culturalheritage institutionsdonot necessarilyhavethetechnical meansorexpertiseto undertaketheactsrequired topreservetheircollections themselves,particularlyin thedigitalenvironment,and maythereforehaverecourse totheassistanceofother culturalinstitutionsand otherthirdpartiesforthat purpose.Underthis exception,culturalheritage institutionsshouldtherefore beallowedtorelyonthird partiesactingontheirbehalf andundertheir responsibility,including thosethatarebasedinother MemberStates,forthe makingofcopies. (20a)Culturalheritage institutionsdonotnecessarily havethetechnicalmeansor expertisetoundertaketheacts requiredtopreservetheir collectionsthemselves, particularlyinthedigital environment,andmay thereforehaverecoursetothe assistanceofothercultural institutionsandotherthird partiesforthatpurpose.Under thisexception,cultural heritageinstitutionsshould thereforebeallowedtorelyon thirdpartiesactingontheir behalfandundertheir responsibility,includingthose thatarebasedinother MemberStates,forthemaking ofcopies. 42.(21)Forthepurposesofthis Directive,worksandother subject-mattershouldbe consideredtobepermanently inthecollectionofacultural heritageinstitutionwhen copiesareownedor (21)Forthepurposesofthis Directive,worksandother subject-mattershouldbe consideredtobepermanentlyin thecollectionofacultural heritageinstitutionwhencopiesof suchworksorothersubject (21)Forthepurposesofthis Directive,worksandother subject-mattershouldbe consideredtobepermanently inthecollectionofacultural heritageinstitutionwhen copiesareownedor (21)Forthepurposesofthis Directive,worksandother subject-mattershouldbe consideredtobepermanentlyin thecollectionofacultural heritageinstitutionwhencopies ofsuchworksorothersubject- matterareownedor
  43. 43. 42 permanentlyheldbythe culturalheritageinstitution,for exampleasaresultofa transferofownershipor licenceagreements. matterareownedorpermanently heldbytheculturalheritage institution,thoseorganisations, forexampleasaresultofa transferofownershipor,licence agreements,alegaldepositora long-termloan.Worksorother subjectmatterthatcultural heritageinstitutionsaccess temporarilyviaathird-party serverarenotconsideredas beingpermanentlyintheir collections. permanentlyheldbythe culturalheritage institutionsuchinstitutions, forexampleasaresultofa transferofownershipor licenceagreementsor permanentcustody arrangements. permanentlyheldbysuch institutions,forexampleasa resultofatransferofownership orlicenceagreements,legal depositobligationsor permanentcustody arrangements. 43.(21a)Technological developmentshavegivenriseto informationsocietyservices enablingtheiruserstoupload contentandmakeitavailablein diverseformsandforvarious purposes,includingtoillustrate anidea,criticism,parodyor pastiche.Suchcontentmay includeshortextractsofpre- existingprotectedworksorother subject-matterthatsuchusers mighthavealtered,combinedor otherwisetransformed. [deletedandreplacedwith recital39a,row87,relatingto Article13(5),row237A] 44.(21b)Despitesomeoverlapwith existingexceptionsorlimitations, suchastheonesforquotation [deletedandreplacedwith recital39a,row87,relatingto Article13(5),row237A]
  44. 44. 43 andparody,notallcontentthat isuploadedormadeavailableby auserthatreasonablyincludes extractsofprotectedworksor othersubject-matteriscoveredby Article5ofDirective 2001/29/EC.Asituationofthis typecreateslegaluncertaintyfor bothusersandrightholders.Itis thereforenecessarytoprovidea newspecificexceptiontopermit thelegitimateusesofextractsof pre-existingprotectedworksor othersubject-matterincontent thatisuploadedormade availablebyusers.Wherecontent generatedormadeavailablebya userinvolvestheshortand proportionateuseofaquotation orofanextractofaprotected workorothersubject-matterfor alegitimatepurpose,suchuse shouldbeprotectedbythe exceptionprovidedforinthis Directive.Thisexceptionshould onlybeappliedincertainspecial caseswhichdonotconflictwith normalexploitationofthework orothersubject-matter concernedanddonot unreasonablyprejudicethe legitimateinterestsofthe
  45. 45. 44 rightholder.Forthepurposeof assessingsuchprejudice,itis essentialthatthedegreeof originalityofthecontent concerned,thelength/extentof thequotationorextractused,the professionalnatureofthe contentconcernedorthedegree ofeconomicharmbeexamined, whererelevant,whilenot precludingthelegitimate enjoymentoftheexception.This exceptionshouldbewithout prejudicetothemoralrightsof theauthorsoftheworkorother subject-matter. 45.(21c)Informationsocietyservice providersthatfallwithinthe scopeofArticle13ofthis Directiveshouldnotbeableto invokefortheirbenefitthe exceptionfortheuseofextracts frompre-existingworksprovided forinthisDirective,fortheuse ofquotationsorextractsfrom protectedworksorothersubject- matterincontentthatis uploadedormadeavailableby usersonthoseinformation societyservices,toreducethe scopeoftheirobligationsunder [deletedandreplacedwith recital39a,row87,relatingto Article13(5),row237A]
  46. 46. 45 Article13ofthisDirective. 45a.Theexpiryofthetermof protectionofaworkentailsthe entryofthatworkinthepublic domainandtheexpiryofthe rightsthatUnioncopyrightlaw providestothatwork.Inthe fieldofvisualarts,the circulationoffaithful reproductionsofworksinthe publicdomaincontributestothe accesstoandpromotionof culture(oraccesstocultural heritage).Inthedigital environment,theprotectionof thesereproductionsthrough copyrightorrelatedrightsis inconsistentwiththeexpiryof thecopyrightprotectionof works.Inaddition,differences betweenthenationalcopyright lawsgoverningtheprotectionof thesereproductionsgiveriseto legaluncertaintyandaffectthe cross-borderdisseminationof worksofvisualartsinthepublic domain.Therefore,itshouldbe clarifiedthatcertain reproductionsofworksofvisual artsinthepublicdomainshould notbeprotectedbycopyrightor
  47. 47. 46 relatedrights.Thisshouldnot preventculturalheritage institutionsfromselling reproductions,suchaspostcards. [textmoved(unchanged)tonew row66a] 46.(22)Culturalheritage institutionsshouldbenefitfrom aclearframeworkforthe digitisationanddissemination, includingacrossborders,of out-of-commerceworksor othersubject-matter.However, theparticularcharacteristicsof thecollectionsofout-of- commerceworksmeanthat obtainingthepriorconsentof theindividualrightholdersmay beverydifficult.Thiscanbe due,forexample,totheageof theworksorothersubject- matter,theirlimited commercialvalueorthefact thattheywereneverintended forcommercialuse.Itis thereforenecessarytoprovide formeasurestofacilitatethe licensingofrightsinout-of- commerceworksthatareinthe (22)Culturalheritageinstitutions shouldbenefitfromaclear frameworkforthedigitisationand dissemination,includingacross borders,ofout-of-commerce worksorothersubject-matter. However,theparticular characteristicsofthecollections ofout-of-commerceworksmean thatobtainingthepriorconsentof theindividualrightholdersmaybe verydifficult.Thiscanbedue,for example,totheageoftheworks orothersubject-matter,their limitedcommercialvalueorthe factthattheywereneverintended forcommercialuseorhavenever beenincommerce.Itistherefore necessarytoprovideformeasures tofacilitatethelicensingofrights inuseofout-of-commerceworks thatareinthecollectionsof culturalheritageinstitutionsand (22)Culturalheritage institutionsshouldbenefitfrom aclearframeworkforthe digitisationanddissemination, includingacrossborders,of out-of-commerceworksor othersubject-matter.thatare consideredoutofcommerce forthepurposesofthis Directive.However,the particularcharacteristicsofthe collectionsofout-of-commerce works,togetherwiththe amountofworksinvolvedin massdigitisationprojects, meanthatobtainingtheprior consentoftheindividual rightholdersmaybevery difficult.Thiscanbedue,for example,totheageofthe worksorothersubject-matter, theirlimitedcommercialvalue orthefactthattheywerenever (22)Culturalheritage institutionsshouldbenefitfroma clearframeworkforthe digitisationanddissemination, includingacrossborders,of worksorothersubject-matter thatareconsideredoutof commerceforthepurposesof thisDirective.However,the particularcharacteristicsofthe collectionsofout-of-commerce works,togetherwiththeamount ofworksandothersubject- matterinvolvedinmass digitisationprojects,meanthat obtainingthepriorconsentofthe individualrightholdersmaybe verydifficult.Thiscanbedue, forexample,totheageofthe worksorothersubject-matter, theirlimitedcommercialvalueor thefactthattheywerenever intendedforcommercialuseor
  48. 48. 47 collectionsofculturalheritage institutionsandtherebyto allowtheconclusionof agreementswithcross-border effectintheinternalmarket. therebytoallowtheconclusionof agreementswithcross-border effectintheinternalmarket. intendedforcommercialuse.It isthereforenecessaryto provideformeasuresto facilitatethecollective licensingofrightsinout-of- commerceworksthatare permanentlyinthecollections ofculturalheritageinstitutions andtherebytoallowthe conclusionofagreementswith cross-bordereffectinthe internalmarket. thattheyhaveneverbeen exploitedcommercially.Itis thereforenecessarytoprovide formeasurestofacilitatecertain usesofthecollectivelicensing ofrightsinout-of-commerce worksandothersubject-matter thatarepermanentlyinthe collectionsofculturalheritage institutions.,andtherebyto allowtheconclusionof agreementswithcross-border effectintheinternalmarket. 47.(22a)SeveralMemberStates havealreadyadoptedextended collectivelicencingregimes,legal mandatesorlegalpresumptions facilitatingthelicencingofout- of-commerceworks.However consideringthevarietyofworks andothersubject-matterinthe collectionsofculturalheritage institutionsandthevariance betweencollectivemanagement practicesacrossMemberStates andsectorsofcultural production,suchmeasuresmay notprovideasolutioninall cases,forexample,becausethere isnopracticeofcollective managementforacertaintypeof (22a)Legalmechanismsshould thereforeexistinallMember Statesallowingforlicences issuedbyrelevantand sufficientlyrepresentative collectivemanagement organisationstocultural heritageinstitutions,for certainusesofout-of- commerceworksandother subjectmatter,toalsoapplyto therightsofrightholdersthat havenotmandateda representativecollective managementorganisationin thatregard.Itshouldbe legallypossibleforthose licencestocoverallterritories

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