Cloud Computing Security Issues in Infrastructure as a Service” report
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Introduction of Cloud Computing
According to Gartner’s Hype Cycle Special Report for 2009, “technologies at the ‘Peak of
Inflated Expectations’ during 2009 include cloud computing, e-books and Internet TV, while
social software and micro blogging site have tipped over the peak and will soon experience
disillusionment among enterprise users”. Is cloud computing also heading for the trough of
The Internet is often represented as a cloud and the term “cloud computing” arises
from that analogy. Accenture defines cloud computing as the dynamic provisioning of IT
capabilities (hardware, software, or services) from third parties over a network. McKinsey
says that clouds are hardware-based services offering compute, network and storage capacity
where: hardware management is highly abstracted from the buyer; buyers incur infrastructure
costs as variable OPEX [operating expenditures]; and infrastructure capacity is highly elastic
(up or down).
Large companies can afford to build and expand their own data centers but small- to
medium-sized enterprises often choose to house their IT infrastructure in someone else’s
facility. A collocation center is a type of data center where multiple customers locate
network, server and storage assets, and interconnect to a variety of telecommunications and
other network service providers with a minimum of cost and complexity.
Software, Platform, and Infrastructure as a Service are the three main service delivery
models for Cloud Computing. Those models are accessible as a service over the Internet. The
Cloud services are made available as pay-as-you-go where users pay only for the resources
they actually use for a specific time, unlike traditional services, e.g., web hosting.
Furthermore, The pricing for cloud services generally varies according to QoS requirements.
The cloud deployment models, based on their relationship to the enterprise, are
classified to private, public, and hybrid. Public Cloud services are sold as Utility Computing,
while private Cloud refers to internal datacenters of an enterprise which are not available to
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the general public. Examples of emerging Cloud Computing Platforms include Microsoft
Azure1, Amazon EC22, and Google App Engine3. The confusion between Cloud and
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has prompted us to discuss this issue and offer a brief
comparison between them. SOA and Cloud Computing can be considered complementary
services sharing common characteristics. Hence, if SOA is a set of principles and
methodologies designed to facilitate systems integration and communication regardless of
development languages and platforms, Cloud Computing, on the other hand, is designed to
enable companies to utilize massive capacities instantly without having to invest into new
infrastructure, train new staff, or license new software.
Cloud Computing allows small and medium-sized businesses to completely outsource
their datacenter infrastructure, as well as large companies that need huge load capacities
without building larger expensive datacenters internally. Cloud Computing employs the
virtualization technology to offer a secure, scalable, shared, and manageable environment. In
short, regardless of the difference in designing purposes and the dependency of Cloud
Computing on virtualization technology, Cloud Computing might intersect with SOA in
Components as a Service, e.g., SOA via Web Service standards. Therefore, Cloud
Computing and SOA can be pursued independently, or concurrently as complementary
activities to provide an outstanding business.
Cloud Computing depends primarily on IaaS layer to provide cheap and pay-as-you-
go processing power, data storage, and other shared resources. This paper presents a detailed
and precise study of IaaS security and privacy concerns. We have investigated security for
each IaaS component: Service Level Agreement (SLA), Utility Computing (UC), Platform
Virtualization, Networks & Internet Connectivity, and Computer Hardware. Furthermore,
Cloud software’s security that impact on IaaS and on the whole Cloud Computing is
presented. We are interested in the IaaS delivery model because it is the foundation of all
other delivery models, and a lack of security in this layer affects the other delivery models
that are built upon IaaS layer.
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As we said previously, the term the cloud is often used as a metaphor for the Internet and has
become a familiar cliché. However, when “the cloud” is combined with “computing,” it
causes a lot of confusion. To define the term using a very broad sense, they contend that
anything beyond the firewall perimeter is in the cloud. A more tempered view of cloud
computing considers it the delivery of computational resources from a location other than the
one from which you are computing.
Cloud computing is about moving services, computation and/or data—for cost and
business advantage—off-site to an internal or external, location-transparent, centralized
facility or contractor. By making data available in the cloud, it can be more easily and
ubiquitously accessed, often at much lower cost, increasing its value by enabling
opportunities for enhanced collaboration, integration, and analysis on a shared common
Cloud computing models that encompass a subscription-based or pay-per-use
paradigm provide a service that can be used over the Internet and extends an IT shop’s
existing capabilities. Many users have found that this approach provides a return on
investment that IT managers are more than willing to accept.
Figure 2.1:- Cloud Computing.
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2.1 Cloud Architecture
In Cloud architecture, the systems architecture(A system architecture or systems architecture
is the conceptual model that defines the structure, behavior, and more views of a system. An
architecture description is a formal description and representation of a system) of the
software systems(The term software system is often used as a synonym of computer program
or software.) involved in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud
components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces,
usually web services. This resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs each
doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is
controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.
Figure 2.2:- Cloud Architecture.
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2.2 Cloud Components
Figure 2.3:- Cloud Component
A cloud computing solution is made up of several elements: clients, the data centre, and
distributed servers. As shown in Above Figure, these components make up the three parts of
a cloud computing solution.
Each element has a purpose and plays a specific role in delivering a functional cloud-
based application, so let’s take a closer look.
Clients are, in a cloud computing architecture, the exact same things that they are in a local
area network (LAN). They are, typically, the computers that just sit on your desk. But they
might also be laptops, tablet computers, mobile phones, or PDAs (Personal digital assistant
or Palmtop Computer)—all big drivers for cloud computing because of their mobility.
Anyway, clients are the devices that the end users interact with to manage their information
on the cloud. Clients generally fall into three categories:
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• Mobile -Mobile devices include PDAs or Smartphone’s, like a Blackberry, Windows
Mobile Smartphone or an iPhone.
• Thin -Clients are computers that do not have internal hard drives, but rather let the servers
do all the work, but then display the information.
• Thick -This type of client is a regular computer, using a web browser like Firefox or
Internet Explorer to connect to the cloud.
Thin clients are becoming an increasingly popular solution, because of their price and effect
on the environment. Some benefits to using thin clients include
• Lower hardware costs -Thin clients are cheaper than thick clients because they do not
contain as much hardware. They also last longer before they need to be upgraded or become
• Lower IT costs -Thin clients are managed at the server and there are fewer points of failure.
• Security -Since the processing takes place on the server and there is no hard drive, there’s
less chance of malware invading the device. Also, since thin clients don’t work without a
server, there’s less chance of them being physically stolen.
• Data security -Since data is stored on the server, there’s less chance for data to be lost if the
client computer crashes or is stolen.
The datacenter is the collection of servers where the application to which you subscribe is
housed. It could be a large room in the basement of your building or a room full of servers on
the other side of the world that you access via the Internet.
A growing trend in the IT world is vitalizing servers. That is, software can be
installed allowing multiple instances of virtual servers to be used. In this way, you can have
half a dozen virtual servers running on one physical server.
The number of virtual servers that can exist on a physical server depends on the size
and speed of the physical server and what applications will be running on the virtual server.
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2.2.3 Distributed Servers
In Distributed Servers, the servers don’t all have to be housed in the same location. Often, servers
are in geographically disparate locations. But to you, the cloud subscriber, these servers act as if
they’re humming away right next to each other.
This gives the service provider more flexibility in options and security. For instance, Amazon
has their cloud solution in servers all over the world. If something were to happen at one site,
causing a failure, the service would still be accessed through another site. Also, if the cloud
needs more hardware, they need not throw more servers in the safe room—they can add them
at another site and simply make it part of the cloud.
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CHAPTER - 3
Cloud Computing Deployment models
Cloud computing architects provides three basic service models
i. Public cloud
ii. Private cloud
iii. Hybrid cloud
IT organizations can choose to deploy applications on public, private, or hybrid
clouds, each of which has its trade-offs. The terms public, private, and hybrid do not dictate
location. While public clouds are typically “out there” on the Internet and private clouds are
typically located on premises, a private cloud might be hosted at a Collocation (share or
designate to share the same place) facility as well.
A number of considerations with regard to which cloud computing model they choose
to employ, and they might use more than one model to solve different problems. An
application needed on a temporary basis might be best suited for deployment in a public
cloud because it helps to avoid the need to purchase additional equipment to solve a
temporary need. Likewise, a permanent application, or one that has specific requirements on
quality of service or location of data, might best be deployed in a private or hybrid cloud.
3.1 Public clouds
Public clouds are run by third parties, and applications from different customers are likely to
be mixed together on the cloud’s servers, storage systems, and networks. Public clouds are
most often hosted away from customer premises, and they provide a way to reduce
111customer risk and cost by providing a flexible, even temporary extension to enterprise
If a public cloud is implemented with performance, security, and data locality in
mind, the existence of other applications running in the cloud should be transparent to both
cloud architects and end users.
Portions of a public cloud can be carved out for the exclusive use of a single client,
creating a virtual private datacenter. Rather than being limited to deploying virtual machine
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images in a public cloud, a virtual private datacenter gives customers greater visibility into its
infrastructure. Now customers can manipulate not just virtual machine images, but also
servers, storage systems, network devices, and network topology.
3.2 Private clouds
Private clouds are built for the exclusive use of one client, providing the utmost control over
data, security, and quality of service . The company owns the infrastructure and has control
over how applications are deployed on it. Private clouds may be deployed in an enterprise
datacenter, and they also may be deployed
at a collocation facility.
Private clouds can be built and managed by a company’s own IT organization or by a
cloud provider. In this “hosted private” model, a company such as Sun can install, configure,
and operate the infrastructure to support a private cloud within a company’s enterprise
datacenter. This model gives companies a high level of control over the use of cloud
resources while bringing in the expertise needed to establish and operate the environment.
3.3 Hybrid clouds
Hybrid clouds combine both public and private cloud models. They can help to provide on-
demand, externally provisioned scale. The ability to augment a private cloud with the
resources of a public cloud can be used to maintain service levels in the face of rapid
workload fluctuations. This is most often seen with the use of storage clouds to support Web
2.0 applications. A hybrid cloud also can be used to handle planned workload spikes.
Sometimes called “surge computing,” a public cloud can be used to perform periodic tasks
that can be deployed easily on a public cloud.
Hybrid clouds introduce the complexity of determining how to distribute applications
across both a public and private cloud. Among the issues that need to be considered is the
relationship between data and processing resources. If the data is small, or the application is
stateless, a hybrid cloud can be much more successful than if large amounts of data must be
transferred into a public cloud for a small amount of processing.
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Cloud computing Service Model
In practice, cloud service providers tend to offer services that can be grouped into three
categories: software as a service, platform as a service, and infrastructure as a service. These
categories group together the various layers with some overlap.
Table 4.1: - Cloud Computing Service Model
4.1 Software as a service (SaaS)
Software as a service features a complete application offered as a service on demand. A
single instance of the software runs on the cloud and services multiple end users or client
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The most widely known example of SaaS is salesforce.com, though many other
examples have come to market, including the Google Apps offering of basic business
services including email and word processing.
Although salesforce.com preceded the definition of cloud computing by a few years,
it now operates by leveraging its companion force.com, which can be defined as a platform
as a service.
4.2 Platform as a service (PaaS)
Platform as a service encapsulates a layer of software and provides it as a service that can be
used to build higher-level services. There are at least two perspectives on PaaS depending on
the perspective of the producer or consumer of the services:
• Someone producing PaaS might produce a platform by integrating an OS, middleware,
application software, and even a development environment that is then provided to a
customer as a service. For example, someone developing a PaaS offering might base it on a
set of Sun™ x VM hypervisor virtual machines that include a Net Beans™ integrated
development environment, a Sun Glass Fish™ Web stack and support for additional
programming languages such as Perl or Ruby.
• Someone using PaaS would see an encapsulated service that is presented to them through
an API. The customer interacts with the platform through the API, and the platform does
what is necessary to manage and scale itself to provide a given level of service. Virtual
appliances can be classified as instances of PaaS. A content switch appliance, for example,
would have all of its component software hidden from the customer, and only an API or GUI
for configuring and deploying the service provided to them.
PaaS offerings can provide for every phase of software development and testing, or they can
be specialized around a particular area such as content management.
Commercial examples of PaaS include the Google Apps Engine, which serves
applications on Google’s infrastructure. PaaS services such as these can provide a powerful
basis on which to deploy applications, however they may be constrained by the capabilities
that the cloud provider chooses to deliver.
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4.3 Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
Infrastructure as a service delivers basic storage and compute capabilities as standardized
services over the network. Servers, storage systems, switches, routers, and other systems are
pooled and made available to handle workloads that range from application components to
high-performance computing applications. Commercial examples of IaaS include Joyent,
whose main product is a line of virtualized servers that provide a highly available on-
4.4 Anything-as-a-Service (XaaS)
Which is also a subset of cloud computing? XaaS broadly encompasses a process of
activating reusable software components over the network. The most common and
successful example is Software-as-a-Service. The growth of “as-a-service” offerings has
been facilitated by extremely low barriers to entry (they are often accessible for free or
available as recurring charges on a personal credit card). As a result, such offerings have
been adopted by consumers and small businesses well before pushing into the enterprise
space. All “as-a-service” offerings share a number of common attributes, including little or
no capital expenditure since the required infrastructure is owned by the service provider,
massive scalability, multi tenancy, and device and location independence allowing
consumers remote access to systems using nearly any current available technology.
On the surface, it appears that XaaS is a potentially game-changing technology that
could reshape IT. However, most CIOs still depend on internal infrastructures because they
are not convinced that cloud computing is ready for prime time. Many contend that if you
want real reliability, you must write more reliable applications. Regardless of one’s view on
the readiness of cloud computing to meet corporate IT requirements, it cannot be ignored.
The concept of pay-as-you-go applications, development platforms, processing power,
storage, or any other cloud-enabled services has emerged and can be expected to reshape IT
over the next decade.
4.5 Virtualization and Private Clouds
Virtualization of computers or operating systems hides the physical characteristics of a
computing platform from users; instead it shows another abstract computing platform. A
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hypervisor is a piece of virtualization software that allows multiple operating systems to run
on a host computer concurrently. Virtualization providers include VMware, Microsoft, and
Citrix Systems. Virtualization is an enabler of cloud computing.
Recently some vendors have described solutions that emulate cloud computing on private
networks, referring to these as “private” or “internal” clouds (where “public” or “external” cloud
describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense). Private cloud products claim to
deliver some of the benefits of cloud computing without the pitfalls. Hybrid solutions are also
possible: building internal clouds and connecting customer data centers to those of external cloud
providers. It has been reported that Eli Lilly wants to benefit from both internal and external
clouds3 and that Amylin6 is looking at private cloud VMware as a complement to EC2. Other
experts, however, are skeptical: one has even gone as far as to describe private clouds as absolute
rubbish.7 Platform Computing has recently launched a cloud management system, Platform ISF,
enabling customers to manage workload across both virtual and physical environments and
support multiple hypervisors and operating systems from a single interface. VMware, the market
leader in virtualization technology, is moving into cloud technologies in a big way, with vSphere
4. The company is building a huge partner network of service providers and is also releasing a
“vCloud API”. VMware wants customers to build a series of “virtual data centers”, each
tailored to meet different requirements, and then have the ability to move workloads in the
virtual data centers to the infrastructure provided by cloud vendors.
Cisco, EMC and VMware have formed a new venture called Acadia. Its strategy for
private cloud computing is based on Cisco’s servers and networking, VMware’s server
virtualization and EMC’s storage. (Note, by the way, that EMC owns nearly 85% of
VMware.) Other vendors, such as Google, disagree with VMware’s emphasis on private
clouds; in return VMware says Google’s online applications are not ready for the enterprise.
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CHAPTER - 5
Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) Model
Understanding the relationships and dependencies between Cloud Computing models is
critical to understanding Cloud Computing security risks.
IaaS is the foundation of all cloud services, with PaaS building upon IaaS, and SaaS
in turn building upon PaaS as described in the Cloud Reference Model diagram. In this way,
just as capabilities are inherited, so are information security issues and risk. It is important to
note that commercial cloud providers may not neatly fit into the layered service models.
Nevertheless, the reference model is important for relating real-world services to an
architectural framework and understanding the resources and services requiring security
analysis. IaaS includes the entire infrastructure resource stack from the facilities to the
hardware platforms that reside in them. It incorporates the capability to abstract resources (or
not), as well as deliver physical and logical connectivity to those resources. Ultimately, IaaS
provides a set of APIs which allow management and other forms of interaction with the
infrastructure by consumers.
5.1 Key points to CSA model:
i. IaaS is the most basic level of service with PaaS and SaaS next two above levels of
ii. Moving upwards each of the service inherits capabilities and security concerns of the
iii. IaaS provides the infrastructure, PaaS provides platform development environment
and SaaS provides operating environment.
iv. IaaS has the least level of integrated functionalities and integrated security while SaaS
has the most.
v. This model describes the security boundaries at which cloud service provider's
responsibility ends and the consumer's responsibilities begin.
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vi. Any security mechanism below the security boundary must be built into the system
and above should be maintained by the consumer.
Figure 5.1:- Cloud Computing Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) Model
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Cloud Computing Security Issues
In order to ensure that data is secure (that it cannot be accessed by unauthorized users or
simply lost) and that data privacy is maintained, cloud providers attend to the following areas
in Security and Privacy issues.
Figure 6.1: - Security Architecture Design
A security architecture framework should be established with consideration of
processes (enterprise authentication and authorization, access control, confidentiality,
integrity, no repudiation, security management, etc.), operational procedures, technology
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specifications, people and organizational management, and security program compliance and
reporting. A security architecture document should be developed that defines security and
privacy principles to meet business objectives. Documentation is required for management
controls and metrics specific to asset classification and control, physical security, system
access controls, network and computer management, application development and
maintenance, business continuity, and compliance. A design and implementation program
should also be integrated with the formal system development life cycle to include a business
case, requirements definition, design, and implementation plans. Technology and design
methods should be included, as well as the security processes necessary to provide the
following services across all technology layers:
The creation of a secure architecture provides the engineers, data center operations
personnel, and network operations personnel a common blueprint to design, build, and test
the security of the applications and systems.
Design reviews of new changes can be better assessed against this architecture to assure
that they conform to the principles described in the architecture, allowing for more consistent
and effective design reviews.
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Deployment Model in Cloud Computing
7.1 Public Cloud
The deployment of a public cloud computing system is characterized on the one hand by the
public availability of the cloud service offering and on the other hand by the public network
that is used to communicate with the cloud service. The cloud services and cloud resources
are procured from very large resource pools that are shared by all end users. These IT
factories, which tend to be speciﬁcally built for running cloud computing systems, provision
the resources precisely according to required quantities. By optimizing operation, support,
and maintenance, the cloud provider can achieve signiﬁcant economies of scale, leading to
low prices for cloud resources. In addition, public cloud portfolios employ techniques for
resource optimization; however, these are transparent for end users and represent a potential
threat to the security of the system. If a cloud provider runs several datacenters, for instance,
resources can be assigned in such a way that the load is uniformly distributed between all
Figure 7.1 : Three users accessing a public cloud
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Some of the best-known examples of public cloud systems are Amazon Web Services
(AWS) containing the Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and the Simple Storage Service (S3)
which form an IaaS cloud offering and the Google App Engine with provides a PaaS to its
customers. The customer relationship management (CRM) solution Salesforce.com is the
best-known example in the area of SaaS cloud offerings.
7.2 Private Cloud
Private cloud computing systems emulate public cloud service offerings within an
organization’s boundaries to make services accessible for one designated organization.
Private cloud computing systems make use of virtualization solutions and focus on
consolidating distributed IT services often within data centers belonging to the company. The
chief advantage of these systems is that the enterprise retains full control over corporate data,
security guidelines, and system performance. In contrast, private cloud offerings are usually
not as large-scale as public cloud offerings resulting in worse economies of scale.
Figure 7.2: A user accessing a private cloud
7.3 Hybrid Cloud
A hybrid cloud service deployment model implements the required processes by combining
the cloud services of different cloud computing systems, e.g. private and public cloud
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services. The hybrid model is also suitable for enterprises in which the transition to full
outsourcing has already been completed, for instance, to combine community cloud services
with public cloud services.
Figure 7.3: Hybrid cloud usage
7.4 Community Cloud
In a community cloud, organizations with similar requirements share a cloud infrastructure. It
may be understood as a generalization of a private cloud, a private cloud being an
infrastructure which is only accessible by one certain organization.
Figure 7.4: Three users accessing a community cloud
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Although the term Cloud Computing is widely used, it is important to note that all Cloud
Models are not the same. As such, it is critical that organizations don't apply a broad brush
one-size fits all approach to security across all models. Cloud Models can be segmented into
Software as a Service (Saas), Platform as a service (PaaS) and Integration as a Service (IaaS).
When an organization is considering Cloud security it should consider both the differences
and similarities between these three segments of Cloud Models:
This particular model is focused on managing access to applications. For example, policy
controls may dictate that a sales person can only download particular information from sales
CRM applications. For example, they are only permitted to download certain leads, within
certain geographies or during local office working hours. In effect, the security officer needs
to focus on establishing controls regarding users' access to applications.
Figure 8.1:- Cloud Service Model
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The primary focus of this model is on protecting data. This is especially important in the case
of storage as a service. An important element to consider within PaaS is the ability to plan
against the possibility of an outage from a Cloud provider. The security operation needs to
consider providing for the ability to load balance across providers to ensure fail over of
services in the event of an outage. Another key consideration should be the ability to encrypt
the data whilst stored on a third-party platform and to be aware of the regulatory issues that
may apply to data availability in different geographies.
Within this model the focus is on managing virtual machines. The CSOs priority is to overlay
a governance framework to enable the organization to put controls in place regarding how
virtual machines are created and spun down thus avoiding uncontrolled access and potential
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CHAPTER - 9
THREATS AND SOLUTIONS SUMMARY FOR IAAS
Table 9.1: Threats and solutions summary for IaaS
A Security Model for IaaS (SMI) as a guide for assessing and enhancing security in each
layer of IaaS delivery model . SMI model consists of three sides: IaaS components, security
model, and the restriction level. The front side of the cubic model is the components of IaaS
which were discussed thoroughly in the previous sections. The security model side includes
three vertical entities where each entity covers the entire IaaS components. The first entity is
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Secure Configuration Policy (SCP) to guarantee a secure configuration for each layer in IaaS
Hardware, Software, or SLA configurations; usually, miss-configuration incidents could
jeopardize the entire security of the system. The second is a Secure Resources Management
Policy (SRMP) that controls the management roles and privileges. The last entity is the
Security Policy Monitoring and Auditing (SPMA) which is significant to track the system
life cycle. The restriction policy side specifies the level of restriction for security model
entities. The level of restriction starts from loose to tight depending on the provider, the
client, and the service requirements. Nevertheless, we hope SMI model be a good start for the
standardization of IaaS layers. This model indicates the relation between IaaS components
and security requirements, and eases security improvement in individual layers to achieve a
total secure IaaS system.
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In cloud computing, end-to-end security is critical. Building blocks from TCG and
commercial products built on these principles will help make the cloud environment more
secure. Ongoing research from TCG and operating system or device security vendors will
take advantage of the TPM using additional software to enhance its capability for cloud
computing. Other research on cloud computing security is under way at several companies.
Today, the good news is that most cloud security issues can be addressed with well-known,
The TPM can be an independent entity that works on behalf of cloud computing
customers. Inside every server in the cloud, the TPM and associated software can check what
is installed on each machine and verify the machine’s health and proper performance. When
it detects a problem, TNC technology can immediately restrict access to a device or server.
For securing data at rest in the cloud or in clients that access cloud data, self-encrypting
drives based on Trusted Storage provide the ultimately secure solution.
Organizations that have already implemented TCG-based solutions can leverage their
corporate investment in hardware, software and policies and re-use them for cloud
computing. If cloud computing represents an organization’s initial implementation of TCG-
based technology (used by the cloud provider), the rest of the organization should be re-
evaluated for areas where TCG technology can provide improved internal security, including:
activating TPMs, use of self-encrypting drives and network access control through TNC.
In an emerging discipline, like cloud computing, security needs to be analyzed more
frequently. With advancement in cloud technologies and increasing number of cloud users,
data security dimensions will continuously increase. In this paper, we have analyzed the data
security risks and vulnerabilities which are present in current cloud computing environments.
The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that, there is a need of better
trust management. We have built a risk analysis approach based on the prominent security
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issues. The security analysis and risk analysis approach will help service providers to ensure
their customers about the data security. Similarly, the approach can also be used by cloud
service users to perform risk analysis before putting their critical data in a security sensitive
At present, there is a lack of structured analysis approaches that can be used for risk
analysis in cloud computing environments. The approach suggested in this paper is a first
step towards analyzing data security risks. This approach is easily adaptable for automation
of risk analysis.
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