Hazard and Disaster Management
Engr. Muhammad Waqas Muneer
MS Transportation Engineering (NUST, Islamabad)
Department of Civil Engineering and Technology,
Institute of Southern Punjab (ISP), Multan.
4. Hazard is an event that has potential to cause
damage to life, property or environment
Risk is the probability of being harmed by the
Vulnerability = (probable degree of loss / susceptibility)
The concept of vulnerability focuses on limitations or lack of
access to resources
Disaster – event that causes damage to life,
property or environment
8. Presence of chemical at workplace
Disaster = Loss of
Risk = probability of
occurrence of being
harmed by chemical
Vulnerability = your immunity
Vulnerability describes the characteristics and
circumstances of a community, system or asset that
make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a
This definition identifies vulnerability as a characteristic
of the element of interest (community, system or
asset) which is independent of its exposure.
However, in common use the word is often used more
broadly to include the element’s exposure.
10. Types of Vulnerability
1. Physical Vulnerability
• determined by aspects such as population density levels, remoteness of a
settlement, the site, design and materials used for critical infrastructure and
2. Social Vulnerability
• refers to the inability of people, organizations and societies to withstand
adverse impacts to hazards due to characteristics inherent in social
interactions, institutions and systems of cultural values.
• Example: literacy, education, peace and security, basic human rights, etc.
Example: When flooding occurs some citizens, such as children, elderly and differently-able,
may be unable to protect themselves or evacuate if necessary.
3. Economic Vulnerability
• The level of vulnerability is highly dependent upon the economic status of
individuals, communities and nations.
For example, the poor are usually more vulnerable to disasters because they lack the resources.
4. Environmental Vulnerability
• Natural resource depletion and resource degradation are key aspects of
There are four (4) main types of vulnerability:
occurrence depends on Two Factors:
1. Hazard: the probability of occurrence of a
potentially damaging phenomenon,
2. Vulnerability: the degree of loss resulting
from the occurrence of the phenomenon.
12. Disaster – event that causes damage to
life, property or environment
Disaster management: Minimizing the adverse
impacts; if the event occurs.
Reducing the possibility or probability of an
event that can cause a disaster.
13. Social & Economic Aspects of Hazards
Hazards are natural phenomena, but their impacts
Their effects - result of the actions of human
Determined by the circumstances
Exposure to hazard
Different hazards – different risks and impacts
14. Social & Economic Aspects of Hazards
Hazards - significant social, environmental and
Immediate and/or long-term economic, social losses
Integration in the community
Health (e.g., disability)
Security (e.g., crime rate)
Physical Resources (property, money, etc.)
Land, Livestock, tools
Health and nutrition, food security
Political power and influence
15. Social & Economic Aspects of Hazards
Some examples of Social Aspects
• levels of literacy and education,
• the existence of peace and security,
• access to basic human rights,
• systems of good governance,
• social equity, positive traditional values,
• customs and ideological beliefs
• and overall collective organizational systems
16. Social & Economic Aspects of
• Recent flood of 2022 in Pakistan
18. Hazard and Disaster Investigation
• Investigation – a process to identify all possible causes
of an incident or reasons why a hazard is present and
corrective action required to eliminate or control a
Six steps for successful hazard investigation process.
19. Hazard and Disaster Investigation
• Hazard: “an unsafe condition or practice that could result in an
injury, illness, or damage to property or the environment”
• Incident: is “an unplanned or undesired event that has adverse
• Two major components that contribute to the cause of an incident.
• The “work element” is the condition or act that directly caused the
• The “root cause” is the system failure that allowed the work
element to become deficient or to occur.
• For example, a root cause may be a lack of preventive
maintenance that resulted in the fork truck leaking oil on the floor.
• Investigation – a process to identify all possible causes of an
incident or reasons why a hazard is present and corrective action
required to eliminate or control a hazard.
20. Will exposure to hazards in the workplace always
cause injury, illness or other adverse health effects?
Not necessarily. To answer this question, you need to know:
what hazards are present,
how a person is exposed (route of exposure, as well as how often and how much
what kind of effect could result from the specific exposure a person experienced,
the risk (or likelihood) that exposure to a hazardous thing or condition would cause an
injury, or disease or some incidence causing damage, and
how severe would the damage, injury or harm (adverse health effect) be from the
The effects can be acute, meaning that the injury or harm can occur or be felt as soon as a
person comes in contact with the hazardous agent (e.g., a splash of acid in a person's
eyes). Some responses may be chronic (delayed). For example, exposure to poison ivy may
cause red swelling on the skin two to six hours after contact with the plant. On the other
hand, longer delays are possible: mesothelioma, a kind of cancer in the lining of the lung
cavity, can develop 20 years or more after exposure to asbestos.
Once the hazard is removed or eliminated, the effects may be reversible or irreversible
(permanent). For example, a hazard may cause an injury that can heal completely
(reversible) or result in an untreatable disease (irreversible).