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-523875-409575Within the next decade it’s expected that California will not be able to support its growing population in the regions around its major cities. As design engineers it’s our job to find solutions that can effectively reduce the consumption of water and/or find new methods to increase its supply. University at BuffaloMAE 415Kemper LewisFall 2010Michael Tasevski, Brian Ivancic, David Pels, Jeff Scipioni, Chris Sudek, Justin Achard 2010California Water Crisis<br />Table of Contents TOC o "1-3" h z u Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc276532511 h 4Customer Requirements PAGEREF _Toc276532512 h 6Environmental: PAGEREF _Toc276532513 h 6Economical: PAGEREF _Toc276532514 h 6Efficiency: PAGEREF _Toc276532515 h 6Publication: PAGEREF _Toc276532516 h 7Quality: PAGEREF _Toc276532517 h 7Engineering Specifications PAGEREF _Toc276532518 h 8Environmental: PAGEREF _Toc276532519 h 8Economical: PAGEREF _Toc276532520 h 8Efficiency: PAGEREF _Toc276532521 h 9Publication: PAGEREF _Toc276532522 h 9Quality: PAGEREF _Toc276532523 h 9House of Quality PAGEREF _Toc276532524 h 10Weight Assignments for Customer Requirements: PAGEREF _Toc276532525 h 10Engineering Specification Difficulty Assignment: PAGEREF _Toc276532526 h 10House of Quality Trends PAGEREF _Toc276532527 h 11Design Alternatives Flow Chart PAGEREF _Toc276532528 h 12Design Alternatives PAGEREF _Toc276532529 h 13Energy Sources PAGEREF _Toc276532530 h 14Windmill Power PAGEREF _Toc276532531 h 14Buoys/Generation: Offshore Wave Energy Converter (OWEC Buoy) PAGEREF _Toc276532532 h 15Ocean Current PAGEREF _Toc276532533 h 16Solar: Parabolic: Trough Solar Concentration PAGEREF _Toc276532534 h 17Nuclear PAGEREF _Toc276532535 h 18Location PAGEREF _Toc276532536 h 19Bay Area PAGEREF _Toc276532537 h 19Open Coast PAGEREF _Toc276532538 h 20Shallow Shelf PAGEREF _Toc276532539 h 20Deep Shelf PAGEREF _Toc276532540 h 21Water Storage PAGEREF _Toc276532541 h 22Water Tower PAGEREF _Toc276532542 h 22Underground Reservoir PAGEREF _Toc276532543 h 23Valley Reservoir/Dam PAGEREF _Toc276532544 h 23Lake Reservoir PAGEREF _Toc276532545 h 24Water Collection PAGEREF _Toc276532546 h 25Boat Ballast PAGEREF _Toc276532547 h 25Pipe Line PAGEREF _Toc276532548 h 26Water Wells PAGEREF _Toc276532549 h 26Tidal Pools PAGEREF _Toc276532550 h 27Waste Management PAGEREF _Toc276532551 h 28Salt Disposal PAGEREF _Toc276532552 h 28Water Balancing PAGEREF _Toc276532553 h 29Alternative Selection PAGEREF _Toc276532554 h 30Screening Matrix PAGEREF _Toc276532555 h 30Decision Matrix PAGEREF _Toc276532556 h 32Final Concept Decisions PAGEREF _Toc276532557 h 33Appendix A: House of Quality PAGEREF _Toc276532558 h 34Appendix B PAGEREF _Toc276532559 h 35Appendix C PAGEREF _Toc276532560 h 36<br />Problem Statement<br />2603500264795<br />It is estimated that the population of California will reach 50 million by the year 2020 with a majority of this population increase in the Los Angeles Basin . That’s a 35% increase from the state’s current residence of 37 million people . It’s a known fact that in the coming years California will exceed its water supplies. The state has already begun using reserve stock that is held for catastrophes to near depletion in order to accommodate the growing population and political problems arising from the lack of clean water. The many regions use a multitude of methods and natural water resources to accommodate their needs. All of these are at capacity and the California Water Authority goes through great lengths to maintain water levels. Its’ becoming increasingly difficult to maintain proper levels so as to not destroy natural ecosystems and cause irreversible damage to the environment.<br />The State Water Project  provides nearly two-thirds of the current population in California. The project moves water from the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains down to the highly populated areas of California such as San Francisco and the LA Basin. It also ties into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the backbone of California’s water systems. This delta is the convergence of 5 major rivers into the San Francisco bay region and provides nearly 20 million people with clean water. Due to recent actions to protect the deltas and its species it has seen dramatic declines in its water output and put severe strain on the remaining water systems. The remaining water supplies include other lakes such as the Mono Basin and Owens Valley, underground basins, and as far away as the Colorado river, all supplied through a series of aqueducts.<br />016510There are many reoccurring issues with these systems . It’s becoming increasingly difficult to control the supply without running it out in dry seasons. The water flow needs to be maintained in order for there to be proper replenishments and no new diversions in new directions. Increasing environmental awareness is mandating the control of wildlife area and restricting the amount of water that can be supplied. Along with these problems, the multitude of aqueducts creates their own. The water systems are California’s largest energy consumers, using most of its power to carry water over elevations. <br />Though the systems helps to create power through hydro plants, it’s mostly used on itself and this doesn’t even include its large consumption of natural gas and diesel fuel used in wastewater treatment plants to pump wastewater, run treatment procedures, and process solids.<br />36385507620 With the future population increase, the California water crisis will cause a catastrophe if clean water production is not improved. To compensate for the 13 million person expansion, California must look to other sources of potable water. California happens to have one of the longest coastlines in the United States and will have an abundance of water to supply the state if it can be properly tapped through desalination. It can be a major turnaround if methods can be developed to mass produce large volumes of water for consumer use. There is no resource larger than the oceans, but can prove its own difficulties. Much of the same environmental impacts that affect the current system would need to be addressed in order to improve the process. It’s our job as engineers to prove an economical and functional system to cover California’s growing needs. We need to create a new system that can quickly be adopted into the current projects and provide answers for the population.<br />The California water crisis is of utmost importance to the nation because of what the state means to us. Its entire economy is based off the need of water, and none is greater than its agriculture. One out of every six jobs in California can be tied back to farming and produces over 400 different commodities. The state is the nation’s leading agricultural and dairy producer and supplies a large amount of the nation overseas economy. It’s important to be able to resolve the water shortage for millions of people to keep the economy alive and not create a massive problem that would affect the entire nation. The urban population is also a huge need that can’t function without this necessity. California runs off its few major hubs for commerce. All of these locations are near the coastline and can benefit tremendously if there was a system that took advantage of their proximity to the shore.<br />Customer Requirements<br />Consumers create a set of requirements and expectations for a new product to follow. Our new water system has to accomplish these by addressing each customer group. It needs to be able to answer technical, environmental, economic, and social concerns that a group may have.<br />Environmental:<br /><ul><li>Low Visibility of Process: Our customers do not want to see the process of desalination in their “backyard”; a low visibility process will be more attractive to them.
Wild Life Protection: The process can not have an adverse affect of the local Wild Life. The citizens and government have strict rules where they do not want fatalities or destruction of the habitat of the local Wild Life.
Green Power Usage: To lessen the environmental impact of the process a green source of power should be used for the process of desalination.
Low Air Pollution: The process should have little or no air pollution. The state of California may have good air pollution policy, but they still deal with some of the worst air quality issues in the U.S. They do not want another air polluting process.
Low Water Pollution: The process should have little or no pollution affects of the water. Desalination has a brine waste that has high salinity. This waste can harm the environment. The impact of this waste needs to be as minimal as possible.
Green facility: The facility(s) of the process need to be constructed with “green” in mind. The facility(s) construction its self needs to have as low as an environmental impact as possible.</li></ul>Economical:<br /><ul><li>Cheap Source: The new water source needs to be competitively priced against the current water sources. A cheap water source will be very appealing to our customers.
Beneficial: The source needs to provide for agricultural development as it’s the most rapid in the nation and leading food supply.
Implementation: The new system has to be incorporated to the current process to keep cost low and minimize its impact on energy needs.</li></ul>Efficiency:<br /><ul><li>Consistent Water: Customers want a consistent water source where they will never have to worry about being cut off from their water source. They need a source which is consistently ready to be used.
Low Energy Use: The customers will want the process to have as low of an energy use as possible. The state of California current has issues with energy usage too.</li></ul>Publication:<br /><ul><li>Positive Publication: The people of California are usually seen to be “ahead of the curve,” and they will want to have their new water source to show this. They will not have anything that will provide bad publication for their state.
Contingency Plan: In the case of a failure, the public needs to be reinsured that there will still be a supply to go off of and a way to temporarily increase other methods. A stoppage would have huge economical effects on the state. </li></ul>Quality:<br /><ul><li>Water Taste: We are trying to create a potable water source for our customer. Customers need to have trust in a new water source. If the new water source doesn’t taste like clean water there will be issues with the customers trust.
Clean Clear Look: We are trying to create a potable water source for our customers. Customers need to have trust in a new water source. If the water is not as clear as the current water sources (water bottle/tap water) they will not like the product and not trust it.
Good Water Smell: Our product needs to smell clean also. Customers will not trust water that smells different from the current sources.
Safe Water: Our customers need to be sure that they will be able to drink our product with no concern about the safety of the potable water. </li></ul>Engineering Specifications<br />Engineering Specifications are phrases engineers use to describe our desalination system and its characteristics that include applications that are based on the customer requirements. Below is a list of the Engineering Specs that we used along with their corresponding customer requirements.<br />Environmental:<br /><ul><li>Low Visibility of Process:
Facility Visibility: Any type of facility should not be visible from more than 2 miles away.
System Location: Piping and/or other water movement methods should be kept within low population density areas outside of communities.
Corrosion/Pipe Life: Pipe corrosion needs to last for 250 years before needing replacement.
Bacterial Level: The bacterial level must be below 2.5 CFU/ml</li></ul>House of Quality <br />Weight Assignments for Customer Requirements:<br />Each customer requirement has a different level of importance; therefore the requirements are weighted from 0-5 with 5 being most desirable and 1 being less desirable. The items with the highest weight such as low water pollution and consistent safe water are absolute essentials in implementing the system so they are weighted accordingly. Items weighted lower are still desirable but not a complete necessity in solving the California water crisis. Items of medium weight (2-3) are still important but not necessarily a driving factor.<br />Engineering Specification Difficulty Assignment:<br />The engineering requirements were developed to supplement the customer requirements. Each engineering requirement is designed to be maximized, minimized or targeted. For example we want to maximize the use of green energy sources, minimize the visibility of the facility, and the target waste water needs to be +/-5% salinity of the surrounding water. The engineering specifications are rated from 1-10 with 10 being most difficult. The items with the highest difficulty such as carbon footprint or plus or minus 5% salinity are either nearly impossible to achieve or are very expensive to implement. <br />House of Quality Trends<br />In order to develop an effective solution to the water crisis all of the customer requirements and engineering specifications need to be considered. The house of quality provides us with useful data in determining the direction of our water crisis solution. The lower section of the house of quality provides us with a way to discover the most important engineering specifications and how much they weigh in our overall design process. The Chart shown was directly taken from the house of quality. The highest weight/importance rated was energy source with 279.2 weight/importance and 8.2 relative weight. Being in California and their strong desire to go green it’s certain that a clean energy source would be highly desired. Water storage also received a high weight/importance of 265.3 and a relative weight of 7.5, this is strongly desired because water sources have run dry before and having a set amount of water aside would ensure a water shortage can be overcome. Water storage held a high weight because it has a strong relationship with highly rated customer requirements. System location was another crucial engineering spec with a weight/importance of 256.4 and a relative weight of 7.5. The system location was rated high because it affected many of the customer requirements. Some engineering specifications such as Chlorine Level, Fluorine Level, Bacteria Level, and water odor reduction are weighted around the middle, but these are absolute requirements for having a safe water system. Although these specifications are not weighted the highest they need to be met in order to implement a solution. The lower scoring specifications such as color units, desalination cost, and facility power are still somewhat important because the water cannot be extremely cloudy, however somewhat cloudy water similar to tap water will be acceptable. Desalination cost is again somewhat important, but since it is a considerably expensive process cost cannot be the most important factor. The facility power is directed to lower the costs of moving the water out to aqueducts and pipes to be less than 30% of the total power, this is a target that would help reduce energy consumption if met but is not an absolute necessity.<br />Design Alternatives Flow Chart<br />Design Alternatives<br />The design alternatives were generated based on 5 main categories listed at the top of the flow chart. The 5 categories (Energy, Location, Water Storage, Water Collection, and Waste Management) make up the different portions of our system. Each of the portions was generated from the engineering specifications based on their weight/importance in the house of quality. Each category was researched by a group member to discover possible solutions that could be implemented into our system. The multiple solutions were then organized into the flow chart above. Immediately we began connecting ideas to other categories that would work well. This lead to the generation of a few additions upon peoples initial brainstorms and completed our chart. Items currently used and still being developed was researched as possible engineering solutions to broaden options in our screening matrix.<br />Energy Sources<br />From the HOQ we can see that the energy source required to move the water and desalinate it is the most important design requirement for our system. Desalination currently takes large amounts of energy to process water and pumps used to move water are also high energy consumers. The following alternatives keep the environment in mind when finding sources of energy for our system. <br />Windmill Power<br />Alternative Description- Wind power in California has been being implemented for many years. By using wind energy to power our water desalination plant, we would not only increase our use of green energy, but after the initial start-up costs, the power is very economical. In 2004, California wind power produced over 4 million KW-hours of energy . We would be able to implement the current wind farms, and build more to compensate for our extra energy consumption. <br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsPower Output – 42% average efficiency, and 59 % maximum efficiency Green Energy Source – Wind power is 100% renewable so the power used for desalination will be 100% renewable assuming all the power being used is from wind energyCost –Initial start-up cost is high, but so is the return. Average cost is 3.5 cents/ KW hour. Visibility – Some people enjoy the look of wind mills, but on average they are not favorable. However, they will be mostly placed in rural parts of the state Current Use – Already implemented in California
ProsConsLow operating costGreen energyHigh return on costVarying power outputHigh start up costCan be an eye sore</li></ul>Buoys/Generation: Offshore Wave Energy Converter (OWEC Buoy)<br />Alternative description – California has a huge coastline where a large amount of energy is stored in the waves. These buoys can be deployed offshore in fleets, which would gather the necessary energy to pump the water from the ocean to the actual desalination facility. They are easy to install and are nearly maintenance free. The system uses a piston system causing a pumping motion as the waves bob the buoy up and down. This pumping motion is mechanically and hydraulically transformed to a rotary motion driving a generator .<br />lefttop<br />Figure 1: A parabolic trough solar concentrator used to heat water<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsPower Output – Units produce between 10kW-150kW annual mean powers. Complete systems produce 50-100 MWGreen Energy Source – IPS OWEC buoys are 100% renewable so the power used for desalination will be 100% renewable.Cost – Low production cost/kWhVisibility – Offshore so it is out of sight of the majority of the state.Current Use – In prototyping stage about to be implemented in Sweden.
ProsConsOffshore so they are out of sight of the state’s population100% renewable energyInexpensive to install and maintainElectricity is produced at the pump where it’s neededNeed multiple units to produce the needed powerCould cause problems with ship navigation routes</li></ul>Ocean Current<br />Alternative Description- Another alternative energy source is making use of the tides to turn a turbine as seen in figure 1. A generator which is connected to the turbine is placed under water in areas with high tide activity. The ocean is one of the earth’s greatest sources of energy, and also one of the most underutilized. The turbines have the ability to spin both directions to compensate for the tides coming in and exiting .<br />Figure 1<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsPower Output – The world’s first Tidal power turbine has a 1.2 MW capacityGreen Energy Source – Tidal power is 100% renewable so the power used for desalination will be 100% renewable assuming all the power being used is from wind energyCost –High capital cost, low running cost Visibility – Most of the system is submerged below waterCurrent Use – very few current systems, however California offers several prime locations
ProsConsLow operating costGreen energyHigh return on costLow visibility by publicTechnology is not being implemented currentlyHigh initial costPotential marine life fatality</li></ul>Solar: Parabolic: Trough Solar Concentration<br />Alternative description – California is a sunny state and solar power would be a great energy source. The use of parabolic trough solar systems that concentrates the suns solar energy on a vessel of ocean salt water would be a good energy source for desalination. Parabolic trough solar concentrators have been developed, fielded, and are currently producing clean solar-generated electricity in southern California . A parabolic trough solar concentrator can be seen in figure 1.<br />Figure 1:<br />-2413069215<br />Figure 1: A parabolic trough solar concentrator used to heat water<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsPower Output – 60-80% efficient heat transfer process, will eliminate power used for desalination.Green Energy Source – Solar power 100% renewable so the power used for desalination will be 100% renewable.Cost – Will depend on the amount of heat needed to produce target amount of water per day.Visibility – Will depend on the amount of systems needed to heat water high enough.Current Use – Already implemented in California
ProsConsThe average city in California has about 170 full sunny days 100% renewable energyTakes up SpaceHeat Loss due to Convection in long systemsWill still need another energy source for water pumps and valves.</li></ul>Nuclear<br />Alternative description – California is a state heavily focused in going green. Nuclear power generation emits a quite low amount of carbon dioxide. Another advantage of nuclear power is that the technology already exists and can easily be implemented into the power system. A single nuclear plant would generate enough power to run several desalination facilities as well as surrounding communities. Nuclear plants are often frowned upon due to the possibility of an accident, although due to high security and modern safety measures the possibility an accident is quite small .<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsPower Output – Nuclear power plants are capable of supplying over 6,500MW depending on the amount of reactorsGreen Energy Source – Low carbon emissions and somewhat sustainable sourceCost –High capital cost, low running cost (less than coal)Visibility – Highly visibleCurrent Use – Commonly used throughout the stateProsConsHigh power outputLow carbon emissionRelatively cheap power sourceHighly VisibleHarmful waste productsLarge start up costs</li></ul>Location<br />From the HOQ we can see that the location of the inlet is a key parameter in finding an engineering solution. A reliable and efficient source of water is important for obtaining a steady water source. This is very important due to the recent dry spots and droughts in other water sources. The following alternatives are evaluated to discover which option will be the best direction for our system.<br />Bay Area<br />Alternative Description- Due to California being a coastal state, it has a large number bays. A bay is an area mostly surrounded by land, and the water is usually calmer and shallower than the surrounding ocean due to the land acting as a natural break. There is usually heavy boat traffic due to the calm water, and bays offer a good location for ports.<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsIntake fatality- Marine life fatality will be relative high due to the calm, shallow water attracting lifeSystem location- Bays have a higher population density than the average coastline and thus has is a less than ideal for a desalination plantVisibility- dependant on intake method, however due to the higher population density visibility will be higher than desiredCost- cheaper cost due to a bay being an existing location that is easy to navigate
ProsConsShallow waterCalm waterCheap to implementEasy access to boatsHighly visibleHigh fatality of marine lifeHigh trafficPossible pollutionLarge population density</li></ul>Open Coast<br />Alternative Description- Due to California being a coastal state, it has a large amount of coastal shore. The costal shore is close to land so it is an easy access to collect the water. The down side of this choice is that since it is near land it will be easily visible and have an effect on the population.<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsIntake fatality- Marine life fatality will be relative high due to shallow water attracting lifeSystem location- Open coast have a higher population density than the average coastline and thus has is a less than ideal for a pipelineVisibility- dependant on intake method, however due to the higher population density visibility will be higher than desiredCost- cheaper cost due to closeness to land
ProsConsClose to landLarge amount of choicesCheap to implementHighly visibleHigh fatality of marine lifePossible pollutionLarge population density</li></ul>Shallow Shelf<br />Alternative Description- The shallow shelf is the shallow ocean water before the depth dramatically increases. It is highly populated with marine life and has a higher average temperature than deep sea water. Closer to the shore, the water tends to be less calm due to wave break and the ocean floor affecting current and tides .<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsIntake fatality- Marine life fatality will be higher than water intake at a bay, but less than that of the deeper ocean waterSystem location- The California coast is 840 miles long which offers many localesVisibility- Due to the many system location options, visibility can be minimizedCost- if shore reconstruction is necessary to accept different types of water intake methods, cost will be quite high, but if a point is chosen that requires less effort cost will be reduced
ProsConsMany options for locationsVisible can be minimizedHigh fatality of marine lifeRough waterCan be costly</li></ul>Deep Shelf<br />Alternative Description- The deep shelf is the location in the ocean that is located a few miles off shore where the depth drops tremendously. This location is away from any activity and would be the least interactive with the surround systems. The depth of the pipe would allow for no real changes in currents to keep a steady source flow.<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsIntake fatality- Marine life fatality will be relatively low due to the depth of the intake with low lightSystem location- The pipeline would be unharmed being out of the way of most activity, however, would be hard to perform maintenance onVisibility- The pipeline would be unseen do to the large depthCost- High cost do to the distance and depth of placement
ProsConsUnseen to populationLeast amount of wildlife at large depthsLeast amount of currents to disrupt the systemExpensiveHard to work on when problems</li></ul>Water Storage<br />From the HOQ and flow chart it is clear that water storage is an important factor for our system. A large storage location needs to be set aside if there is a sudden water shortage. Being able to sustain the state of California for a minimum of three days is one of the most highly weighted customer requirements. One common method of water storage is an artificial body of water also known as a reservoir. In order to supply clean water for three days for the entire state would require approximately 30 billion gallons. This correlates to .027 cubic miles. To achieve a volume to hold 30 billion gallons you would need an area 1 mile wide by 1.25 miles long, by 100 ft deep. This would not need to be a single reservoir; the area could be divided into smaller reservoirs near each major city or agricultural area. <br />Water Tower<br />Alternative description: A water tower is a large elevated water storage container constructed to hold a water supply at a height sufficient to pressurize a water distribution system. The use of on shore water towers would be used to produce pressurized reservoirs of water .<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsStorage – The largest Water Tower in the US can hold a half million gallons.Location – Water towers can be placed in both rural and urban areas.Current System – Large water towers will need to be constructed that the current system does not have.Facility Power – Water towers use their pressure head to deliver water but it will take power to pump the water to the higher elevations.
ProsConsHolds a pressure head that is potential energy for deliverySmall sizeEase of buildLow volume capacityExpensiveNeeds pumps to fill</li></ul>Underground Reservoir<br />Alternative Description- Underground Reservoirs are a place to store the now desalinated water for purification. Being underground the reservoir will be hidden from view and would not disrupt the surface of the land. They can be quite large in size to store massive amounts of water .<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsStorage System- The size to maintain 30 billion gallons of water would take more then one reservoir so a few reservoirs would be built near major citiesSystem Location- Being underground the reservoir would not disrupt the surround areaCurrent System- Not used often so it would be difficult to implement into the already used systemsFacility Power – It would take little power to pump the water to the reservoir, however massive pumps would be needed to pump the water out.
ProsConsUndergroundLarge areasLittle power to fillHard to implement into the already used water systemsPower need to pump back outDifficult to build</li></ul>Valley Reservoir/Dam<br />Alternative description – A dam is used in a valley at its narrowest point where the sides of the valley are used as most of the barrier of the reservoir. The water pressure created by water depth can provide a stream to provide nearby communities with water for agriculture .<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsStorage – The largest valley Reservoir holds 800,000 acre-feet of waterLocation – Valley Reservoir dams are generally located in low populated areasCurrent System – California currently has the largest valley reservoir in the US with their Diamond Valley.Facility Power – Valley reservoirs are generally located in elevated areas of the region and the force of gravity is used to move volumes of water. Pumps will need to move water to these areas since our water is gathered at sea level
ProsConsHolds a pressure head that is potential energy for deliveryLarge VolumesInexpensive when relating costs to amount of water heldEnvironmental damage to flooded valleyNeeds pumps to fillPrime locations far from coast</li></ul>Lake Reservoir<br />Alternative Description- Lake reservoirs are manmade water storage facilities. They can be constructed using many different materials and can be built in many different locations. California has many reservoirs already built, and in the water crisis they will not be full. This will allow us to build our systems in a close proximity to make use of them .<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsWater Storage- Reservoir would be required to hold .027 mi^3 which is obtainable with one, or many different reservoirsCurrent System- California currently has many options for reservoirs that could easily be implemented to hold 3 days worth of waterSystem Location - The reservoirs California already has are located all throughout the state. An ideal location could be chosen easilyFacility Power- A location chosen close to a current reservoir would result in a low power usage for water output
ProsConsAlready built-low costHold more than enough waterGravity can be used to reduce power requiredLocations pre-determinedRequire power to pump water in and out</li></ul>Water Collection<br />In order for the water desalination system to work a source of water needs to be fed into the system. There are many techniques for gathering water into a system that can be effective. The following alternatives were developed based on the HOQ and methods currently used.<br />Boat Ballast<br />Alternative Description- An innovative way to collect water is to use ships with empty hulls that can be filled while cruising. There would be intake ports throughout the hull of the boat, which would open to allow water to flood in. The ports would close after the hulls filled and then the water would be pumped out when the boat reaches port.<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsIntake Location- Anywhere in the ocean, the boats are portable.Intake Fatality- Sea life has a tendency to follow boats so intake fatality will be highProduction- Since the boats capacity is limited producing a large amount of water will be difficultVisibility – Since the boats are portable they can go offshore to grab the water out of sight
ProsConsMovableOut of sightHas a tendency to suck up wildlifeLow capacityHigh amounts of power needed</li></ul>Pipe Line<br />Alternative Description- One direct method of sea water intake to be processed in the desalination system is a direct pipe line into the Pacific Ocean. The pipe would be submerged in water and uses one of the selected power methods to pump water inland. A screen would need to be implemented at the inlet of the pipe to reduce marine life fatality. <br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsIntake Location- Can be placed anywhere along the pacific coast lineIntake Fatality – Screen will reduce fatality, but a high mortality rate is inevitableProduction – with a high grade pump a direct pipe would be easily obtain the required amount of water per dayVisibility – virtually invisible after placement
ProsConsGood productionLow visibilityInfinite locationsHigh marine life fatality</li></ul>Water Wells<br />Alternative Description- Water wells dug close to the shore, but still inland, are another method to collect salt water. A pump is required to extract water from the well and transport it to the desalination plant. However, digging wells can be expensive . <br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsIntake Location- Can be placed anywhere along the pacific coast lineIntake Fatality – zero marine life fatalityProduction – with a high grade pump a direct pipe would be easily obtain the required amount of water per dayVisibility – virtually invisible after placement
ProsConsGood productionLow visibilityZero marine life fatalityhigh costmust be very deep</li></ul>Tidal Pools<br />Alternative description – Tidal pools are used to trap sea water using the changing tides. Pools can be manmade or natural ones can be used. These pools require little maintenance and operate with little or no power input.<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsStorage – Tidal pools can be constructed in various volumesLocation – Tidal pools are located near the ocean and some areas were there are high populationsCurrent System – California does not make use of tidal pools for any of there utility systemsFacility Power – Tidal pools will used the changing tides to capture amounts of water. Tidal pools are located at sea level areas so pumps may be used to transport the water.
ProsConsUse of tides to gather waterCan be large volumesMay trap animalsMan made pools may cause damage to ecosystemPumps needed to move water from sea level</li></ul>Waste Management<br />In order for the water desalination process to be successful the excess salt from purifying the sea water needs to be reused or disposed of. Simply releasing the salt back into the environment would have a harmful affect on its surrounding. The alternatives below are a couple viable options to deal with the excess salt from desalination. <br />Salt Disposal<br />Alternative Description- After desalination the left over brine needs to have the same salinity as the location that the wastewater is being dumped. Extracting some salt from the water as a solid to bring the salinity down through the use of boiling and condensing leaves the excess salt and wastewater with similar salinity of the dump spot. The salt is then used in other areas or dumped.<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsWaste Water Quality- The amount of salt extracted can be easily changed to match different locationsCurrent System- This system is not commonly used as a current system so implementation will be difficultFacility Impact- The excess salt can be used in the surrounding area to help during the winter months and the water comes out nearly untouched however the amount of salt is overwhelmingCost – Cheap do to the process already being preformed during desalination.
ProsConsSimple to disposePart of the original processSalt is bad for the environmentLarge amount of salt to get rid of</li></ul>Water Balancing<br />Alternative Description: After desalination the excess salty brine can be sent back into the ocean if the salinity of the water is within +/-5% of the ocean water. If the water is of the incorrect salt mixture it can have an adverse effect on the environment. This process is done by taking the used waste water from a processing plant and adding the correct salt balance to it.<br /><ul><li>Engineering SpecsWaste Water Quality- The waste water can be balanced simply to match the dumping environmentCurrent System- The system is currently used in certain situationsFacility Impact- If the water is properly balanced it should have no impact on the surroundsCost – Relatively cheap & simple process
ProsConsQuality of waste waterSimple processLittle or no effect on environmentMust direct used/processed water back to sourceMust monitor salt levels of water</li></ul>Alternative Selection<br />In order to choose a proper design of our water system it’s important to implement the right matrix. By beginning with a screening matrix one can lower the number of ideas by comparing each alternative to the listed engineering specification. With the top selections rooted out of multiple ideas a ranking system can be applied to a decision matrix to make a final selection.<br />Screening Matrix<br />For the water system we are proposing we came up with multiple design alternatives in a variety of groups that were some of the most important topics pulled from our HOQ. Our goal was to narrow down each group to a top three for further ranking. We took the qualities of each alternative and compared them to the engineering specifications. Each item was rated as fulfilling a system well (+2), doing it better than average (+1), being used currently and set as a scale or just on par with existing (0), reacting poorly with the specification in our system (-1), and just have no good quality (-2). This was based off of our research of each alternative and taking into heavy considerations the pros and cons. The groups were successfully narrowed down to a maximum of three alternatives to be ranked against one another.<br />Energy SourceWater StorageSystem LocationFacility ImpactFacility ProductionWater Intake LocationWaste Water QualityCurrent SystemChlorine LevelFluorine LevelDelta UseConsumer CostWater Intake FacilityAir QualityCorrosion/Pipe LifeBacterial LevelFacility VisibilityFacility ConstructionOdor ReductionColor UnitsFacility PowerDesalination CostTotalEnergyWindmill20-20000100010200-2000103Buoys0020000-2000002002000-103Ocean Current1010000-2000-102001000002Solar10-2-10000000-20200-1000-20-5Nuclear20010001000202000000008LocationBay Area00-20020000-202000-200000-2Open Coast00-10010000-101000-100000-1Shallow Shelf00000000000000-10000000-1Deep Shelf00100-1000010-10-20100000-1Water StorageWater Tower00-1-1000000000000-200000-4Underground Res01210000000000002000006Lake Reservoir02100002000000000000005Valley Res/Dam02100002000000000000005Water CollectionBoat Ballast0010-100000-1020002000003Pipeline000-12000002010-101000004Water Wells00-2-21000001000-10-100000-4Tidal Pools00-2-21000001000-10-200000-5Waste ManagementSalt Disposal000000-2000000000000000-2Water Balancing000000200000000-200000-1-1<br />After completing the matrix, we want to keep the three highest scores from each category. The items that were eliminated by scoring are highlighted above. Ocean current and solar power was lost as sources of energy to run the facility(s). Locating within the bay area was a problem because of its proximity to population. Water towers aren’t generally liked by the population so it failed to move on to the decision matrix. Tidal pools were the final alternative eliminated from the design mainly because of their large land occupation on a coastline.<br />Decision Matrix<br />In order to establish a proposed design concept, the remaining attributes from the decision matrix have to be identified by some sort of rank. Again, using the detailed information and pros and cons for each attribute, a list of remaining items were ranked amongst each other under a given category. This would result in our final concept analysis generation and proposed statement of our design problem. Each attribute was rated best (higher score) to worst (lowest score) in its given group using the most important criteria according to the HOQ for that given group. The weights of each criteria were determined from the HOQ weights as seen in appendix B.<br />0.2280.2950.180.1180.183Power OutputGreen Energy SourceCostVisibilityCurrent UseTotalWindmill222121.88Nuclear311231.94Buoys133312.18<br />0.2050.3820.1670.246Intake FatalitySystem LocationVisibilityCostTotalOpen Coast11131.11Shallow Shelf22222Deep Shelf33312.89<br />0.3610.3480.2360.055StorageLocationCurrent SystemFacility PowerTotalLake Reservoir21231.707Valley Reservoir32312.542Underground Reservoir13121.751<br />0.3550.1910.2990.155Intake LocationIntake FatalityProductionVisibilityTotalBoat Ballast32122.056Pipe21332.263Wells13211.681<br />0.260.2280.2950.217 Waste Water QualityCurrent SystemFacility ImpactCostTotalSalt Disposal11121.217Water Balancing22211.783<br />Our outcome through the decision matrix wasn’t clearly expected to be the result as done by research and viewing of the screening matrix. This happened with our energy source due to the fact of the nature of the buoys being small and out of sight, far from the population. Also that they are very clean and require relatively no maintenance cost helped them to edge our nuclear power. Deep shelf being the intake location is not much of a surprise since the buoys won primarily due to their location. The remaining options were more expected due to the high storage capacity in valleys, high volume flow of pipes and recycling of salt returning it back into the ecosystem.<br />Final Concept Decisions<br />The entire design process up to this point has lead us to the following conclusion on a final conceptual design to begin working on:<br /><ul><li>To power our water system we will use buoy generators
Our water intake will be located in deep water off shore
The water will travel into a valley reservoir where it can be stored for use
A pipe(s) will be used to retrieve ocean water
The salt after desalination will be returned to the ocean in the same content it was received</li></ul>What this means in general is that with the attributes brainstormed and quantified by engineering specification created through customer requirements, we have developed a situation that best meets a field of ideal targets to solve a problem. While this is our outcome, it’s important to realize that it may not be the best solution. At any given time, an option can be more attractive in 4 out of 5 areas, but the other critical criteria may eliminate the higher ranked attribute after the conceptual stage. It’s important to take a decisional outcome as only the best option, no necessarily the practical one.<br />When observing our pros and cons of energy sources, it’s apparent that the nuclear source is well qualified to be the clean energy required to run the system and better suits a process like desalination. This can also be true for the location of the pipe as placing it far off shore creates a many engineering difficulties that don’t get illustrated when focusing on customer speak. Overall the process did succeed in giving us the most relative outcome to meet the customer requirements set. The objective of the designing process was completed up to a conceptual design decision and ended with a proposal for implementing the more widespread use of desalination as a water recovery step for the state of California. <br />Appendix A: House of Quality<br />Appendix B<br />Decision Matrix Weights<br />HOQWeightspowerpower out215.80.228sourcegreen source279.20.295cost 1650.175visibility 111.90.118current use173.30.183sum945.21.000HOQWeightsstorageStorage265.30.361location256.30.348current system173.30.236facility power40.60.055sum735.51.000HOQweightswater intakeintake location256.40.355intake fatality137.60.191Production215.80.299visibility111.90.155sum721.71.000HOQweightswaste man.waste water quality1970.260current system173.30.228facility impact223.80.295cost1650.217sum759.11.000HOQweightsLocationintake fatality137.60.205sys location256.40.382visibility111.90.167cost1650.246Sum670.91.000<br />Appendix C<br />Works Cited<br /> California Water Crisis. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://www.calwatercrisis.org/>.<br /> Aquafornia. 13 Aug. 2008. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://aquafornia.com/where-does-californias- water-come-from>.<br /> Population Per Square Mile. 2000. Photograph. Travellistics. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. <br /> "Water Use | California." Home. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.communitypulse.org/california/water-use/>.<br /> Diver, Richard B., and Timothy A. Moss. "Practical Field Alignment of Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrators." Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 129 (2007). Sandia. May 2007. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://www.sandia.gov/solar/CSP_papers/Trough/TOPCAT_SOL-05-1198.pdf>.<br /> "Annual Days of Sunshine in California - Current Results." Current Results - Home. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://www.currentresults.com/Weather/California/annual-days-of-sunshine.php>.<br /> "Energy From the Wind." The Electronic Universe. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://zebu.uoregon.edu/disted/ph162/l11.html>.<br /> Wikipedia contributors. "Wind power." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 2 Nov. 2010. Web. 3 Nov. 2010. <br /> "Tidal Power - Generating Electricity from Tidal Currents." Alternative Energy News. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/hydro/tidal-power/>.<br />Works Cited<br /> "Pros and Cons of Nuclear Power | Time for Change." Time for Change | For Whom Enough Is Too Little - Nothing Is Ever Enough. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://timeforchange.org/pros-and-cons-of-nuclear-power-and-sustainability>.<br /> IPS OWEC - Offshore Wave Energy Converter. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://www.ips-ab.com/>.<br /> "Coastline of the United States — Infoplease.com." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free Online Reference, Research & Homework Help. — Infoplease.com. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001801.html>.<br /> "List of Reservoirs and Dams in California." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_reservoirs_and_dams_in_California>.<br /> "Largest Water Tower." The CLUI Land Use Database. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://ludb.clui.org/ex/i/OK3128/>.<br /> "California Diamond Valley Bass." California Game & Fish Magazine. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://www.californiagameandfish.com/ca_aa060703a/>.<br /> Anderson, D. J. "Optimising Subsurface Well Design for Coastal Desalination Water Harvesting." Water Research Laboratory (2009). Nformaworld. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. <http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a907970314&fulltext=713240928>.<br />