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Simone Borsci - Deceptive design, user experience and trust

Practitioners suggest that trust toward systems (TTS) could be shaped by design. For instance:

- a product that appears (even before the usage) usable and useful is expected to generate a high level of post-use TTS;
- aesthetically pleasing products may affect people pre-use TTS – i.e., people tend to trust aesthetically designed product more than less pleasant product. Manufacturers may design trust as part of the experience with a product even before end-users commence using their technology or service by strategically communicating, and make visible and recognizable certain features or elements of the design over others (less appealing) characteristics.

Literature suggests that TTS:

- is a measurable set of beliefs;
- is built throughout the relationship between people and systems;
- depends on the cumulative experience with specific systems;
- correlates with the perceived qualities of a product;
- affects people expectations of use toward a large spectrum of systems.

People often use their experientially acquired heuristics and expectations to take decisions in a ‘quick and dirty’ way, and this may bring to adaptive misbeliefs i.e. decision taken on false or biased presumptions. Concurrently, manufacturers apply design and communication techniques to highlight certain, very appealing, characteristics and information whilst hiding other, less appealing, characteristics, thus providing a set of design-driven presumptions to the end users. This may affect a person’s decision to trust a technology and end-users may decide to buy or use a piece of technology which could appear more trustworthy than it actually warrants.
As a consequence of the design and communication techniques, users may be attracted to buy a product before its use because they believe that the system is well designed, reliable and is provided with features in line with their needs, even when this system is not trustworthy.
This dark side of trust will be the focus of this talk. By rely on the current studies on trust a definition of TTS to bridge the concept of trust and experience will be proposed. Moreover, preliminary data on an ongoing international study on trust toward healthcare device for home use will be presented to highlight the importance of trust before the use of high risk tools selected and handled by lay users.

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Simone Borsci - Deceptive design, user experience and trust

  1. 1. What trust is? Definition and things we know
  2. 2. Trust Background: http://theoatmeal.com/comics/trust <<…the willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party, based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular action>>Mayer, et al (1995) An integrative model of organizational trust.
  3. 3. Trust Toward Systems Empirical studies suggest that people do have a sense of “trust” toward systems (TTS) Background: Pinterest: Bruno Mangyoku
  4. 4. 6 things we know about TTS from literature 1 2 3 Human-to-Human Trust and TTS are different types of trust Our general TTS changes with the use of technology – Experience with specific products change trust toward a class products We learn to recognize trustworthy features and design elements experientially based heuristics to judge/assess (even before use) a product. Background: pixabay.com Thatcher, J.B. et al (2011) The Role of Trust in Postadoption IT Exploration: An Empirical Examination of Knowledge Management Systems. IEEE TEM 58, 56-70 Lankton, N.K., McKnight, D.H., Tripp, J.: Technology, humanness, and trust: Rethinking trust in technology. JAIS 16, 880 (2015)
  5. 5. 6 things we know about TTS from literature 4 5 TTS correlates with perceived qualities of a technology – High trust because of high perceived quality e.g., usability, aesthetics, usefulness etc. TTS could be shaped by design Trust could be misplaced and violated Dark patterns, communication techniques 6 pixabay.com Shneiderman, B. (2000) Designing trust into online experiences. Communications of the ACM 43, 57-59 Pengnate, S., & Sarathy, R. (2017). An experimental investigation of the influence of website emotional design featureson trust in unfamiliar online vendors. Computersin Human Behavior, 67, 49-60. Gigerenzer, G., Brighton, H. (2009) Homo heuristicus: Why biased minds make better inferences. Topics in cognitive science 1, 107-143
  6. 6. Trust toward systems, deception and manipulation
  7. 7. Trust could be design: Designing for trust Background:Michael Boeke (2015) Designing for Trust, Codemotion Event “…methodology that attempts to design our perception of trust in a system” Cofta, P. (2009). Designing for trust.
  8. 8. Trust could be design: Designing for trust To make visible and recognizable certain features of the design that people want to control/experience to trust a product Background:Michael Boeke (2015) Designing for Trust, Codemotion Event
  9. 9. Designing for trust and violation If trust may be designed, then it may also be manipulated • Ambiguous design elements • Some product’s features more visible than others (less appealing)
  10. 10. Different levels of violation of trust
  11. 11. Bad design behind a good appearance It is the right way to insert the key? http://www.presentationzen.com/presentationzen/2008/11/design-means-putting-yourself-in-the-users-shoes.html
  12. 12. Deceptive design: Dark patterns Background: https://darkpatterns.org/
  13. 13. Dark patterns: easy to access difficult to leave To open an account on Amazon you need about 4 actions (insert and clicks) To close your account… You need to know how to do it! And it takes time Surce: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxkrdLI6e6M
  14. 14. Violation of expectations My expectation Reality I bought a Smart TV of a well know brand Packaging and information 
  15. 15. Deceptive / manipulated information Patrick Vlaskovits (2011) Henry Ford, Innovation, and That “Faster Horse” Quote. Harward Business Review https://hbr.org/2011/08/henry-ford-never-said-the-fast
  16. 16. “Partial” or deceptive information (illegal) You bought a car that has less horsepower than in the description http://autoweek.com/article/car-news/hyundai-busted-over-performance-claims
  17. 17. During a social exchange people: may rely on a specialised cognitive mechanism to detect cheaters; tend to look at (and remember) cheaters more than co-operators are able to recognise and exclude cheaters from the exchange; How we may defend our selves Lessons from evolutionary psychology 1 2 3 Cosmides, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition, 31(3), 187-276. Verplaetse, J., Vanneste, S., & Braeckman, J. (2007). You can judge a book by its cover: the sequel.: A kernel of truth in predictive cheating detection. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28(4), 260-271.
  18. 18. What we don’t know When we select and use a technology… Are we able to detect if a technology is worthy or not of trust before we use it? Is TTS part of (or affects) our experience with technology? 1 2 Giorgio de Chirico, Mystery and Melancholy of a Street, 1914
  19. 19. Working Hypothesis Trust as part of UX
  20. 20. UX AND TRUST Pohlmeyer, et al 2009 User Experience Lifecycle Model ContinUE Previous knowledge TRUST pre-use TRUST Post-use (change of knowledge)
  21. 21. Our literature-based assumption Pre-Use Anticipated Experience Past-Use Retrospective Experience Before the use People are placing (indirectly) their trust on the fact that manufacturers have created a product/service with certain set of qualities and characteristics e.g., usefulness, safety, learnability, usability and reliability Assessment of trust after the experience (also affect the Brand)
  22. 22. Trust Toward Systems: our definition Before the use We look for cues and information to enrich our TTS Visible design and information about tech: • Are essential to convey a sense of trust • May trick people trust Are we able to detect technology cheaters? TTS is a product-mediated relationship between people i.e., the end-user and the designer. 1 2
  23. 23. Why trust is important Lessons learned and yet to be learned
  24. 24. Healthcare technology for home use lay users are buying and subscribing to more and more systems for monitoring and informing their decision making about well-being Poor devices may e.g., compromise people well-being, bring to unnecessary medical consultations etc.
  25. 25. A large international study is coming So far we performed an exploratory (Pilot) analysis with small samples of experts and lay users to test different tools and to inform our experimental design…and we have learned some lessons
  26. 26. Lesson 1. Appearance is powerful The link between trust and appearance is a powerful heuristics, but it could be a false friend (also for professionals) • 17 healthcare professionals • 4 innovative diagnostics device • Measure of trust before the use and perceived appearance
  27. 27. Lesson 2. People know that appearance is a false friend Users (Expert/Lay) are aware of the fact that good appearance is a false friend. They tend to look for information to confirm or disconfirm that a device is good or bad (decision making) • 10 lay users • 4 commercial Home MD • Sequential set of information • Measure of trust before the use Rank devices trustworthiness without information Layer of information:Participantmay switch to another (more trustable) device after each set of information or maintain the previous choice Review of other users
  28. 28. Lesson 3. Technology-Cheater detection mechanism is not impossible No information Information set 1 Information set 2 Information set 3 Other people Review Very trustable device (HUA) 30% XX% XX% XX% XX% Cheaters (LUA) - - - - - Low Appearance but usable and reliable 30% XX% XX% XX% XX% Low Usability but reliable and good appearance 40% XX% XX% XX% - At least for this small sample, it seems: Lay users are able to identify just looking at the device (without information) whether a device is or not trustworthy (technology-Cheaters detection)
  29. 29. Why is important to investigate trust? 2. home MD are more and more available to lay users. • This increased availability needs transparency of information that is often missing (about and around) devices. • Lack of transparency may damage: • lay people well being, their trust as well as their experience of use. • (in the long run) the market 1. People trust toward autonomous tech and AI assistant is key topic for the successful implementation in our society of these emerging technology
  30. 30. Thank you!

Practitioners suggest that trust toward systems (TTS) could be shaped by design. For instance: - a product that appears (even before the usage) usable and useful is expected to generate a high level of post-use TTS; - aesthetically pleasing products may affect people pre-use TTS – i.e., people tend to trust aesthetically designed product more than less pleasant product. Manufacturers may design trust as part of the experience with a product even before end-users commence using their technology or service by strategically communicating, and make visible and recognizable certain features or elements of the design over others (less appealing) characteristics. Literature suggests that TTS: - is a measurable set of beliefs; - is built throughout the relationship between people and systems; - depends on the cumulative experience with specific systems; - correlates with the perceived qualities of a product; - affects people expectations of use toward a large spectrum of systems. People often use their experientially acquired heuristics and expectations to take decisions in a ‘quick and dirty’ way, and this may bring to adaptive misbeliefs i.e. decision taken on false or biased presumptions. Concurrently, manufacturers apply design and communication techniques to highlight certain, very appealing, characteristics and information whilst hiding other, less appealing, characteristics, thus providing a set of design-driven presumptions to the end users. This may affect a person’s decision to trust a technology and end-users may decide to buy or use a piece of technology which could appear more trustworthy than it actually warrants. As a consequence of the design and communication techniques, users may be attracted to buy a product before its use because they believe that the system is well designed, reliable and is provided with features in line with their needs, even when this system is not trustworthy. This dark side of trust will be the focus of this talk. By rely on the current studies on trust a definition of TTS to bridge the concept of trust and experience will be proposed. Moreover, preliminary data on an ongoing international study on trust toward healthcare device for home use will be presented to highlight the importance of trust before the use of high risk tools selected and handled by lay users.

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