• Dependent clauses
• Modify the main clause—When? Where? How?
• Subordinator (because, wherever, by the
time, once, as, until, since, etc.)
3. Adverb Clauses of Time
• When the action in the main clause occurs
• When, while, as, once, as soon as, until, before,
after, since, by the time
• Once you have finished the exam, you are free to go.
• I was lonely for years until I met the woman of my
• I tripped and fell as I was running to catch the bus.
4. Adverb Clauses of Reason
• Why the action in the main cause occurs
• Cause and effect
• Because, since, as (formal)
• We celebrated all night because we had finished
• Since I don’t have a phone, please contact me via
• As I have no money, I will not be joining you for the
downtown shopping trip.
5. Adverb Clauses of
• Show unexpected contrasts to the idea in the main
• Even though, although, though (formal), while
• Even though I am not feeling well, I am still
planning to attend the party.
• Though I studied all night, I failed the exam this
• I grew to love classical music, while my sister says
6. Adverb Clauses of Place
• Where the action in the main clause occurs
• Wherever, where, anywhere, everywhere
• Wherever there is ice, there will be people playing
• We can go anywhere you want today.
• Everywhere you look, there are people in love.
7. Adverb Clauses of Purpose
• Show the reason for the action in the main clause
• So (that), in order that (formal)
• Swimmers shave their arms and legs so that they can
glide through the water more quickly.
**Infinitives are commonly used to show purpose:
You should relax in order to get more sleep.
8. Punctuating Adverb Clauses
• When adverb clauses come after the main
clause, you DO NOT need a comma:
• We will have finished eating by the time he gets
• When adverb clauses come before the main
clause, you DO need a comma:
• By the time he gets here, we will have finished